Is it possible that striving for flawlessness and perfection in their children's performance is detrimental to parents? Could it be so harmful that it exposes parents to the risk of burnout? In order to answer these questions, this study adopted a three-dimension model of childoriented perfectionism (encompassing three dimensions: high standards, order, and discrepancy) and examined the association of these dimensions with parental burnout. The participants were 325 Polish parents (78.8% mothers) who lived in the same household with at least one child aged 3 to 19 years. The results showed that discrepancy—parents’ perception that their children failed to meet their standards and expectations—was a crucial dimension of child-oriented perfectionism that put parents at risk of burnout; however, parents’ emotional intelligence mitigated such harmful effects. The study contributes to knowledge about the antecedents of parental burnout and provides insight into possible interventions to counter the risk of striving as parents for perfect children.
Individuals automatically mimic a wide range of different behaviors, and such mimicking behavior has several social benefits. One of the landmark findings in the literature is that being mimicked increases liking for the mimicker. Research in cognitive neuroscience demonstrated that mentally simulating motor actions is neurophysiologically similar to engaging in these actions. Such research would predict that merely imagining being mimicked produces the same results as actually experiencing mimicry. To test this prediction, we conducted two experiments. In Experiment 1, being mimicked increased liking for the mimicker only when mimicry was directly experienced, but not when it was merely imagined. Experiment 2 replicated this finding within a high-powered online sample: merely imagining being mimicked does not produce the same effects as being actually mimicked. Theoretical and practical implications of these experiments are discussed.
The aim of this study was to examine cross-cultural differences, as operationalized by Schwartz's refined theory of basic values, in burnout levels among psychotherapists from 12 European countries during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. We focused on the multilevel approach to investigate if individual- and country-aggregated level values could explain differences in burnout intensity after controlling for sociodemographic, work-related characteristics and COVID-19-related distress among participants. 2915 psychotherapists from 12 countries (Austria, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Finland, Great Britain, Serbia, Spain, Norway, Poland, Romania, Sweden, and Switzerland) participated in this study. The participants completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Service Survey, the revised version of the Portrait Values Questionnaire, and a survey questionnaire on sociodemographic, work-related factors and the COVID-19 related distress. In general, the lowest mean level of burnout was noted for Romania, whereas the highest mean burnout intensity was reported for Cyprus. Multilevel analysis revealed that burnout at the individual level was negatively related to self-transcendence and openness-to-change but positively related to self-enhancement and conservation values. However, no significant effects on any values were observed at the country level. Male sex, younger age, being single, and reporting higher COVID-19-related distress were significant burnout correlates. Burnout among psychotherapists may be a transcultural phenomenon, where individual differences among psychotherapists are likely to be more important than differences between the countries of their practice. This finding enriches the discussion on training in psychotherapy in an international context and draws attention to the neglected issue of mental health among psychotherapists in the context of their professional functioning.
Pseudowords allow researchers to investigate multiple grammatical or syntactic aspects of language processing. In order to serve that purpose, pseudoword stimuli need to preserve certain properties of real language. We provide a Python-based pipeline for the generation of pseudoword stimuli that sound/read naturally in a given language. The pseudowords are designed to resemble real words and clearly indicate their grammatical class for languages that use specific suffixes from parts of speech. We also provide two sets of pseudonouns and pseudoverbs in Polish that are outcomes of the applied pipeline. The sets are equipped with psycholinguistically relevant properties of words, such as orthographic Levenshtein distance 20. We also performed two studies (overall N = 640) to test the validity of the algorithmically constructed stimuli in a human sample. Thus, we present stimuli that were deprived of direct meaning yet are clearly classifiable as grammatical categories while being orthographically and phonologically plausible.
