Background: Previous studies have indicated that chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonic acids (Cl-PFESAs), when used as an alternative to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), result in kidney toxicity. However, their co-exposure with heavy metals, has not yet been described. Objectives: To explore the joint effects of Cl-PFESAs and heavy metal exposure on renal health in Chinese adults, and identify specific pollutants driving the associations. Methods: Our sample consists of 1312 adults from a cross-sectional survey of general communities in Guangzhou, China. We measured Cl-PFESAs, legacy PFASs (perfluorooctanoic acid [PFOA] and perfluorooctane sulfonated [PFOS]), and heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, and lead). The relationship between single pollutant and glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and the odds ratio (OR) of chronic kidney disease (CKD) was studied using Generalized additive models (GAMs). Bayesian Kernel Machine Regression (BKMR) models were applied to assess joint effects of Cl-PFESAs and heavy metals. Additionally, we conducted a sex-specific analysis to determine the modification effect of this variable. Results: In single pollutant models, CI-PFESAs, PFOA, PFOS and arsenic were negatively associated with eGFR. Additionally, PFOA and heavy metals were positively correlated with the OR of CKD. For example, the estimated change with 95% confidence intervals (CI) of eGFR at from the highest quantile of 6:2 Cl-PFESA versus the lowest quantile was -5.65 ng/mL (95% CI: -8.21, -3.10). Sex played a role in modifying the association between 8:2 Cl-PFESA, PFOS and eGFR. In BKMR models, pollutant mixtures had a negative joint association with eGFR and a positive joint effect on CKD, especially in women. Arsenic appeared to be the primary contributing pollutant. Conclusion: We provide epidemiological evidence that Cl-PFESAs independently and jointly with heavy metals impaired kidney health. More population-based human and animal studies are needed to confirm our results.
Objective: Investigate how hypertension during pregnancy (HDP) and depression during pregnancy (DDP) independently and jointly affect infant birth outcomes. Methods: This population-based, retrospective cohort study included a sample of 68,052 women who participated in PRAMS 2016-2018 survey. Poisson regression was used for adjusted relative risks (aRRs). Results: Compared to women without HDP and DDP, aRRs for PTB and LBW among women with both HDP and DDP are 2.04 (95% CI 1.73, 2.42) and 2.84 (95% CI 2.27, 3.56), respectively, albeit lower than the expected joint effect of risk. Conclusion: DDP may modify the association between HDP and PTB, LBW.
Background Brain arterial diameters (BADs) are novel imaging biomarkers of cerebrovascular disease, cognitive decline, and dementia. Traditional vascular risk factors have been associated with BADs, but whether there may be genetic determinants of BADs is unknown. Methods and Results The authors studied 4150 participants from 6 geographically diverse population‐based cohorts (40% European, 14% African, 22% Hispanic, 24% Asian ancestries). Brain arterial diameters for 13 segments were measured and averaged to obtain a global measure of BADs as well as the posterior and anterior circulations. A genome‐wide association study revealed 14 variants at one locus associated with global BAD at genome‐wide significance ( P <5×10 ⁻⁸ ) (top single‐nucleotide polymorphism, rs7921574; β=0.06 [ P =1.54×10 ⁻⁸ ]). This locus mapped to an intron of CNNM2 . A trans‐ancestry genome‐wide association study meta‐analysis identified 2 more loci at NT5C2 (rs10748839; P =2.54×10 ⁻⁸ ) and AS3MT (rs10786721; P =4.97×10 ⁻⁸ ), associated with global BAD. In addition, 2 single‐nucleotide polymorphisms colocalized with expression of CNNM2 (rs7897654; β=0.12 [ P =6.17×10 ⁻⁷ ]) and AL356608.1 (rs10786719; β=−0.17 [ P =6.60×10 ⁻⁶ ]) in brain tissue. For the posterior BAD, 2 variants at one locus mapped to an intron of TCF25 were identified (top single‐nucleotide polymorphism, rs35994878; β=0.11 [ P =2.94×10 ⁻⁸ ]). For the anterior BAD, one locus at ADAP1 was identified in trans‐ancestry genome‐wide association analysis (rs34217249; P =3.11×10 ⁻⁸ ). Conclusions The current study reveals 3 novel risk loci ( CNNM2 , NT5C2 , and AS3MT ) associated with BADs. These findings may help elucidate the mechanism by which BADs may influence cerebrovascular health.
