SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research
  • The Hague, South Holland, Netherlands
Recent publications
With increasing implementation of automated driving technology it is expected that different automation modes will be present within the same vehicle and within a single trip. At all times during automated driving the driver needs to have ‘mode awareness’, which is an understanding of the automation mode and the corresponding responsibilities. Yet, research on HMI design to support mode awareness for multiple automation modes within a single vehicle and within a single trip is currently limited. The current work describes the development and evaluation of a Human Machine Interface (HMI) to support mode awareness while driving in different automation modes. The work exists of three phases: Phase 1 defines functional requirements for HMI design based on literature review and 5 experimental studies including 146 participants. Phase 2 implements the functional requirements in HMI design through expert and focus group sessions. Phase 3 evaluates and improves upon the HMI design employing virtual reality and the RITE (Rapid Iterative Testing and Evaluation) method with 18 participants. The result is a continuous and holistic HMI design creating mode awareness through ambience. Findings from Phase 3 and previous research indicate that this HMI is comprehended well, with a relatively low task load, and with a good experienced system usability. It is important to additionally evaluate the HMI design resulting from the current study in driving simulators and in on-road tests. Such tests will provide an opportunity to verify and expand on the current study’s findings and to contribute to guidelines for HMI design.
This study reports usage of supervised automation and driver attention from longitudinal naturalistic driving observations. Automation inexperienced drivers were provided with instrumented vehicles with adaptive cruise control (ACC) and lane keeping (LK) features (SAE level 2). Data was collected comparing one month of driving without support to two months where drivers were instructed to use automation as desired. On highways, level 2 automation was used respectively 63% and 57% of the time by Tesla and BMW users, with peak usage during slow stop-and-go traffic (0–30 km/h) and higher speeds (>80 km/h). On roads with speed limits below 70 km/h, automation was used less than 8%, and use on urban roads was incidental rather than habitual. Automation usage increased with time in trip, but no clear time of day effects were found. Head pose data could not classify driver attention, and we recommend gaze tracking in future studies. Head pose deviation was selected as alternative indicator for monitoring activity. Comparing among forms of automation usage on the highway, head heading deviation was smallest during ACC use, but did not differ between automation and baseline manual driving. Head heading deviation during manual driving was smaller in the baseline than the experimental phase, which suggests that motives for manual highway driving may be attention related. Automation usage did not change much over the first 12 weeks of the experimental condition, and there were no longitudinal changes in head pose deviation.
This study explores the interactions between the advantages of cycling for physical and mental health and possible health consequences of crash involvement. Data were derived from an online survey distributed via social media and cycling interest organisations and resulted in 382 responses from cyclists having crashed in the past two years and 855 non-crash cyclists. Firstly, we compared the distress symptoms reported by non-crashed cyclists, all crashed cyclists, and crashed cyclists considering their crash severe. Secondly, we performed structural equation models (SEMs) to identify latent distress constructs and their relation to person characteristics, cycling habits and possible injuries. Lastly, we investigated the relation between the latent distress constructs and the perceived quality of life (QoL for each of the following subgroups: non-crash cyclists, crashed cyclists and the subgroup of cyclists considering their crash severe. Our analyses show that the non-crash cyclists on average report more distress symptoms than the crashed cyclists. With the only significant difference between the cyclist groups being their cycling exposure (the crashed cyclists cycle significantly more) and gender, this result highlights the complex interaction between the positive health benefits of physical activity on one side and possible negative health impacts of crash involvement while being physically active on the other. Three latent distress constructs were identified: “General stress & exhaustion”, “Depression & anxiety”, “Physical impairment”. “Depression & anxiety” and “Physical impairment” are directly and negatively related to the perceived QoL. “General stress & exhaustion” is directly and positively related to the perceived QoL. Several person characteristics, cycling habits and injuries are associated with the latent distress constructs. “Depression & anxiety” showed the strongest relation to a poorer perceived QoL among the crashed cyclists. This highlights the importance of not only considering the physical aspects of crash related injuries but also the potential psychological and mental aspects of suffering a crash.
