Background Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a rare lysosomal neurovisceral storage disease caused by mutations in the NPC 1 (95%) or NPC2 (5%) genes. The products of NPC1 and NPC2 genes play considerable roles in glycolipid and cholesterol trafficking, which could consequently lead to NPC disease with variable phenotypes displaying a broad spectrum of symptoms. Materials In the present study 35 Iranian NPC unrelated patients were enrolled. These patients were first analysed by the Filipin Staining test of cholesterol deposits in cells for NPC diagnostics. Genomic DNA was extracted from the samples of peripheral blood leukocytes in EDTA following the manufacturer's protocol. All exon–intron boundaries and coding exons of the NPC1 gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using appropriate sets of primers. Thereafter, the products of PCR were sequenced and analysed using the NCBI database ( https://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Blast.cgi ). The variants were reviewed by some databases including the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) ( http://www.hgmd.cf.ac.uk/ac/index.php ) and ClinVar ( https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/clinvar (. Moreover, all the variants were manually classified in terms of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) guideline. Results The sequence analysis revealed 20 different variations, 10 of which are new, including one nonsense mutation (c.406C > T); three small deletions, (c.3126delC, c.2920_2923delCCTG, and c.2037delG); and six likely pathogenic missense mutations, (c.542C > A, c.1970G > A, c.1993C > G, c.2821 T > C, c.2872C > G, and c.3632 T > A). Finally, the pathogenicity of these new variants was determined using the ACMG guidelines. Conclusion The present study aimed to facilitate the prenatal diagnosis of NPC patients in the future. In this regard, we identified 10 novel mutations, and verified that the majority of them occurred in six NPC1 exons (5, 8, 9, 13, 19, and 21), that should be considered with a high priority for Iranian patients' cost-effective evaluation.
We consider electronic and optical properties of group III-Nitride monolayers using first-principle calculations. The group III-Nitride monolayers have flat hexagonal structures with almost zero planar buckling, Δ. By tuning the Δ, the strong σ-σ bond through sp2 hybridization of a flat form of these monolayers can be changed to a stronger σ-π bond through sp3 hybridization. Consequently, the band gaps of the monolayers are tuned due to a dislocation of the s- and p-orbitals towards the Fermi energy. The band gaps decrease with increasing Δ for those flat monolayers, which have a band gap greater than 1.0eV, while no noticeable change or a flat dispersion of the band gap is seen for the flat monolayers, that have a band gap less than 1.0eV. The decreased band gap causes a decrease in the excitation energy, and thus the static dielectric function, refractive index, and the optical conductivity are increased. In contrast, the flat band gap dispersion of few monolayers in the group III-Nitride induces a reduction in the static dielectric function, the refractive index, and the optical conductivity. We therefore confirm that tuning of the planar buckling can be used to control the physical properties of these monolayers, both for an enhancement and a reduction of the optical properties. These results are of interest for the design of optoelectric devices in nanoscale systems.
Graphene Oxide is one of the carbon-based-materials that has wide application range such as Water purification, Flexible rechargeable battery electrode, Solar Collectors, and Energy conversion. In this research, initially, Graphene Oxide nanoparticles were dispersed in water to make a nanofluid. The nanofluid was prepared at 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, 0.35, and 0.45% mass fractions. After that, heat transfer and viscosity (at 10 and 100 Revolutions per minute (RPM)) of the prepared samples were calculated at 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50 °C temperatures. In the Flat Plate Solar Collector (FPSC) - Riser tube, from the start point to the end of tube, the temperature decreases and thus the heat transfer and viscosity change. As the calculated range does not contain all the temperatures and mass fractions, and to lower the experimental costs, thus, Fuzzy system and Artificial Neural Network models were used to predict the whole range of data. After that, the trained models were compared to detect the error and to choose the best model with the least error. Results confirmed that Fuzzy system has lower error. This means that Fuzzy system predicts the input-target dataset as definite as obtainable.