The role of remote treatment, including psychotherapy, has increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results of research in this area are promising, initially pointing to similar effectiveness for online psychotherapy as that of face-to-face psychotherapy. A significantly smaller amount of research has been conducted on online group psychotherapy, in particular, in the psychodynamic paradigm. Many authors have drawn attention to the need to conduct further research, considering specific patient features, for example, personality traits, attachment style, age, and other demographic variables. This study conducted pre- and post-treatment (10 weeks) and a 6-week follow-up, on the effectiveness of online synchronous group psychodynamic psychotherapy (via Zoom) taking into account patients’ attachment styles. Four main hypotheses were tested: H1: Patients will obtain a lower score in the attachment’s dimensions of anxiety and avoidance; H2: Patients will get a lower level of symptoms and sense of loneliness; H3: Patients will have increased self-esteem; and H4: The anxiety and avoidance dimensions of the attachment will be predictors for the effectiveness of online psychodynamic group psychotherapy. Twenty-two outpatients participated in the study, out of which 18 suffered from neurotic, stress-related, and somatoform disorders (F40-F48), and four suffered from a depressive episode (F32.0, F32.1) according to ICD-10. The results of the pre-treatment test showed a reduction in the global severity of psychiatric symptoms (d = −0.526) and depressive symptoms (d = −0.5), as well as an increase in self-esteem (d = 0.444) and feelings of loneliness (d = 0.46). A change in the attachment dimension, anxiety (d = −0.557) and avoidance (d = −0.526), was also observed. The above results were maintained in the follow-up test conducted after 6 weeks. Additionally, a reduction in the symptoms of social phobia was observed. Attachment dimensions were not a predictor of the effectiveness of psychotherapy, but a decrease in avoidance during therapy was a predictor of increased symptoms of pain. The results of the research are promising in terms of psychiatric symptoms and increased self-esteem. During therapy, there may be a favorable change in attachment dimensions, but this variable was not shown to be a predictor of results. These results suggest that more controlled research is required.
Objective: The COVID-19 pandemic saw promotion of novel virus transmission-reduction behaviours, and discouragement of familiar transmission-conducive behaviours. Understanding changes in the automatic nature of such behaviours is important, because habitual behaviours may be more easily reactivated in future outbreaks and disrupting old habits may discontinue unwanted behaviours. Design: A repeated-measures, multi-national design tracked virus-transmission habits and behaviour fortnightly over six months (Apr-Sept 2020) among 517 participants (age M = 42 ± 16y, 79% female). Main outcome measures: Within-participant habit trajectories across all timepoints, and engagement in transmission-reduction behaviours (handwashing when entering home; handwashing with soap for 20 seconds; physical distancing) and transmission-conducive behaviours (coughing/sneezing into hands; making physical contact) summed over the final two timepoints. Results: Three habit trajectory types were observed. Habits that remained strong ('stable strong habit') and habits that strengthened ('habit formation') were most common for transmission-reduction behaviours. Erosion of initially strong habits ('habit degradation') was most common for transmission-conducive behaviours. Regression analyses showed 'habit formation' and 'stable strong habit' trajectories were associated with greater behavioural engagement at later timepoints. Conclusion: Participants typically maintained or formed transmission-reduction habits, which encouraged later performance, and degraded transmission-conducive habits, which decreased performance. Findings suggest COVID-19-preventive habits may be recoverable in future virus outbreaks.
Background Fly-In Fly-Out (FIFO), which entails travelling mostly from the urban areas to stay and work in remote areas for designated periods and travel back home to spend designated days of leave, has become a common work arrangement in the mining sector globally. This study examined the mental and physical health of FIFO workers and described their health-related behaviours during on-and off-shift periods. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with FIFO workers (N = 216) in the mining industry in Australia who completed an online survey. Paired t-test and McNemer’s analysis examined the differences in health-related behaviours during workers’ on-and off-shift days. Logistic regression examined the predictors of physical health and psychological distress status of FIFO workers. Results Workers reported longer sleep duration (7.5 ± 1.5 h vs 6.3 ± 1.2 h, p < 0.001) and better sleep quality (78.2% vs 46.3%, p < 0.001) during off-shift nights than on on-shift nights. Smoking prevalence was 26.4%, and workers reported smoking a similar number of cigarettes per day during on-and off-shift days. Most workers reported drinking alcohol (86.1%) and more often at risky levels during off-shift than on-shift days (57.9% vs 34.3%, p < 0.001). Fruits and vegetable consumption was low but with higher vegetable intake during off-shift days (2.8 ± 1.4 vs 2.3 ± 1.3 serves, p < 0.001). Workers had good physical health status (91.2%), but 71.4% were overweight/obese and 33.4% indicated high levels of psychological distress. Working on long shifts (OR 6.63, 95% CI 1.84–23.91) and smoking (OR 7.17, 95% CI 2.67–19.26) were linked to high psychological distress. Conclusions The prevalence of psychological distress and risky health behaviours was high. Interventions should aim to reduce psychological distress and support multiple behaviour changes, considering FIFO work-related characteristics including long shift hours.
