How important is it for managers to have the “nice” virtues of modesty, civility, and humility? While recent scholarship has tended to focus on the organizational consequences of leaders having or lacking these traits, I want to address the prior, deeper question of whether and how these traits are intrinsically morally important. I argue that certain aspects of modesty, civility, and humility have intrinsic importance as the virtues of relational equality – the attitudes and dispositions by which we relate as moral equals. I provide a novel account of the normative grounds of the virtues of relational equality and develop a corresponding framework for how these virtues can be enacted by managers. The virtues are grounded in the value of opposing objectionable forms of social hierarchy, which requires social norms that grant all persons the same personal authority over their lives and interactions. I show how this view of virtue contrasts with prevailing Aristotelian, Personalist, and Smithian views in business ethics. I then explain how, for managers, sustaining and enacting the virtues of relational equality involves a distinctive cluster of role-specific traits: respect for employees’ equal personal authority, a commitment to express such respect, and a disposition to give equal weight and deference to employees’ relevant interests.
Informed by the social cognitive theory of co-orientation, this qualitative study explored the impact of family and social discourse on women’s motherhood and professional identities through semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 13 Japanese women born in the decade before and after the Japanese Equal Employment Opportunity Law was established in 1986. Overall, the interviews revealed two lifestyle categories – semi-traditional and modern. Specifically, the interviews revealed that women in the semi-traditional and modern categories enacted some form of change in their gender ideology and that women in the modern category experienced more dialogue-based communication and equal power dynamic with their husbands compared to women in the semi-traditional category in which they experienced one-way communication and a greater power differential with husbands. Informed by the literature on cultural values, the findings from this study conclude that Japanese women’s empowerment is built not by resistance to oppression but by conquering the over-taxation.
With the recent development of microexpression recognition, deep learning (DL) has been widely applied in this field. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive survey of the current DL-based microexpression (ME) recognition methods. In addition, we introduce a novel dataset based on fusing all the existing ME datasets. We also evaluate a baseline DL for the microexpression recognition task. Finally, we make the new dataset and the code publicly available to the community at https://github.com/wenjgong/microExpressionSurvey.
We develop a model of a cooperative power game between a chief executive officer (CEO) and labor over a proposed corporate outsourcing, and test the model’s predictions concerning the decision to outsource, division of profits, and post-outsourcing firm performance using a sample of outsourcing deals by US firms. In accord with the model, we find that a firm is more likely to outsource when CEO power is greater, production costs are higher, and the industry is more homogeneous. Notably, we find that the outsourcing decision does not affect the CEO’s share of profits, and that CEO power is positively related to post-outsourcing performance. Additionally, poor prior firm performance moderates the power dynamics between the CEO and labor. These findings imply that labor can supplement traditional governance mechanisms and act as an effective managerial monitor when the firm undergoes a major restructuring.
The college success of Black women has often been narrowly defined by outcome data and does not consider some of the challenges they experience that are often racialized and gendered. Despite the increase in the number of Black women attending and graduating from college, few authors have highlighted the unique strategies that help facilitate their success. What remains unclear is how Black women define college success for themselves and what is necessary for them to thrive and survive in higher education. The purpose of this article is to garner insight from Black women alumnae about what facilitates college success. We present a letter-writing conceptual framework rooted in Black feminist theorizing as a way to elevate Black women’s knowledge. These letters offer a 60-year historical examination of advice by Black women for Black women. The data for this analysis came from a larger critical oral history project of 105 Black women that focused on reflections of their college experiences. The analysis combines Black feminist thought with Maya Angelou’s Letter to My Daughter as a conceptual framework. Findings emphasized that there is not one monolithic set of advice for Black women to be successful in college. The advice stands in contrast to the essentializing, monolithic ways in which Black women are represented in the literature. Implications may offer knowledge and support to future generations of Black college-going women and transform higher education regarding how institutions may support Black women on their campuses.
This research is one of the first Intent to Pursue a Sales Career (ITPSC) studies to link intent to actual student behavior. In addition, this study systematically revisits the validity and reliability of the ITPSC-scale and its associated antecedents. Based on partial least square analysis, we find support for the validity and reliability of the four-item ITPSC-scale, but notice room for improvement on the ITPSC-Ethics and ITPSC-Knowledge antecedents. We extend prior work by investigating how ITPSC performs differently for women, students with a sales role model, and students who are more advanced in their academic career. We also observe differences in the antecedent structure compared with earlier work. Of the ITPSC-antecedents, the Perceptions of the Sales Profession construct dominates when it comes to predicting intent to pursue a sales career, something that calls into question the recent grounding of the ITPSC in the Theory of Planned Behavior.
Traditionally, profit maximization was the major objective for many businesses. However, due to growing stakeholders’ pressure and awareness about the social and environmental impacts of supply chain activities, many companies are now focused on optimizing their proﬁts, while reducing negative impacts of their activities on planet and society. While sustainable development requires concurrent and balanced consideration of social, environmental and economic dimensions, unbalanced approaches have been adopted both in real world practices, and in academic literature. We contribute to the stream of research in the literature that tries to address this gap. We propose a multi-objective mixed-integer programming (MOMIP) model for sustainable supply chain network design (SSCND), encompassing economic, environmental, and social objectives. Both strategic and tactical network design decision variables are considered, including location, size, and technology type of facilities, along with determining the flow of materials and transportation modes. The Normalized Normal Constraint Method is applied to generate evenly distributed Pareto frontiers. The case of a glass manufacturing company in Asia is used to demonstrate applicability of the model and solution procedure to real-world problems. Non-dominated solutions are analyzed, and a more sustainable and balanced network design alternative is proposed, which outperforms the current network configuration in terms of all three dimensions of sustainability. Managerial implications and future research directions are discussed.