Organisms interact with numerous species in their environment, and these interactions can influence a variety of social and ecological processes. Thus, temporal and spatial variation in species interactions is important for understanding the fitness consequences of multi-trophic relationships. Here, we investigate how tritrophic interactions between a host plant generalist sap-feeding insect, host plant species, and ant mutualists vary in a prairie habitat. We used field transects to quantify the abundances of three host plant species, three species of ants, and the treehopper Entylia carinata. We repeated the transects from Spring until late Fall to quantify seasonal changes in abundances, and across three years to investigate stability of tritrophic relationships across years. In the first year of the study, we also measured plant height. Finally, we characterized variation in the tending behavior of the three species of ants. We found that certain plant-ant species combinations are more common than others. While tritrophic associations between plants, ants, and treehoppers changed seasonally, they were largely stable across years. Furthermore, we found pervasive effects of ants on E. carinata, including E. carinata presence and abundance, E. carinata aggregation size and abundance, E. carinata nest presence and abundance, and E. carinata nest-tending behavior. Plant species had fewer effects, but affected E. carinata presence and abundance as well as the likelihood of E. carinata aggregations occurring on a plant. Finally, significant seasonal changes in ant abundances and ant tending rates create dynamic temporal variation in tritrophic interactions. The patterns observed are likely to have significant effects on E. carinata populations, and—due to the importance of ant-treehopper mutualisms in local ecosystems—cascading effects on local communities.
Fe3Ga/HfO2/Fe3Ga heterojunction possesses reasonable lattice mismatch and good ferroelectric at the nanoscale. However, its magnetoelectric coupling is unexplored. Based on the first-principles calculations, we demonstrate that the magnetoelectric coupling in Fe3Ga/HfO2/Fe3Ga heterojunction is induced by polarization, which is different from the common strain-mediated magnetoelectric effect. The polarization-induced magnetoelectric effect of heterojunction is explained by the analyses of orbital-resolved density of states and spin densities, finding that the interfaces between Fe3Ga and HfO2 play an important role in magnetoelectric coupling, offering an alternative pathway for generating magnetoelectric coupling at room temperature.
Purpose To evaluate the improvement of ADHD related symptoms in school-aged children ages 5 to 12 in treatment with a monobloc appliance (MOA) for Sleep Disordered Breathing (SDB). Methods A retrospective review of questionnaire scores of ADHD symptoms from school-aged children being treated with a MOA for SDB. Data was obtained from parent survey questionnaires of 40 school-aged children in three dental offices in treatment with an MOA for SDB showing symptoms of ADHD yet to be confirmed with a formal diagnosis between 2019 and 2021. ADHD symptom scores were ascertained by a parent survey questionnaire completed at the initial visit before MOA treatment, and 2 to 6 months, and 7+ months during MOA treatment. Results At the 7+ month endpoint, 17 of the 28 (61%) children ages 5 to 12 saw at least a 1-point drop in the sum of their questionnaire scores indicating an improvement in ADHD symptoms after initiating treatment with an MOA. Although there was a reduction of the overall average symptom score from the initial visit to 2 to 6 months ( M = 4.06, SD ± 1.55), a statistically significant improvement in ADHD symptoms occurred at the 7+ month endpoint ( M = 15.29, SD ± 4.50) during MOA treatment. Conclusions Treatment with an MOA may be highly effective in addressing the dual pathologies of SDB and ADHD in school-age children ages 5 to 12.
Security sector reform often involves integrating marginalized groups into the police. Extensive discussion surrounds the benefits of inclusion to the marginalized group, but we know little about impacts on the dominant group. I argue that exposure to out-group police can increase dominant group civilians’ trust in the out-group, opening the door for further reforms and increasing the likelihood of peace. I explore dominant group citizens’ responses to out-group police officers in Israel. First, using a survey experiment, I find no evidence that exposure to Arab (marginalized) police officers leads to backlash by Jewish (dominant) civilians. Then, drawing on multiple surveys and panel data on the identity of officers at every station over six years, I find that exposure to Arab police is associated with increased trust in Arabs among Jews. This trust extends to both everyday situations like willingness to live next door to an Arab and to beliefs about Arabs’ intentions to commit political violence. Collectively, these results contradict fears that backlash by the dominant group might spoil peace, opening the door for police integration as an important part of peace processes.