In this paper, the researchers will present geometric arithmetic mean to solve non-linear fractional programming. To do this, we shall derive the inequality using the classical optimization theorem by developing the necessary and sufficient conditions for identifying the stationary points of the general inequality constraint optimization problems. Through using the geometric arithmetic mean inequality, we shall indicate how these relationships may be used to obtain the optimal solution of non-linear fractional problems. It will be observed that when the problem has a special structure, the solution may be obtained by solving a set of linear equations. Also, the numerical results are simulated by comparing geometric arithmetic mean approach with unconstrained problems of maxima and minima approach. Several examples are presented to show the validity of the proposed approach.
Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a member of the IL-1 family and plays an ambivalent role in autoimmune diseases. IL-33 signals via the ST2 receptor and drives cytokine production in mast cells, basophils, eosinophils, NK cells, and T lymphocyte cells. The vital role of IL-33 as an active component gives rise to aberrant local and systemic damage which has been demonstrated in numerous inflammatory disorders and immune-mediated pathological conditions including multiple sclerosis (MS), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), psoriasis, Sjogren's syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), etc. IL-33/ST2 axis can up-regulate pro-inflammatory cytokine release in autoimmune disease, however, in some metabolic diseases like diabetes mellitus type 1 IL-33 can be considered an anti-inflammatory cytokine. The purpose of this review is to discuss selected studies on IL-33/ST2 axis in autoimmune diseases and its potential role as a pathogenic or protective cytokine.
Background: Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has unique epidemiological features with diverse pathologies and exhibits considerable clinicopathological variations in different parts of the world. Objectives: In this study, we aimed to assess the clinicopathological features, immunohistochemistry, and outcomes of HL patients treated in Erbil, northern Iraq. Patients and Methods: This was a retrospective study conducted in Nanakaly Hospital for Blood Diseases and Oncology in Erbil, Iraq. A total of 125 patients diagnosed between January 2012 and December 2016 were assessed for their clinical characteristics, histopathology, immunophenotype, and outcome. Results: The median age was 28 years (range: 18–71 years); 55% were male and 41% had Stage II HL. The most common histological type was nodular sclerosis (51.2%) followed by mixed cellularity (43.2%). CD30 was positive in nearly all cases of classical HL. CD15 and CD20 were positive in 98.7% and 75% of patients with the nodular lymphocyte predominant subtype, respectively. Most of the patients received adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine chemotherapy, and the 5-year overall survival in our study is 70%. Advanced stage (IV), high lactate dehydrogenase levels, low hemoglobin, and splenomegaly are significant predictors of poor survival. Conclusions: Our patients exhibited outcomes that were lower than those reported in developed countries.
Active sediments along a 90 km section of Greater Zab River (GZR) in Kurdistan Region/ Iraq were analyzed for their major, trace, and rare earth elements contents to investigate their provenance, weathering at the source area, and tectonic setting. The enrichment of sediments with transition elements (Co, Cr, and Ni), the bivariate (Zr/Sc vs Th/Sc, K2O vs Rb, and Al2O3/TiO2 vs SiO2adj) plots, and elemental ratios (Th/Sc, Th/Co, Th/Cr, La/Sc, and Eu/Eu*) suggest the GZR sediments are derived from basic igneous rocks. However, the Al2O3/TiO2 ratio, bivariate TiO2 vs Zr, and chondrite-normalized patterns (enriched with LREE and small negative Eu anomalies) suggest some contribution of intermediate and felsic rock sources of the upper continental crust. The weathering indices (CIA and PIA) and the A-CN-K ternary diagram indicate a weak degree of weathering for the source materials. Th/U and Rb/Sr ratios of the stream sediments also suggest a low degree of weathering. Low CIA reflects limited or the near absence of chemical alteration and thus indicates arid and/or cool conditions. The Index of Compositional Variability (ICV) indicates very low compositional maturity. Tectonic discrimination diagrams log (K2O/Na2O) vs SiO2/Al2O3 ratios, log (K2O/Na2O) vs SiO2, and La-Th-Sc ternary diagram indicate the studied sediments plot in the oceanic and continental island arc. These tectonic settings are consistent with the northeastern tectonically active uplands closely associated with the subduction zone of the colliding Arabian and Iranian Plates.
