- Dominika Winogrodzka
- Agnieszka Trąbka
- Marta Jadwiga Pietrusińska
The aim of this article is to investigate how young migrants’ resilience manifests in different spheres of their lives. Adapting the Keck and Sakdapolrak’s framework, we define resilience as being comprised of coping, adaptive and transformative capacities. While coping capacities are a post-crisis short-term response, adaptive and transformation capacities encompass more proactive and long-term planning. Drawing on interviews with young Third Country Nationals living in Poland, conducted within the framework of H2020 project MIMY, we analyse how the different types of resilience capacities intersect with different areas of integration. We also highlight that resilience is not only the ability to bounce back, but also the power to bounce forward, which implies the capacity to transform individual lives and their environments. Interestingly, in young migrants’ narratives their personal resources, such as a positive mindset, persistence etc. play a crucial role. While community resources (family support and social capital) were mentioned, structural opportunities were largely absent in their narratives on resilience. Therefore, we can talk about a process of (self-)responsibilization of migrants for integration, which relates to the neoliberal discourse on newcomers’ self-reliance.
This paper focuses on the fuzzy control problem for a class of semi-Markov jump singularly perturbed nonlinear systems with actuator saturation. Nonlinearities in the underlying systems are tackled with the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model. As distinct from the previous achievements, the case that the semi- Markov kernel with partially known information is taken into account such that the underlying systems can be extended to a wider scope. Given that actuator saturation is ubiquitous in engineering systems, the convex hull method is embraced to address this circumstance. To reduce the conservativeness of the obtained results, on the basis of Lyapunov stability theory and LaSalle's invariance principle, some criteria related to the sojourn time are presented. Next, the mean-square exponential stability of the underlying system is obtained based on the derived results. Finally, further experiment to verify the feasibility of the proposed methodology is given by a tunnel diode circuit model.
The goal of our study was to test whether the types of OC affect the link between anxiety and its main maintenance factors: worry and perceived stress. Women are particularly at risk of being affected by excessive worrying, a core component of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and they are twice as likely as men to suffer from GAD. The literature suggests that gonadal hormones and types of oral contraceptives (OC) should be taken into account when exploring anxiety disorders in women, but the precise mechanism of this link remains understudied. We performed an observational cross-sectional study on a sample of 908 women, including 499 women naturally cycling (NC) and 409 taking OC (277 in the anti-androgenic group, 132 in the androgenic group). The participants filled in a battery of online questionnaires. Anxiety positively correlated with worry and perceived stress in the whole sample and in the three groups: androgenic OC, anti-androgenic OC, and NC. There was no significant difference between the groups on all the variables apart from the age of the participants. However, we found that women taking anti-androgenic OC had significantly higher levels of worry than NC women (after controlling for stress and age). The differences in OC types should be taken into account in future studies which might also lead to a better choice of OC based on women’s individual needs.
Some fibromyalgia (FM) patients engage in rumination (i.e. a chain of repetitive, passive and relatively uncontrollable thoughts focused on negative content) to cope with the pain and discomfort of daily activities. The partial model of rumination in chronic pain suggests that rumination processes may play a causal role in maintaining pain. Rumination might also be one of the key factors interfering with the reestablishment of adapted physical activity. The objective of this study was to test how rumination vs. distraction induction influence FM patients’ pain intensity, discomfort linked to pain, and affect after physical activity. Forty-seven participants with a diagnosis of FM were randomly assigned to undergo distraction induction vs. rumination induction after performing a physical activity in ecological setting. Their pain intensity, pain-related discomfort, and affect were measured at the baseline, after physical activity, and after rumination versus distraction induction. A series of mixed-design ANOVAs showed that rumination induction after physical activity impairs patients’ recovery in terms of pain intensity and discomfort, but not affect, as compared to the distraction condition. In conclusion, participants with fibromyalgia who engage in rumination following a physical activity recover less from their pain experience as compared to distraction induction. These results are consistent with the partial model of rumination in chronic pain and support the idea that rumination may play a causal role in the development and maintenance of pain.
Objective Posttraumatic growth (PTG), and its negative reflection, posttraumatic depreciation (PTD), are two aspects of response to trauma. This study explores whether daily emotional dynamics (inertia and innovation) can translate into positive versus negative changes among people living with HIV (PLWH) in the form of long-term changes in PTG or PTD. Methods The study combined a classical longitudinal approach with two assessments of PTG and PTD within one year and a measurement burst diary design with three weekly electronic diaries. In total, 249 PLWH participated in this study, filling out an expanded version of the Posttraumatic Growth and Depreciation Inventory (PTGDI-X) and a survey of sociodemographic and clinical data. In addition, they assessed their positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) at the end of each day in online diaries using a shortened version of the PANAS-X. Results Although we observed stable significant inertia and innovation of PA and NA across all bursts, these parameters of daily emotional dynamics were unrelated to the longitudinal changes in PTG and PTD. The same null results were also noted for the average levels of NA and PA. Conclusions The results indicated the relative stability of emotion regulation in PLWH over the course of one year and contributed to understanding its dynamic mechanisms in terms of trait-like characteristics. The null result of the relationship between the PTG and PTD change might suggest a weak role of emotion regulation in shaping these trajectories as well as a lack of validity of the PTG/PTD measures.