Risk of hemorrhage remains with antiplatelet medications required with carotid stenting during endovascular therapy (EVT) for tandem lesion (TLs). We evaluated the safety of antiplatelet regimens in EVT of TLs. This multicenter study included anterior circulation TL patients from 2015 to 2020, stratified by periprocedural EVT antiplatelet strategy: (1) no antiplatelets, (2) single oral, (3) dual oral, and (4) intravenous IV (in combination with single or dual oral). Primary outcome was symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH). Secondary outcomes were any hemorrhage, favorable functional status (mRS 0–2) at 90 days, successful reperfusion (mTICI score ≥ 2b), in-stent thrombosis, and mortality at 90 days. Of the total 691 patients, 595 were included in the final analysis. One hundred and nineteen (20%) received no antiplatelets, 134 (22.5%) received single oral, 152 (25.5%) dual oral, and 196 (31.9%) IV combination. No significant association was found for sICH (ref: no antiplatelet: 5.7%; single:4.2%; aOR 0.64, CI 0.20–2.06, p = 0.45, dual:1.9%; aOR 0.35, CI 0.09–1.43, p = 0.15, IV combination: 6.1%; aOR 1.05, CI 0.39–2.85, p = 0.92). No association was found for parenchymal or petechial hemorrhage. Odds of successful reperfusion were significantly higher with dual oral (aOR 5.85, CI 2.12–16.14, p = 0.001) and IV combination (aOR 2.35, CI 1.07–5.18, p = 0.035) compared with no antiplatelets. Odds of excellent reperfusion (mTICI 2c/3) were significantly higher for cangrelor (aOR 4.41; CI 1.2–16.28; p = 0.026). No differences were noted for mRS 0–2 at 90 days, in-stent thrombosis, and mortality rates. Administration of dual oral and IV (in combination with single or dual oral) antiplatelets during EVT was associated with significantly increased odds of successful reperfusion without an increased rate of symptomatic hemorrhage or mortality in patients with anterior circulation TLs.
Transgender and nonbinary (TGNB) youth are at increased risk for poor mental health. Families significantly impact the mental health of TGNB youth because of the need for acceptance and support for their gender exploration, identity, and access to gender-affirming services. We conducted a theoretically grounded literature review using the Family Resilience Framework (FRF; Walsh, 2015). The aim was to center family resilience as a guiding theory in understanding TGNB youth mental health for family intervention. The review highlighted the following: (1) belief systems for making meaning of gender, sexuality, and the TGNB youth coming out and their embodied futures; (2) flexible organizational processes for a youth-lead gender transition, sustained family connectedness, and accessing gender-affirming community and healthcare resources; and (3) communication processes that empower TGNB youth to emotionally share and collaboratively make decisions with caregivers. Implications offered for family intervention.