Introduction: Interactive electronic games allow to access virtual environments and interact using a computer or TV screen. Anyone who has played a video game, or seen others playing, is aware of the importance of reaction speed and eye-hand coordination skills. Objective: To determine the differences in psychomotor performance between professional gamers and amateurs. Material and Methods: A total of 62 gamers took part in the study, including 31 people - professional video game users who had participated in e-tournaments in the last month (age: M = 20.6, SD = 6.3) and 31 people who did not play video games or played very rarely (they declared that they did not participate in e-sports tournaments), who constituted the control group (age: M = 17.9, SD = 5.4). Integrated computer SDP-System with an executive module for stimulus generation and reception was used to assess psychomotor performance. Results: Professional gamers have higher psychomotor skills than amateurs. They reveal better results for fast thinking, motor reactions, perception, attention, and working memory. Conclusion: Playing video games has a positive impact on players' psychomotor performance and can promote improvements in elementary cognitive functions. Key words: video-games; e-sport; psychomotor performance; cognitive functions
The recurrent absence of workers from home associated with fly-in fly-out (FIFO) work practice has the potential to affect the partners of the workers. This study aimed to examine the mental and physical health of partners of FIFO workers and compare their health-related behaviours during on-and off-shift periods. Partners of FIFO workers in Australia (N=248) completed an online survey. Partners reported higher sleep duration (7.3 ± 1.4 vs 6.4 ± 1.3 hours, p < .001) and better sleep quality during off-shift nights compared to on-shift nights. Among the current smokers (16.9%), partners smoked more cigarettes per day during on-shift periods than off-shift (13.1 ± 8.2 vs 11.6 ± 7.6, p = .034), but there was no difference in alcohol consumption at risky levels. Partners also consumed similar portions of fruits and vegetables and engaged in similar minutes of moderate to vigorous physical exercise per day during on-and off-shift days. Majority of partners had good physical health status (85.1%), but risk of psychological distress was high (50.4%). Interventions could target assisting multiple health behaviour changes and reducing psychological distress by supporting partners to adapt to and cope with the demands/stressors of FIFO lifestyles, particularly in the absence of workers.
Background Both the close relationship processes and health model and the dyadic health influence model posit that beliefs about the relationship (e.g., relationship satisfaction) and influence strategies (e.g., social control) serve as mediators of health behavior change. The evidence for such mediation is limited. Purpose This study investigated two competing hypotheses that arise from these models: (1) perceived use of positive and negative social control (attempts to influence the partner’s behaviors) predict sedentary behavior (SB) indirectly, via relationship satisfaction; or (2) relationship satisfaction predicts SB indirectly, via positive and negative social control. Methods Data from 320 dyads (target persons and their partners, aged 18–90 years), were analyzed using mediation models. SB time was measured with GT3X-BT accelerometers at Time 1 (T1; baseline) and Time 3 (T3; 8 months following baseline). Relationship satisfaction and social control were assessed at T1 and Time 2 (T2; 2 months following baseline). Results Higher T1 relationship satisfaction among target persons predicted target persons’ reporting of higher T2 negative control from partners, which in turn predicted lower T3 SB time among target persons. Lower T1 relationship satisfaction among partners predicted target persons’ reporting of higher T2 perceived negative control from partners, which predicted lower T3 SB time among target persons. On average, both members of the dyad reported moderate-to-high relationship satisfaction and low-to-moderate negative control. Conclusions In contrast to very low levels of negative control, its low-to-moderate levels may be related to beneficial behavioral effects (lower SB time) among target persons reporting moderate-to-high relationship satisfaction.