The essential oils from flowers and leaves of P. incisa and P. crispa were extracted using two methods, hydro-distillation (HD) and solid phase micro-extraction (SPME). The essential oils were analyzed using GS-MS whilst their contents were quantitatively determined using GC-FID. The analysis revealed the following: For P. incisa, SPME oils from flowers and leaves were dominated by oxygenated monoterpenes (cis-verbenol, 2E-octene and E-caryophyllene from flowers and thymoquinone, methyl-γ-ionone and butylated hydroxyanisole from leaves). Comparatively HD oils were dominated by phenolic compounds (butylated hydroxyanisole, 7-epi-α-Eudesmol and methyl-γ-ionone from flowers and leaves). For P. crispa, SPME oils from flowers were dominated by oxygenated monoterpenes (crysanthenone, cis-thujopsenic acid and Z-jasmone) and those from leaves were dominated by oxygenated sesquiterpenes (7-epi-α-eudesmol, 11-acetoxyeudesman-4-α-ol and cembrene). Comparatively, the oxygenated monoterpenes crysanthenone, p-cymene-8-ol and 2,6-dimethyl phenol were determined in the HD oils from flowers, while crysanthenone, p-cymene-8-ol and vanillin were identified in those from leaves. The essential oils extracted from flowers and leaves P. incisa and P. crispa showed good antioxidant as well as anticancer activities.
This study intends to examine the effect of CEO succession with gender change from male to female (i.e., female CEO succession) on corporate social responsibility (CSR) reporting. Based on insights from upper echelons theory, it is proposed that female CEO successors are more likely than male CEO successors to improve the firm’s CSR reporting level due to variations in their traits, values, and preferences regarding green issues, especially CSR. The study also explores the influence of the firm’s ownership status (i.e., SOEs vs. non-SOEs) and performance (high-performance firms vs. low-performance firms) on the relationship between female CEO succession and CSR reporting. Using data from Chinese publicly traded firms from 2010 to 2020, this study employs the logistic regression technique to examine the proposed relationship between female CEO succession and CSR reporting and presents robust evidence that female CEO succession has a positive effect on firm CSR reporting, and that this effect is more prevalent in non-SOEs and high-performance firms than in SOEs and low-performance firms, respectively. The study adds fresh insights to the extant literature on CSR and corporate leadership and offers useful policy recommendations for corporate decision-makers and policymakers while considering women’s involvement in succession plans for top leadership positions like CEO to tackle the strategic management of CSR disclosure in China.
The current work focuses on peanut shells and agricultural wastes richly in many nations subjected to pyrolysis treatment at various temperatures in the range of 500–800°C to determine the feasible physiochemical characteristics of the biochar. The biochars with the high surface area were employed to adsorb Pb2+ (lead) ions, the heaviest pollutants in the water bodies. The raw material, biochar, and pyrolyzed biochar were characterized by SEM, FTIR, partial and elemental analysis, and BET tests. The adsorption characteristics of the biochar, pre- and postpyrolysis treatment, were studied with the assistance of batch adsorption tests under varying test conditions. Adsorbing conditions were determined by evaluating the effects of adsorbing parameters like initial concentration of the lead in water, pH of the adsorbent, contact time, and mixing speed on the effective adsorption of Pb2+ ions from water. Langmuir, Freundlich, and Themkin isotherm expressions were employed to study the experimental results. The adsorption kinetics study showed that the synthesized biochars were chemically stable enough to adsorb the Pb ions onto the surface.
Obtaining cheap Electronic Transparent Materials (ETM) and Hole Transparent Materials (HTM) is an important challenge for researchers in perovskite solar cells. we used the SCAPS software in order to determine the properties of CH 3 NH 3 SnI 3 -based solar cells with different ETM and HTM layers, such as (IGZO, SnO 2 , TiO 2 , ZnO) and (Spiro-OMeTAD, NiO, Cu 2 O, and CuO), respectively. Our results predict that among these ETMs, the SnO 2 is the most promising to result in high photovoltaic (PV) efficiency in combination with Spiro-OMeTAD based HTM. In addition the perovskite absorber's thicknesses are optimized to achieve maximum photovoltaic efficiency. In order to increase efficiency, layer thickness in cell structures can be optimized by fixing the thickness of the first two layers while altering the thickness of the third. The perovskite solar cell's planar structure consists of ETM (SnO 2 )/perovskite absorber (CH 3 NH 3 SnI 3 ) / HTM (Spiro-OMeTAD)/ and Gold (Au) as a back contact. Also, it improved the solar cell performance by optimizing the absorber thickness, which was 1 µm. With these considerations, the power conversion efficiency of 33.2698% is obtained. Also, we explore the effect of the defect at the perovskite/SnO 2 interface on solar cell performance.