Vulnerable road users (VRUs) constitute an increasing proportion of the annual road fatalities across Europe. One of the crash types involved in these fatalities are blind spot crashes between trucks and bicyclists. Despite the presence of mandatory blind spot mirrors, truck drivers are often reported to have overlooked the presence of a bicyclist. This raises the question if and when truck drivers check their blind spot mirrors for the presence of bicyclists, and which factors contribute to such glance behavior. The current study presents the results of an analysis of naturalistic glance behavior by 39 truck drivers in 1,903 right-turning maneuvers at urban intersections, where in each maneuver there was a chance of crossing the path of a bicyclist. The descriptive analysis revealed that most often truck drivers did not cast a glance upon their blind spot mirrors as recommended by the examination guidelines. Furthermore, a choice model was developed with the main factors that have an impact on glance behavior. Drivers were more likely to glance with a priority regulation that allowed conflicts, with lower speed limits, with zebra crossings, without cyclist facilities, without a lead vehicle making the same maneuver, in presence of VRUs, without adverse sight conditions, in lower age groups, without certain non-driving related activities, when driving a truck with more direct vision on VRUs, and without a camera providing a view on the blind spot, and with less time between a standstill and starting the maneuver. Three factors did not significantly improve the choice model and were therefore left out, despite showing significant effects in bivariate tests: intersection layout (e.g., three vs. four legs), presence of advanced stopping lanes, and visual obstruction. Implications of the choice model are discussed for driver education (in terms of timely glances, reducing inattention, and hazard anticipation) and vehicle design (in terms of direct vision).
Cycling is promoted as a sustainable and healthy mode of transport, which results in an increase in bicycle use in urban areas. Increasing bicycle use comes with growing concerns about cyclist safety. This study examines how the temporal variation in the network-wide exposure to cyclists and motorised vehicles affects bicycle crash frequency. Network-wide hourly volumes of cyclists and motorised vehicles were estimated and regression models were used to identify the effect of the exposure to traffic on bicycle crashes in the city of Utrecht, a Dutch cycling capital. The results show that increasing exposure to motorised vehicles, and to a lesser extent, exposure to cyclists, increases the number of bicycle crashes on 50 km/h roads. For 30 km/h roads, no statistically significant relationship between the exposure to cyclists and bicycle crashes was found. Moreover, it was shown that cyclist crash numbers on 30 km/h roads are less sensitive to an increase in the exposure to motorised vehicles compared to cyclist crash numbers on 50 km/h roads. Furthermore, the exposure to motorised vehicles is a stronger factor affecting the increase in bicycle crashes on roads with bicycle lanes or mixed traffic conditions than on roads with separated bicycle facilities. To conclude, this study shows that road safety for cyclists needs further improvements, as cycling in cities keeps increasing.
This paper presents the results of a stated choice study for estimating the Willingness-To-Pay of respondents in four European countries (Belgium, France, Germany and the Netherlands) to reduce the risk of fatal and serious injuries in road crashes. Respondents were confronted with hypothetical route choices that differ in respect of travel costs, travel time and crash risk. The survey was completed by 8,002 respondents, equally spread over the four participating countries and representative for each country with regards to gender, age and region. Possible biases caused by problematic choice behaviour such as inconsistent, irrational or lexicographic answers were addressed. The resulting values were estimated by means of a mixed logit model allowing to account for the panel nature of the data. The Value of a Statistical Life (VSL) was estimated at 6.2 Mill EUR, the Value of a Statistical Serious Injury (VSSI) at 950,000 EUR, and the Value of Time (VoT) at 16.1 EUR/h. Consequently, the relative value of avoiding a fatal injury is estimated to be around 7 times higher than the value of an avoided serious injury. The study revealed differences between countries with France showing values that are significantly lower than the average and Germany showing values that are significantly higher. The estimated VSL values are considerably higher than the values currently used in the four countries, but they are within the range of values found in similar stated choice studies. The results can be used as an input in a broad range of socioeconomic studies including cost-benefit analysis and assessments of socioeconomic costs of road crashes.