Wideband spectrum data can provide information on how large portions of the spectrum are being used. Spectrograms are typically used to visualize this data. The interpretation of the spectrogram (e.g., identification of bands and patterns) is left to the user, requires significant domain knowledge and is extremely time consuming. In this paper, we present a methodology for combining quantitative and qualitative information to identify channels and changes in spectrum occupancy. Channel identification and change detection algorithms are applied to real spectrum data collected over several years on two different measurement systems in Chicago. These analyses were then used to formulate queries to a knowledge graph implemented on a neo4j graph database. The results of the queries validated the channel identification and provided validation and explanation of the changes detected. This methodology was tested on measurement data from 470–698 MHz.
Parent–child interactions are influential to a wide range of positive developmental processes in neurotypical children, yet contributions to our understanding of these interactions using observational methods in families of children on the autism spectrum are lacking. The aim of the current study is to investigate how autism symptoms might impact these interactions. We use a family discussion task to: (1) compare families of autistic children aged 8–12 years (n = 21) to families of typically developing children (n = 21, matched on age and cognitive abilities) on the observed levels of supportive and directive behaviors in the parent–child relationship, and (2) examine the associations between parent–child interaction characteristics and child functioning. Results showed no differences in the observed levels of supportive behavior exhibited by parents, but significantly less supportive behavior in autistic children compared to neurotypical children. In addition, parents of autistic children had higher levels of observed directive behavior compared to parents of neurotypical children. Levels of supportive behavior in parents and autistic children were negatively associated with child ADHD symptoms. Findings reinforce literature on younger children describing positive parenting characteristics and further rebuke historical accounts of negative parenting qualities of parents of autistic children.
Beginning with cosmological initial conditions at z = 100, we simulate the effects of magnetic fields on the formation of Population III stars and compare our results with the predictions of Paper I. We use gadget-2 to follow the evolution of the system while the field is weak. We introduce a new method for treating kinematic fields by tracking the evolution of the deformation tensor. The growth rate in this stage of the simulation is lower than expected for diffuse astrophysical plasmas, which have a very low resistivity (high magnetic Prandtl number); we attribute this to the large numerical resistivity in simulations, corresponding to a magnetic Prandtl number of order unity. When the magnetic field begins to be dynamically significant in the core of the minihalo at z = 27, we map it on to a uniform grid and follow the evolution in an adaptive mesh refinement, MHD simulation in orion2. The nonlinear evolution of the field in the orion2 simulation violates flux-freezing and is consistent with the theory proposed by Xu & Lazarian. The fields approach equipartition with kinetic energy at densities ∼1010 − 1012 cm−3. When the same calculation is carried out in orion2 with no magnetic fields, several protostars form, ranging in mass from ∼ 1 to 30 M⊙; with magnetic fields, only a single ∼ 30 M⊙ protostar forms by the end of the simulation. Magnetic fields thus suppress the formation of low-mass Pop III stars, yielding a top-heavy Pop III IMF and contributing to the absence of observed Pop III stars.
The Fires, Asian, and Stratospheric Transport–Las Vegas Ozone Study (FAST-LVOS) was conducted in May and June of 2017 to study the transport of ozone (O3) to Clark County, Nevada, a marginal non-attainment area in the southwestern United States (SWUS). This 6-week (20 May–30 June 2017) field campaign used lidar, ozonesonde, aircraft, and in situ measurements in conjunction with a variety of models to characterize the distribution of O3 and related species above southern Nevada and neighboring California and to probe the influence of stratospheric intrusions and wildfires as well as local, regional, and Asian pollution on surface O3 concentrations in the Las Vegas Valley (≈ 900 m above sea level, a.s.l.). In this paper, we describe the FAST-LVOS campaign and present case studies illustrating the influence of different transport processes on background O3 in Clark County and southern Nevada. The companion paper by Zhang et al. (2020) describes the use of the AM4 and GEOS-Chem global models to simulate the measurements and estimate the impacts of transported O3 on surface air quality across the greater southwestern US and Intermountain West. The FAST-LVOS measurements found elevated O3 layers above Las Vegas on more than 75 % (35 of 45) of the sample days and show that entrainment of these layers contributed to mean 8 h average regional background O3 concentrations of 50–55 parts per billion by volume (ppbv), or about 85–95 µg m−3. These high background concentrations constitute 70 %–80 % of the current US National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) of 70 ppbv (≈ 120 µg m−3 at 900 m a.s.l.) for the daily maximum 8 h average (MDA8) and will make attainment of the more stringent standards of 60 or 65 ppbv currently being considered extremely difficult in the interior SWUS.
For both healthy individuals and patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), the hemodynamic response to regular physical activity is important for regulating blood glucose, protecting vascular function, and reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. In addition to these benefits of regular physical activity, evidence suggests even a single bout of dynamic exercise promotes increased insulin-mediated glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity during the acute recovery period. Importantly, post-exercise hypotension (PEH), which is defined as a sustained reduction in arterial pressure following a single bout of exercise, appears to be blunted in those with T2D compared to their non-diabetic counterparts. In this short review, we describe research that suggests the sustained post-exercise vasodilation often observed in PEH may sub-serve glycemic regulation following exercise in both healthy individuals and those with T2D. Furthermore, we discuss the interplay of enhanced perfusion, both macrovascular and microvascular, and glucose flux following exercise. Finally, we propose future research directions to enhance our understanding of the relationship between post-exercise hemodynamics and glucose regulation in healthy individuals and in those with T2D.
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