Diagenesis includes all the biological, physical, chemical, biochemical, and physicochemical alterations that occur immediately after deposition and prior to low-grade metamorphism [...]
In this article, we define the new generalized Hahn sequence space h d p , where d = d k k = 1 ∞ is monotonically increasing sequence with d k ≠ 0 for all k ∈ ℕ , and 1 < p < ∞ . Then, we prove some topological properties and calculate the α − , β − , and γ − duals of h d p . Furthermore, we characterize the new matrix classes h d , λ , where λ = b v , b v p , b v ∞ , b s , c s , , and μ , h d , where μ = b v , b v 0 , b s , c s 0 , c s . In the last section, we prove the necessary and sufficient conditions of the matrix transformations from h d p into λ = ℓ ∞ , c , c 0 , ℓ 1 , h d , b v , b s , c s , and from μ = ℓ 1 , b v 0 , b s , c s 0 into h d p .
Pyrazoline and its derivatives have numerous prominent pharmacological effects. Focusing on its anti-viral property, we have designed and synthesized three novel pyrazoline derivatives (A1–A3) through one-pot three components and characterized them using different spectroscopic techniques (FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and UV). These compounds were evaluated against SARS-CoV-2 main protease utilizing in-silico molecular docking studies. The docking results displayed good inhibitory activity of the synthesized compounds. Among them, compound A2 was the most active against targeted protein. The drug-likeness and ADMET properties were predicted to have varied profiles but could still be developed, especially A2. DFT/TD-DFT calculations through B3LYP/6-311G++ level of theory were applied to provide comparable theoretical data along with MEP map and electronic energy gap of HOMO → LUMO.
A new design of a triple band perfect metamaterial absorber based on Pythagorean fractal geometry is proposed and analyzed for terahertz sensing applications. The proposed design showed an enhanced sensing performance and achieved three intensive peaks at 33.93, 36.27, and 38.39 THz, corresponding to the absorptivity of 98.5%, 99.3%, and 99.6%, respectively. Due to the symmetrical nature of the recommended design, the structure exhibited the characteristics of inde-pendency on the incident wave angles. Furthermore, a parametric study was performed to show the effects of the change in substrate type, resonator material, and substrate thickness on the absorption spectrum. At a fixed analyte thickness (0.5 μm), the resonance frequency of the design was found to be sensitive to the refractive index of the surrounding medium. The proposed design presented three ultra-sensitive responses of 1730, 1590, and 2050 GHz/RIU with the figure of merit (FoM) of 3.20, 1.54, and 4.28, respectively, when the refractive index was changed from 1.0 to 1.4. Additionally, the metamaterial sensor showed a sensitivity of 1230, 2270, and 1580 GHz/μm at the three resonance frequencies, respectively, when it was utilized for the detection of thickness variation at a fixed analyte refractive index (RI) of 1.4. As long as the RI of the biomedical samples is between 1.3 and 1.4, the proposed sensor can be used for biomedical applications.