Advanced driver assistance systems such as adaptive cruise control (ACC) and lane keeping system (LKS) potentially contribute to reducing crash rates and traffic congestion. On-road studies based on early ACC systems operational at medium–high speeds only have shown that the system reduces the proportion of short time gaps when activated. Despite the effects on driver behaviour, most mathematical models assessing the impact of ACC and LKS systems on crash rates and traffic congestion are not based on empirical findings. This study examines the factors that influence changes in the longitudinal vehicle control when driving with ACC and LKS. The data were collected in a naturalistic driving experiment with full-range ACC and LKS and two different vehicle brands (BMW and Tesla) in the Netherlands. To capture changes that are relevant for traffic safety, speeding and a time gap shorter than one second were investigated. The factors influencing speeding and short time gaps were analysed using statistical tests and logistic regression models with random effects, that allow to control for the impact of different explanatory variables and correlations between repeated 10-s intervals over time. The findings revealed that, overall, drivers were less likely to speed and they were also less likely to have a time gap shorter than one second in the experimental condition with the ACC and the LKS than in the baseline condition in manual driving. Drivers were likely to speed in the following 10-s interval when the current speed was close to the speed limit, and/or when the next speed limit was lower than the current speed limit, and/or when the acceleration was high. Drivers were likely to have a short time gap in the following 10-s interval when approaching a slower leader, and/or when the current time gap was short and/or when the acceleration was high. Controlled for these main factors, drivers were less likely to speed and to have a short time gap when the ACC and the LKS were active. However, drivers were more likely to speed when overruling the ACC by pressing the gas pedal. When the systems were active, one vehicle brand showed a smaller probability of a short time gap than the other brand, suggesting differences in ACC system settings between brands. In addition, the speeding probability increased while the probability of a short time gap decreased over time during the trip after the activation of the systems. Although further studies including a larger sample of participants and a wider range of traffic situations are needed, the results are useful to the design of automated vehicles that prevent speeding and short time gaps, and to the implementation of traffic simulations that evaluate the impact of ACC and LKS on crash rates and traffic congestion according to realistic on-road data.
Built-environment factors potentially alleviate or aggravate traffic safety problems in urban areas. This paper aims to investigate the relationships of these factors with vehicle-bicycle and vehicle-vehicle property damage only (PDO) and killed and severe injury (KSI) crashes in urban areas. For this purpose, an area-level analysis using 100x100m² cells, along with a Spatial Hurdle Negative Binomial regression model were employed. The study area is composed of a selection of municipalities in the Netherlands-Randstad Area where major land-use developments have occurred since the 1970s. The study was conducted by developing a rich dataset composed of various national and local databases. The findings reveal that built-environment factors and land-use policies have substantial impacts on safety, which cannot be neglected. The factors explaining the land-use density and diversity in the area (e.g., urbanity and function mixing levels), as well as the land-use design characteristics (indicated by average age of the neighborhoods), traffic and road network characteristics, and proximity to different destinations influence the probability, frequency, and severity of crashes in urban areas. Furthermore, low socioeconomic levels are associated with a higher frequency of traffic crashes.
In the transition towards higher levels of vehicle automation, one of the key concerns with regards to human factors is to avoid mode confusion, when drivers misinterpret the driving mode and therewith misjudge their own tasks and responsibility. To enhance mode awareness, a clear human centered Human Machine Interface (HMI) is essential. The HMI should support the driver tasks of both supervising the driving environment when needed and self-regulating their non-driving related activities (NDRAs). Such support may be provided by either presenting continuous information on automation reliability, from which the driver needs to infer what task is required, or by presenting continuous information on the currently required driving task and allowed NDRA directly. Additionally, it can be valuable to provide continuous information to support anticipation of upcoming changes in the automation mode and its associated reliability or required and allowed driver task(s). Information that could support anticipation includes the available time until a change in mode (i.e. time budget), information on the upcoming mode, and reasons for changing to the upcoming mode. The current work investigates the effects of communicating this potentially valuable information through HMI design. Participants received information from an HMI during simulated drives in a simulated car presented online (using Microsoft Teams) with an experimenter virtually accompanying and guiding each session. The HMI either communicated on automation reliability or on the driver task, and either included information supporting anticipation or did not include such information. Participants were thinking aloud during the simulated drives and reported on their experience and preferences afterwards. Anticipatory information supported understanding about upcoming changes without causing information overload or overreliance. Moreover, anticipatory information and information on automation reliability, and especially a combination of the two, best supported under-standability and usability. Recommendations are provided for future work on facilitating supervision and NDRA self-regulation during automated driving through HMI design.