We present a largescale, preregistered examination of factors that explain why citizens of certain nations might show higher levels of national narcissism than others. National narcissism is the belief that one’s nation is exceptional yet undervalued. It is related to several social ills, including conspiracy beliefs, intergroup aggression, extremism, and rejection of science. We theorized that national narcissism would be related to the nature of relations between countries. We expected it to be associated with higher levels of external conflict and lower levels of globalization. Using multilevel modeling across 56 countries ( n = 50,757), we found that citizens of less globalized nations showed higher average national narcissism. However, external conflict was unrelated to national narcissism. We also tested whether citizens’ national narcissism was higher in countries led by populists but found no evidence for this effect. At the individual level, higher individual narcissism, self-esteem, and right-wing political orientation positively predicted higher national narcissism.
Limited social contacts, lack of professional activities, economic insecurity, and a sense of threat, as well as boredom during the COVID-19 pandemic, contributed to tension and stress. All of these increase the risk of an inappropriate diet. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mood and nutrition of patients undergoing bariatric surgery. A group of 312 patients (both before and after bariatric surgery) completed a questionnaire about their diet and mood during COVID-19 lockdown. About 70% of all respondents reacted to the epidemiological situation: irritability, anxiety about their own health, and eating without being hungry. A total of 74% of all of the subjects snacked between meals (especially sweets). The respondents who believed that obesity and its complications had a negative impact on the prognosis of the coronavirus infection had a statistically significant higher prevalence of health anxiety, feeling that important life issues were out of control, irritability, need for psychological support, and need for dietary consultation. Patients after bariatric surgery had e.g., a statistically significant lower incidence of feeling hungry, eating after meals, and eating fatty foods. The COVID-19 pandemic has been shown to negatively affect the mood and diet of bariatric patients, which may affect their health status and worsen the prognosis of COVID-19.
Economic inequality is associated with preferences for smaller, immediate gains over larger, delayed ones. Such temporal discounting may feed into rising global inequality, yet it is unclear whether it is a function of choice preferences or norms, or rather the absence of sufficient resources for immediate needs. It is also not clear whether these reflect true differences in choice patterns between income groups. We tested temporal discounting and five intertemporal choice anomalies using local currencies and value standards in 61 countries (N = 13,629). Across a diverse sample, we found consistent, robust rates of choice anomalies. Lower-income groups were not significantly different, but economic inequality and broader financial circumstances were clearly correlated with population choice patterns.
Nearly 20 years after the SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) epidemic, we are facing another COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, the aim of our study was to analyse the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the tourism behaviour of international students in Poland. We paid attention to the overall impact of the pandemic on life, travel, choice of tourist destination, tourism activity, ecotourism preference, and health and safety issues. We formulated two research questions: What areas of international student tourism behaviour were affected by the COVID-19 pandemic? What differences in travel behaviour occurred between international students from Europe and Asia? Participants were recruited from universities located in Warsaw between June and September 2020. A total of 806 questionnaires were collected, 87 of which were eliminated due to non-response. The research sample consisted of 719 people. Six factors were identified in the survey results: tourism inclination, impact on tourist destination, hygiene and accommodation, impact on life, impact on tourism, and mode of tourism. Impact on life and impact on tourism were attributed to the general impact dimension; tourism inclination and mode of tourism can be summarized as attitude and preference. Food and accommodation were assigned to hygiene and safety dimensions. In almost all aspects, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on people’s lives was greater for Asian respondents. Asian respondents were more likely to say that they would avoid COVID-19-affected areas when choosing tourist destinations in the future, and avoid travelling to crowded large cities after COVID-19 ended. European survey participants’ responses were more moderate.