Intellectual functioning studies carried out amongst children indicate that chronic diseases like type 1 diabetes and growth hormone deficiency (GHD), may, but do not necessarily, result in intellectual loss. Cognitive functions may decline as a child becomes older, as a disease persists over time and/or due to non-compliance with treatment recommendations or high stress levels. This study aimed to assess the cognitive functioning of children and youths with T1D and GHD-related short stature compared to healthy children. Methods: The study was carried out on 88 children with type 1 diabetes, 38 children suffering from short stature caused by (GHD), as well as a control group comprising 40 healthy children. Weschler’s tests were applied to measure intellectual and cognitive functions. Results: The results suggest that for children suffering from type 1 diabetes and short stature, their chronic childhood diseases per se do not impair cognitive development. It was observed that the higher the age of chronically ill children and the longer the disease persists, the lower their scores in individual cognitive subtests. For healthy children, age is correlated with the acquisition of particular skills and higher scores in specific subtests. Conclusions: On the basis of qualitative analysis of the cognitive functions subject to the study and close clinical observation of chronically ill children, we have been able to conclude that chronic diseases may alter cognitive functioning.
Recent research provides evidence for the negative social perceptions of eveningchronotypes and their consequences on mental health. However, there is a lack ofstudies indicating whether these negative, socially shared beliefs may become inter-nalized in negative self-perceptions of evening-types (E-types). The present articleprovides a seminal empirical analysis of the role of self-liking and self-competence inthe associations between chronotype and both depressiveness and well-being. In thefirst part of the study, the participants completed the Composite Scale of Morning-ness. On the basis of the chronotype cut-off criteria for Composite Scale of Morning-ness distribution, 100 individuals were classified as morning-types (M-types) and66 individuals as E-types. Therefore, 166 participants (80 women and 86 men) aged18–36 years (M ± SD: 29.27 ± 4.81 years) took part in the second part of the study,and completed questionnaires measuring self-liking, self-competence, life satisfac-tion, positive and negative affect, and depressiveness. Results show that E-typesscored lower in self-liking, self-competence and subjective well-being, and higher indepressive symptoms than M-types. Controlling for age and gender, we obtained sig-nificant mediation effects, showing that the relationship between chronotype andsubjective well-being might stem from the lower levels of self-liking and self-competence among E-types, and that the relationship between chronotype anddepressive symptoms might stem from the lower level of self-liking among E-types.Our results suggest that self-liking and self-competence are important antecedentsof lower well-being and higher depressiveness reported by E-types. Socially sharedstereotypes of M-types and E-types can be internalized by the extreme chronotypes,which may significantly affect their psychological health.
Reading danger signals may save an animal’s life, and learning about threats from others allows avoiding first-hand aversive and often fatal experiences. Fear expressed by other individuals, including those belonging to other species, may indicate the presence of a threat in the environment and is an important social cue. Humans and other animals respond to conspecifics’ fear with increased activity of the amygdala, the brain structure crucial for detecting threats and mounting an appropriate response to them. It is unclear, however, whether the cross-species transmission of threat information involves similar mechanisms, e.g., whether animals respond to the aversively induced emotional arousal of humans with activation of fear-processing circuits in the brain. Here, we report that when rats interact with a human caregiver who had recently undergone fear conditioning, they show risk assessment behavior and enhanced amygdala activation. The amygdala response involves its two major parts, the basolateral and central, which detect a threat and orchestrate defensive responses. Further, we show that humans who learn about a threat by observing another aversively aroused human, similar to rats, activate the basolateral and centromedial parts of the amygdala. Our results demonstrate that rats detect the emotional arousal of recently aversively stimulated caregivers and suggest that cross-species social transmission of threat information may involve similar neural circuits in the amygdala as the within-species transmission.
This paper aims to present an in‐depth comparative analysis of how three states in Central and Eastern Europe—Hungary, Poland and Lithuania—ensure the political inclusion of their diaspora members by providing citizenship and electoral rights. The authors promote a broad understanding of diaspora that includes both emigrants and descendants as well as kin minorities. The analysis is based on a three‐dimensional analytical model (Lesińska & Popyk, CMR Spotlight 2, 2021) of diaspora policy. The paper examines the ‘thickness’ of political inclusion based on the relationship between citizenship and electoral rights at two stages: de jure and de facto. It reveals that the democratic rights of citizenship and voting are grounded not only in formal inclusion but, more importantly, in the accurate procedures involving those rights and access to them. The analysis demonstrates that extensive citizenship and voting rights are not necessarily associated with the factual political inclusion of all diaspora groups equally.