The use of artificial intelligence (AI) and the Internet of Things (IoT), which is a developing technology in medical applications that assists physicians in making more informed decisions regarding patients’ courses of treatment, has become increasingly widespread in recent years in the field of healthcare. On the other hand, the number of PET scans that are being performed is rising, and radiologists are getting significantly overworked as a result. As a direct result of this, a novel approach that goes by the name “computer-aided diagnostics” is now being investigated as a potential method for reducing the tremendous workloads. A Smart Lung Tumor Detector and Stage Classifier (SLD-SC) is presented in this study as a hybrid technique for PET scans. This detector can identify the stage of a lung tumour. Following the development of the modified LSTM for the detection of lung tumours, the proposed SLD-SC went on to develop a Multilayer Convolutional Neural Network (M-CNN) for the classification of the various stages of lung cancer. This network was then modelled and validated utilising standard benchmark images. The suggested SLD-SC is now being evaluated on lung cancer pictures taken from patients with the disease. We observed that our recommended method gave good results when compared to other tactics that are currently being used in the literature. These findings were outstanding in terms of the performance metrics accuracy, recall, and precision that were assessed. As can be shown by the much better outcomes that were achieved with each of the test images that were used, our proposed method excels its rivals in a variety of respects. In addition to this, it achieves an average accuracy of 97 percent in the categorization of lung tumours, which is much higher than the accuracy achieved by the other approaches.
Herbal medicines are still widely practiced in Kurdistan Region-Iraq, especially by people living in villages on mountainous regions. Among plants belonging to the genus Teucrium (family Lamiaceae), which are commonly employed in the Kurdish traditional medicine, we have analyzed, for the first time, the methanol and aqueous methanol extracts of T. parviflorum aerial parts. The plant is mainly used by Kurds to treat jaundice, liver disorders and stomachache. We aimed to determine the phytochemical profile of the extracts and the structures of the main components, so to provide a scientific rationale for the ancient use of the plant in the ethno-pharmacological field. TLC analysis of the two extracts on silica gel and reversed phase TLC plates, using different visualization systems, indicated similar contents and the presence of phenolics, flavonoids, terpenoids and sugars. The chlorophyll-free extracts exhibited weak/no antimicrobial activities against a panel of bacteria (MICs = 800–1600 µg/mL) and fungal strains (MICs ≥ 5 mg/mL). At the concentration of 600 µg/mL, the methanol extract showed moderate antiproliferative effects against A549 and MCF-7 cancer cell lines in the MTS assay. Moreover, both extracts exhibited a significant dose-dependent free radical scavenging action against the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical (EC50 = 62.11 and 44.25 μg/mL, respectively). In a phytochemical study, a high phenolic content (77.08 and 81.47 mg GAE/g dry extract, respectively) was found in both extracts by the Folin–Ciocalteu assay. Medium pressure liquid chromatographic (MPLC) separation of the methanol extract on a reversed phase cartridge eluted with a gradient of MeOH in H2O, afforded two bioactive iridoid glucosides, harpagide (1) and 8-O-acetylharpagide (2). The structures of 1 and 2 were established by spectral data, chemical reactions, and comparison with the literature. Interestingly, significant amounts of hepatotoxic furano neo-clerodane diterpenoids, commonly occurring in Teucrium species, were not detected in the extract. The wide range of biological activities reported in the literature for compounds 1 and 2 and the significant antiradical effects of the extracts give scientific support to the traditional use in Iraqi Kurdistan of T. parviflorum aerial parts for the preparation of herbal remedies.
Radio over fiber system is an integral part of the 5-Generation technology which has undergone enormous changes in the last decade. This work presents a new model for the fronthaul ROF system based on the (VSCEL) as an alternative to the classical CW laser, making use of its interesting properties, that includes narrow bandwidth and high directionality generated optical beam the influences of the bias current value of the VCSEL along with channel dispersion compensation fiber, fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and optical amplifier on the proposed system performance measures like quality factor (Q), bit error rate (BER), eye diagram and optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) have been studied. The simulation results showed that the proposed model can support data transmission of 5Gbps up to 200 km with a Q-factor of around 6, in the case of using dispersion compensation fiber (DCF), along with bias current of about 5 mA. The FBG compensator gave a comparable result to that of the DCF for a transmission distance of no more than 30 km. The maximum bit rate supported by the proposed system to maintain sufficient Q-factor of about 6 was found to be 10Gbps. Furthermore, it was observed that a log (BER) gain of 89, corresponding to the received power, has been achieved in comparison with those reported in a peer model in the literature. Eventually a fair comparison has been made between the proposed system and up to date peer publications which proved the superiority of the presented system model.
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