This study aimed to test a model of classroom social climate, growth language mindset, boredom, and student engagement among English as a foreign language (EFL) learners. In addition, the mediating role of boredom in this structural model was examined. To this end, 287 English major students from various universities in Iran participated in the study by completing valid measures of the four constructs under investigation. The construct validity of the measures was verified through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Moreover, structural equation modeling (SEM) was conducted in order to demonstrate an adequate fit to the data in the study. SEM results demonstrated that classroom social climate and boredom significantly predicated EFL student engagement directly. However, the growth language mindset affected student engagement indirectly, through the mediating effect of boredom. The results might offer a point of departure for future studies and also have significant implications for both EFL learners and instructors.
Person-centered analyses may be applied to identify latent homogeneous subgroups of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The evidence suggests three to five class/profile solutions that are distinct in a quantitative and/or qualitative way. This study aimed to examine the evidence for different profiles of PTSD symptoms among a Polish sample exposed to road accidents and floods and to verify different predictors of profile membership: demographic and trauma-related variables, temperamental traits according to Jan Strelau's Regulative Theory of Temperament, and cognitive factors. Data from 572 participants, aged between 18 and 85 years were included. The latent profile analysis indicated five profiles: low symptom; intermediate symptom with higher negative affect; intermediate symptom with low negative affect, higher avoidance, and anxiety; elevated symptom; and high symptom. Multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed significant predictors of profile membership: temperamental trait – emotional reactivity, trauma exposure aspect - physical injuries, and three cognitive strategies of affect regulation: minimizing importance, thought suppression/mental distraction, and mental disengagement. Profiles differing not only in symptom severity, but also in the intensity of specific symptom clusters were obtained. Their diversity may be related to pre-, peri-, and post-traumatic factors of temperamental, trauma-related, and cognitive nature.
The extensive volume edited by Robert R. Janes and Richard Sandell titled Museum Activism is composed of papers by over 50 authors. They are in majority case studies, with examples from most varied institutions. Museum activism is the opposite to museum social alienation; in this respect, the first definitely draws from the many-years’ experience of New Museology and participatory museum. Museum activism advocates are negative about the commercial populism and the success measured by turnout only, and not that measured exclusively by the differentiation of the museum offer and its accessibility to minority and marginalized groups. According to the Editors, contemporary museums are more morally obliged to engage in social activism, since in the times of a radical drop of social trust worldwide, museums still constitute one of the social institutions considered as trustworthy. Many of the actions described in the book concern the sphere of museum accessibility broadly speaking, both in the sense of physical access and possibility to participate in the programme, and barriers of social nature. Another sphere of museum activism is made up of curatorial practices. The texts point to many dimensions of activist curatorial practices which, however, first of all become the space for questioning the myth about museum’s neutrality in many respects: the colonial collection genesis, attitude towards climate, narratives constructing national identity, or finally the issue of the presence of curator’s voice in an exhibition. In many of the papers the role of museums in the context of the responsibility for the climate, of raising social awareness, of constructing a new narrative on the relation between man and the world, as well as the necessity to revise one’s own praxis are reiterated.
Background In an experiment conducted in a natural setting, we test the link between mimicry, the amount of time during which the mimicry behavior takes place, and its impact on service quality. Methods Cable TV clients (n = 120) were randomly assigned to six experimental conditions (2 mimicry conditions: verbal mimicry vs. no mimicry x 3 interaction time: 5 vs. 10 vs. 15 minutes). Perceived service quality served as the dependent measurement. Results A main effect of mimicry was found on service quality: a cable TV representative was perceived more favorably when he mimicked the customer. Importantly, it was shown that even small portions of mimicry are beneficial, meaning that practitioners do not have to mimic someone for a long time to achieve benefits. Conclusion The paper shows new benefits for the mimicker: more positive judgments by the mimickee regarding the impact on several different levels of service quality.
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