The aim was to assess the level of subjective control of emotional states among patients treated for dermatological and gastrointestinal somatic diseases compared to those with depressive and anxiety disorders. The results were related to the analyzed dimensions of emotion regulation in healthy subjects. Materials and methods The reports of the conducted studies were compiled for a total of 310 people, including 120 patients diagnosed with a somatic disease (psoriasis, rosacea, irritable bowel syndrome, and gastroesophageal reflux), as well as 96 patients diagnosed with depressive disorders and 30 patients with anxiety disorders. The control group consisted of healthy subjects (64 individuals). To assess the psychological variables analyzed, the subjects completed the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire developed by J. Brzeziński. Results The study showed that the patients suffering from a chronic somatic symptom disorder, similarly to those treated for depression and anxiety disorders, differed from the healthy individuals in most aspects of emotional control. The patients with dermatological and gastrointestinal diseases differed statistically significantly from the patients with depression and the patients with anxiety disorders in relation to three dimensions of emotional control. Patients with a somatic disease are characterized by higher emotional and rational motivation, lower emotional resilience and lower emotional arousal. Conclusions A chronic disease co-occurs with the emotional sphere of a person’s daily functioning. Regardless of the diagnosis in terms of somatic disorders and mental illnesses, the way in which emotional states are controlled can be an important factor in the onset of the disease, coping with it as well as the treatment process.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has once again brought borders to the center of attention, as journalists, authorities, and scholars have grappled with the pandemic. The coronavirus outbreak, which began in late 2019 and early 2020 has caused tremendous personal, economic, and social upheaval. As many states decided to pursue the national interests and to close their borders to prevent the spread of the virus, this decision had major consequences for residents in border regions, for whom border crossing is an everyday practice. The article aims at exploring the discourse on the rebordering experience as constructed by local authorities and residents of two twin towns, one on the Polish-Czech (Cieszyn-Český Těšín) and one on the Polish-German (Słubice-Frankfurt/Oder) border. By applying a Discursive Historical Approach, we identified four main discursive strands which deployed diverse imaginaries.
The phenomena of the simulated (SP) and virtual patient (VP) is widely described in the literature. Although it is difficult to find any practical information on developing these methods for teaching psychological assessment. Having conducted a long-term research project regarding this topic, we report the experience gained and retrospectively identify many mistakes. In this article, we present a summary of creating and using both SP and VP methods in clinical psychology and propose some insights and tips for their development, based on our experiences. While the project concerned clinical psychology, we believe the reflections might be applicable to a wider group of educational situations in which students develop competencies to carry out a diagnostic process with a real patient.
(1) Background: The search for new strategies to diagnose people at risk of suicide and to help them is highly significant in view of the still high rate of suicidality. Schema therapy and its core constructs, i.e., early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) and schema modes, correspond to both directions. (2) Methods: This study compared the severity of EMSs and schema modes in a clinical group of suicide risk, a clinical non-suicidal group, and a control group. Intragroup comparisons were also conducted between times of crisis and psychological stability. The evaluation was supported by controlling for the psychopathological symptoms presented, following the dimensional concept. (3) Results: The unquestionable relevance of the disconnection/rejection domain in suicidality has been proven. The importance of EMSs from other domains, especially during psychiatric crises, was confirmed. Among the schema modes, child and Punitive Parent modes proved to be the most significant. There were changes in coping modes but of a lesser effect size. The protective importance of the Healthy Adult and Happy Child modes was also proven. (4) Conclusions: The results provide an indication for practitioners about the EMSs and schema modes most associated with suicide risk. They can also serve as a framework for deepening the issue of identifying and preventing suicidality in schema therapy.
This study assessed the impact of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic on well-being by measuring the changes to food security, dietary behaviour, and sleeping patterns of university staff in England, Poland, Saudi Arabia, and China. Using a cross-sectional study design, participants in four universities in the respective countries were surveyed between June and July 2020. The mean age of the 902 participants was 42 years old and 67% were female. The findings indicate a reduction in emotionally driven food behaviour [t (901.00) = −20.87, p < 0.001], food acquisition location [t (901.00) = −51.55, p < 0.001], skipping meals [t (901.00) = −24, p < 0.001], and consumption of canned fruit and vegetables [t (901.00) = −10.18, p < 0.001]. However, home cooking [t (901.00) = 36.61, p < 0.001] and the food shopping experience [t (901.00) = 4.53, p < 0.001] markedly increased during lockdown. The participants had higher levels of well-being during the pandemic and experienced a significant increase in sleeping hours (p < 0.001). Increased age and sleeping hours were positively associated with overall well-being. Conversely, emotionally driven food behaviour (i.e., buying and eating more food out of boredom/fear or anxiety) and skipping meals decreased the overall well-being. Lockdown had beneficial effects on dietary behaviours, sleeping patterns, and well-being, but there were variations between countries.
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