Speeding on urban roads is a major road safety problem. Police enforcement and speed humps are effective measures to prevent drivers from speeding. However, these measures may also elicit none compliance because of their restrictive nature. Therefore, non-compulsive measures that nudge drivers to adopt low speeds are also required. One such a nudge was evaluated: road signs displaying children’s book illustrations. These signs display illustrations which were created by the late illustrator and writer of books for toddlers, Dick Bruna, and are named ‘Dick Bruna signs’. The idea of the developers of these signs was that they will evoke feelings of caution and care in drivers and this will make them drive slower. To evaluate the effect, two studies were conducted. In the first study participants watched photos from the driver’s perspective. They had to report how fast they expected others would drive and how fast they themselves would drive. Participants reported speeds of others higher than their own speeds but the pattern was the same: speeds on photos with a Dick Bruna sign were approximately 4 km/h lower than on the same photos without a Dick Bruna sign and speeds were not significantly lower when a neutral sign such as an advertisement was visible. In the second study speeds were measured during seven consecutive weeks on five experimental roads and five comparison roads. On the experimental roads, during the week 3–5 a Dick Bruna sign was placed. Controlled for developments in speed on the comparison roads in the same period, mean speed was marginally significant lower, and the V85 speed and the proportion of speed offenders were significantly lower in only the first week after placement of the signs.
Tailored countermeasures that may significantly improve road traffic safety can be proposed and implemented if the relationship between various associated factors and aggressive driving is well understood. However, this relationship remains unknown, as driving behavior is complex, and the interrelationships among variables are not easy to identify. Considering this situation, this paper constructed a model based on a structural equation model (SEM) and factor analysis (FA), which is a multivariate statistical analysis technique used to analyze structural relationships. The model is applied in a case study using data from the Shanghai Naturalistic Driving Study. In the case study, 16 variables were grouped into five latent factors in the SEM, and the model fits the data well. Compared with other variables, the results show that age had the most significant positive impact on aggressive driving behavior (older drivers exhibited high aggressive driving frequency). Adverse weather negatively impacted driver behavior (lower speed and high longitude acceleration), which in turn negatively affected aggressive driving behavior. In addition, the results show that driver factors (such as age and sex) were the main factors influencing vehicle use (such as hard acceleration), and the environment was the main factor determining risky scenarios, where safety-critical situations increase. This paper provides a reference for defining and determining aggressive driving and a model for exploring the relationship between driving safety factors and aggressive driving, which can be used in real-world applications for improving driving safety with applications in advanced driver-assistance (ADAS) and traffic enforcement safety control systems.
Speed pedelecs (s-pedelecs) are electric bicycles offering pedal assistance up to 45 km/h. S-pedelecs may contribute to a more efficient and green traffic system. However, their potential to reach high speeds has raised road safety concerns. In the Netherlands a new legislation bans s-pedelecs from bicycle paths in urban areas. On the roads with a maximum speed limit of 50 km/h with adjacent bicycle paths, s-pedelec riders must use the roadways instead of the bicycle path. The impact of this legislation on the behaviour of s-pedelec riders and other road users as well as the possible consequences for road safety are yet unknown. Therefore, this naturalistic riding study investigated the safety-relevant behaviours of s-pedelec riders, i.e. speed characteristics while riding on the roadway, the extent of non-compliance with the ban on using bicycle paths, and speed and speed adaptation while using bicycle paths. Furthermore the study explored factors possibly influencing rider behaviour (the s-pedelec's motor-power, riders’ beliefs and perceptions) as well as negative reactions of other road users encountering s-pedelec riders. 28 participants used a s-pedelec (a 350 W type or a 500 W type) for everyday trips for at least a fortnight. The s-pedelecs were equipped with two action cameras with integrated sensors and GPS. The results showed that mean speed on 50 km/h roadways was 31.8 km/h, which is far below the road's speed limit. The mean speed did not differ between s-pedelec types, but the speed distribution did. The ‘500 W riders’ travelled 31.7% of the total distance in the 41–50 km/h speed band, as compared to 6.9% of the ‘350 W riders’. Furthermore the 500 W riders evaluated riding on the roadway more positively than the 350 W riders. On the roadway s-pedelec riders experienced signals of hinderance of the traffic flow (on average every 2 km) and negative reactions from drivers (on average every 27.5 km). As for non-compliance riders covered on average 22.5% of the distance on bicycle paths. The more the riders disagreed with the new legislation, the more distance they covered on the bicycle path. Mean speed on bicycle paths was 28.5 km/h, and it was significantly higher for 500 W riders than for 350 W riders. Speeds between 41 and 50 km/h were also far more common for 500 W riders (14.9% of the distance) than for 350 W riders (0.5%). Compared to the roadway 350 W riders reduced their speed on the bicycle paths to a higher extent (from 31.4 to 25.7 km/h) than 500 W riders did (from 31.9 to 30.5 km/h). The frequency of harsh braking of s-pedelec riders was low and did not differ between the roadway and the bicycle paths. In conclusion, s-pedelec riders in the Netherlands frequently ride on the bicycle paths although it is illegal. On the bicycle paths their speeds are much higher than those of conventional cyclists. On the 50 km/h-roadways, however, s-pedelec riders are apparently too slow for the traffic conditions. Overall, the speed profiles of 350 W types were better suited to the bicycle paths, whereas those of 500 W types to the roadways.