Background GRT-R910 (Gritstone bio, Inc), a self-amplifying mRNA (samRNA) vaccine expressing the spike protein plus T-cell epitopes of SARS-CoV-2 (D614G variant), was tested in a phase 1 study as a booster in healthy adults. Methods This phase 1 open-label, dose escalation study enrolled healthy adults who previously received an approved mRNA COVID-19 vaccine series. Groups of 10 adults aged 18-60 years were boosted with GRT-R910 at 3 or 6 mcg. Adults > 60 years were boosted with GRT-R910 at 3, 6, or 10 mcg. All participants > 60 years in the 6 and 10 mcg dose groups received prior mRNA COVID-19 boosters; none in other groups had prior boosts. Study boosts occurred at least 112 days after completion of primary series/boost of authorized mRNA COVID-19 vaccine or prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. Solicited local and systemic reactogenicity events were collected for 7 days, unsolicited adverse events for 28 days, and serious adverse events (SAEs) for 366 days post-vaccination. Humoral (ELISA IgG against SARS-CoV-2 RBD and neutralizing antibody against D614G and Omicron BA.4/5) are being assessed at multiple time points over 1 year after study vaccination. Participants who self-reported SARS-CohV-2 infection or receipt of non-study COVID-19 booster during the study were censored in the immunogenicity analyses. Results No severe local reactogenicity events were observed. Overall, out of 48 enrolled across all groups, 8 reported at least 1 severe systemic reactogenicity event (figure 1). Most severe systemic reactogenicity events were transient, with most graded severe for 1 day or less. No SAEs have been reported. Neutralizing antibody responses remain durable up to 1 year after 3 and 6 mcg boosts in adults 18-60 years (figure 2) and up to 6 months after 3, 6, and 10 mcg boosts in adults > 60 years (data only available through 6 months; figure 3).Figure 1:Solicited Systemic and Local Reactogenicity within 7 Days after Receipt of GRT-R910 GMT= geometric mean titer; Boxes and horizontal bars denote interquartile range (IQR) and median AUC, respectively. Whisker endpoints are equal to the maximum and minimum values below or above the median +/- 1.5 x IQR. All participants in the 3 μg GRT-R910, 18-60 yo and 6 μg GRT-R910, 18-60 yo groups received a mRNA two dose primary COVID-19 vaccination series prior to enrollment. None were previously SARS-CoV-2 infected. GMT= geometric mean titer; Boxes and horizontal bars denote interquartile range (IQR) and median AUC, respectively. Whisker endpoints are equal to the maximum and minimum values below or above the median +/- 1.5 x IQR. All participants in the 3 μg GRT-R910, > 60 yo group received a mRNA two dose primary COVID-19 vaccination series prior to enrollment. All participants in the 6 μg GRT-R910, > 60 yo and 10 μg GRT-R910, > 60 yo groups received a mRNA two dose primary COVID-19 vaccination series plus a mRNA booster vaccine prior to enrollment. Two participants each in the 6 μg GRT-R910, > 60 yo and 10 μg GRT-R910, > 60 yo groups had a previous COVID-19 infection at enrollment (green dots). D1, D15, D29 testing for Groups 9 and 10 are planned against BA.4/5. Conclusion While transient systemic reactogenicity with GRT-R910 as a booster was observed, no safety signals were identified. Preliminary immunogenicity data demonstrate durable neutralizing antibody responses for 6-12 months in both younger and older age groups. Forthcoming T cell response data will aid in assessing the immunogenicity of this novel vaccine. Disclosures Nadine Rouphael, MD, Icon, EMMES, Sanofi, Seqirus, Moderna: Advisor/Consultant Anna Wald, MD, MPH, Aicuris: Advisor/Consultant|Bayer: Advisor/Consultant|Curevo: Participation on Data Safety Monitoring Board|GSK: Grant/Research Support|Sanofi: Grant/Research Support|UpToDate: Royalties or licenses Pedro Garbes, MD, Gritstone bio, Inc.: Employee|Gritstone bio, Inc.: Employee|Gritstone bio, Inc.: Stocks/Bonds|Gritstone bio, Inc.: Stocks/Bonds Karin Jooss, PhD, Gritstone bio: employee|Gritstone bio: Stocks/Bonds Andrew Allen, MD, PhD, Gritstone bio: Board Member|Gritstone bio: Ownership Interest|Gritstone bio: Stocks/Bonds Amanda Eaton, MBA, Moderna: Grant/Research Support David M. Koelle, MD, Curevo Vaccines: Board Member|MaxHealth LLC: Board Member|Sanofi Pasteur: Grant/Research Support Daniel F. Hoft, MD, PhD, Moderna: Advisor/Consultant|Poolbeg: Advisor/Consultant
Beneficial microorganisms and plant essential oils are key components of sustainable agriculture, but knowledge of their compatibility is limited. We investigated the effect of 23 essential oils on three beneficial bacterial species (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus velezensis and Priestia megaterium) that are commercially used as biostimulants and biocontrol antagonists. Essential oils were tested at a dilution of 1:10, the highest economical use rate anticipated in crop protection applications. Seventeen of the 23 essential oils had no inhibitory activity against any of the three bacterial species. Onion essential oil had strong activity against B. velezensis and no activity against B. cereus or P. megaterium. Palmarosa and pimenta essential oils were active against B. velezensis and inactive against B. cereus and P. megaterium. Coriander essential oil was inactive against B. velezensis, active against B. cereus, and strongly active against P. megaterium. Oregano essential oil was active against the three bacterial species while garlic essential oil was active against B. cereus and strongly active against B. velezensis and P. megaterium. Allyl disulfide, carvacrol, eugenol, and geraniol, the major constituents of garlic, oregano, pimenta leaf, and palmarosa/coriander essential oils, respectively, were active or strongly active against at least two of the three bacterial species suggesting their contribution to the antimicrobial activity of these essential oils. These findings indicate that most of the essential oils tested are compatible with beneficial microbes and can easily be integrated with beneficial microbes in organic cropping systems. Further studies should investigate how to harness the pesticidal properties of the six active essential oils while limiting their detrimental effect on beneficial microbes.