When dealing with road safety in Africa, one should bear in mind that road safety problems need to be seen in their context as the solutions proposed to address them. While it is relevant to consider international good practices, African stakeholders should become owners of the interventions addressing their problems and take the responsibility for developing and implementing the appropriate solutions, taking advantage of suitable technical assistance, if needed. Based on these considerations, in this paper, a presentation is made of the process used in the European research project SaferAfrica to define suitable Safe System projects in Africa. This project aims at supporting policymakers and stakeholders with evidence on critical risk factors, related actions, and good practices drawn from high-quality data and knowledge. In the project, road safety and traffic management capacity reviews at the country level were carried out in five countries (Cameroon, Burkina Faso, Tunisia, Kenya, and South Africa), following the World Bank guidelines. After conducting such a capacity review, these guidelines recommend the preparation and implementation of Safe System projects, “stand-alone, multisector initiatives targeting high-risk corridors and areas, with outcomes large enough to be reliably measured.” In SaferAfrica, this approach aims at facilitating the implementation of Safe System projects in the considered countries, by identifying detailed short-term improvement plans and producing contextualized terms of reference for some interventions per selected country. These interventions are remedial, they address high-priority concerns and demonstrate the viability of high potential gains within current administrative and legislative frameworks. To design interventions suitable to the existing context, the transferability audit tool was adopted within a “participative” process, involving all possible interested parties, from the institutions to NGOs. Results from the process are presented and discussed.
Speed-pedelecs -fast electric bicycles offering pedal support up to a speed of 45 km/h- are a recent, environmentally friendly, and mobility efficient innovation. However, their high travel speed may increase crash and injury risk. Due to their recent introduction accurate crash data are not available yet. Since near-crashes may serve as a proxy for crashes this study analyzed traffic conflicts (i.e., near-crashes and minor crashes) in the Netherlands with the aim to proactively identify potential crash partners, crash patterns, and crash risk increasing factors. To this end, twenty-eight participants used a speed-pedelec in daily traffic, equipped with a forward and a backward facing camera, for two to three consecutive weeks. In a total of 227 h of video footage in which a distance of 6584 km was travelled, 115 conflicts were identified of which 114 were near-crashes in which evasive actions were performed to avert a crash, and one was a minor crash. The most frequent conflict partner were bicycles (51 %), followed successively by cars and vans (28 %), pedestrians (12 %), powered two-wheelers (5 %) and animals (3 %). One conflict was with a truck. With conventional bicycles, most conflicts occurred in crossing maneuvers (36 %) and when the speed-pedelec and bicycle were travelling in the same direction (36 %). Also, with cars and vans, most conflicts occurred in crossing maneuvers (63 %). The case-cohort analyses in which characteristics in conflicts and characteristics in randomly selected moments of the same participant were identified, showed conflict risks to be high if: (1) bicycles or cars were in the proximity of the speed-pedelec but was substantially higher for bicycles than for cars (OR = 43.28, 95 % CI = [16.85−111.17] and OR = 22.43, 95 % CI = [7.59−66.28] respectively), (2) speed-pedelecs overtook other road users which were mostly bicycles (OR = 17.25, 95 % CI = [7.58−39.24]), (3) the speed-pedelecs travelled on bicycle facilities (both legally or illegally) (OR = 1.81, 95 % CI = [1.08−3.03]), and (4) speed-pedelecs rode near or at an intersection, OR = 3.94, 95 % CI = [2.42−6.43]. These findings suggest that conflict risks are higher when speed-pedelec riders make use of bicycle facilities than when they ride on the roadway for cars. However, the consequences of crashes with motorized vehicles on the roadway will probably be more severe for speed-pedelec riders than with bicycles on the cycle path. This study further illustrates the value of naturalistic conflict observations for assessing the safety implications of innovations proactively.
Bicycle infrastructure is utilised to improve cycling safety and encourage bicycle use as a sustainable and healthy transport mode. This study sets out to assess whether providing physically separated cycle tracks along distributor roads, as prescribed in Dutch design guidelines and the Sustainable Safety vision, yields the expected safety benefits for cyclists. Therefore the safety of physically separated cycle tracks is compared to marked or painted cycle lanes and to mixed traffic conditions at distributor roads with a speed limit of 50 km/h in Amsterdam in the Netherlands. The study also includes the presence of the risk factors curbside parking and trams. Since police records are known to underreport single bicycle crashes and other crashes without a motor vehicle involved, ambulance records are used in this study instead. Also, both motor vehicle volumes as well as cyclists counts are taken into account in the crash analysis. By doing so, this study aims to address two weaknesses of previous research, i.e. the lack of control for exposure of cyclists and the use of police recorded crashes which miss the majority of bicycle crashes without motor vehicles. Results show that, controlled for kilometres travelled by bicycle and by motor vehicle, 50-60% less bicycle crashes occur on distributor roads with cycle tracks compared to those with cycle lanes. Curbside parking and trams are related to an increased likelihood of bicycle crashes, a difference of a factor 2 and 1.7-2 respectively. The authors therefore recommend to favour physically separated cycle tracks over cycle lanes and to take out curbside parking from the cross section as this presents the possibility to introduce cycle tracks in existing cross sections and mitigate an important risk factor concurrently.
This study has analyzed sex-specific differences in pedestrian and cyclist accidents involving passenger cars. The most frequently injured body regions, types of injuries, which show sex-specific differences and the general accident parameters of females and males were compared. Accident data from three different European countries (Austria, Netherlands, Sweden) were analyzed. The current analysis shows that for both, females and males, pedestrian and cyclist injuries are sustained mainly to the body regions head, thorax, upper extremities and lower extremities. The results show that the odds for sustaining skeletal injuries to the lower extremities (incl. pelvis) in females are significantly higher. It was observed in all datasets, that the odds of females being involved in a rural accident or an accident at night are lower than for males. Elderly pedestrian and cyclist (≥60YO) tend to sustain more severe injuries (AIS2+ and AIS3+) than younger pedestrian and cyclists (<60YO) in some of the datasets. The findings of this study highlight the differences in males and females in both, accident scenarios and sustained injuries. Further investigations are needed to distinguish between gender- and sex-specific differences causing the different injury patterns.
High pre-World-War-2 modal shares of cycling in European countries sharply decreased during the post-war decades. In the 1990s, European governments introduced policies to increase bicycle use. However, a database or longitudinal study on the development of bicycle use in European countries is lacking. The goal of this paper is to examine to what degree the amount of cycling has increased over the past decades, also in the context of potentially competing modes. Distances travelled per capita according to National Travel Surveys have been collected and were aggregated to seven 4-year periods between 1990 and 2017. Multilevel regression analyses on distance travelled per capita by bicycle, on foot, by public transport, and by passenger car were conducted for all countries. Additionally, analyses were conducted for which the 14 countries with data on bicycle use were divided in three groups categorised according to distance cycled per capita at the beginning of the study period. Distance cycled per capita per year ranged from some 30 km to 900 km. The results of all four regression analyses suggested that distance cycled per capita remained fairly constant over the past decades. Germany is an exception with some 150 km per capita more, in relative terms a 50% increase. Geographical variation in development is evidenced by a substantial increase of distance cycled per inhabitant in the capital cities of the countries included in the study. The outcomes suggest distance travelled on foot and by public transport (bus, tram, and metro) also remained fairly constant while the distance travelled by car increased by about 10% during the study period. We did not find indications that cycling substitutes travel on foot, by public transport or by car.
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Bezuidenhoutseweg 62, The Hague, South Holland, Netherlands
Head of institution
dr. Peter van der Knaap