Trigger warnings are alerts provided to help people prepare for and perhaps avoid forthcoming material or experiences that could trigger memories and reactions to past aver-sive events. Recent research, including the target study here by Kimble and colleagues, has taken an individualistic approach to studying trigger warnings. Their focus has been primarily on trigger warnings' impact on avoidance, anxiety, and coping. These studies help provide evidence-based guidance on trigger warning use and deployment after a period of advocacy and discussion that lacked such data. In this commentary, I review the growing body of empirical work on trigger warnings, including the proposed benefits and risks of their use. I also aim to place Kimble and colleagues' work in context among these studies and offer ideas of expanding future studies to include an institutional lens. Such research holds promise in clarifying concerns on campus that might be underlying trigger warning requests and finding ways to better serve students.
Purpose Phonological processing skills, or using phoneme knowledge to process language, in preschool- and kindergarten-age children are an important indicator of children's future reading abilities. However, assessing phonological processing skills can be difficult in children with speech sound disorders because scoring often requires that children produce speech sound accurately. This tutorial presents assessment tasks that are appropriate for children with speech sound disorders to better identify children with phonological processing difficulties. Conclusions The following phonological processing assessment tasks are recommended for children with speech sound disorders: receptive tasks for phonological awareness, the Syllable Repetition Task for phonological memory, and limited letter choices for rapid automatized naming in phonological retrieval tasks. These tasks can be modified for multilingual children. Appropriate assessment of phonological processing skills will help speech-language pathologists in differential diagnosis of children with true phonological processing difficulties and children whose speech sound errors may mask phonological processing abilities. Assessment of phonological processing skills is particularly important for children with speech sound disorders, whose speech errors may be evidence of phonological processing difficulties.
Although hostility toward journalists is a pressing issue, research on how instructors are preparing students for hostility is lacking. Interviews with 30 journalism instructors from across the U.S. help illuminate how hostility is perceived and if/how hostility is talked about in journalism courses. Through the lens of professional socialization, this manuscript argues the majority of instructors normalize hostility in problematic ways, identifying a gap in journalism curriculum that needs filled.
Purpose To identify the 100 most-cited articles in cornea to provide a bibliometric perspective of highly relevant works in recent years. Methods The ISI Web of Knowledge database was selected as a bibliographic database to search for cornea-related articles published between 2013 and 2021. The search was performed in June 2022 and was conducted in all medical and scientific journals available on the database. The search was also refined to include articles in the “Ophthalmology” category. Results Most articles were published in Ophthalmology (22%), followed by the American Journal of Ophthalmology (15%), Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science (12%), and Cornea (8%). The corresponding authors were from 22 countries, predominantly from the United States (22%), China (14%), and Japan (11%). The most common study types include case series (31%), randomized clinical trials (15%), and cross-sectional studies (12%). The major topics of these articles included dry eye disease (19%), crosslinking (16%), keratoconus (12%), and keratoplasty (11%). There was a statistically significant correlation between the number of years since publication and the number of citations per year (Pearson's correlation coefficient = −0.80, P < 0.001). COVID-related articles (5%) also demonstrated significantly higher numbers of citations per year compared to the rest of the articles (mean numbers of citations per year: 69.1 vs. 18.5, P = 0.003). There were 16 institutions that produced more than 1 article in the top 100 articles. Conclusions This bibliometric study provided a unique perspective of the most relevant trends and themes of research in cornea in recent years.
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