Background Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are well-established risk factors of breast and ovarian cancer. In our former study, we observed that approximately 6% of unselected ovarian cancer patients in the region of Podkarpacie (South-East Poland) carry BRCA1 causative founder variants, which is significantly lower than in other regions of Poland. Therefore, it is deeply justified to do research based on the sequencing of whole BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Methods We examined 158 consecutive unselected cases of ovarian cancer patients from the region of Podkarpacie. We performed BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes Next-Generation Sequencing study in all cases. Results Altogether, in 18 of 158 (11.4%) ovarian cancer patients with BRCA1 or BRCA2 pathogenic mutations were found. BRCA1 pathogenic variants were detected in 11 of the 158 (7.0%) ovarian cancer cases. 10 of 11 (91%) detected BRCA1 mutations were founder mutations, detectable with the standard test used in Poland. BRCA2 pathogenic variants were found in 7 of the 158 (4.4%) cases. No BRCA2 pathogenic variants were founder mutations. The median age of patients at the diagnosis of the 18 hereditary ovarian cancers was 57.5 years. Conclusions The frequency of BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation carriers among patients with ovarian cancer from the Podkarpacie region is comparable to other regions of Poland. However, a significantly higher percentage of BRCA2 gene mutations was observed, that were not detectable with a standard test for detection of founder mutations. Diagnostics based only on testing the BRCA1/2 Polish founder mutations is characterized by relatively low sensitivity in the case of ovarian cancer patients from South-East Poland and should be supplemented by NGS study, in particular of the BRCA2 gene.
Religiosity and spirituality can be both beneficial and harmful to happiness. It depends on its operationalization and the measures of religiosity and sociodemographics used, together with cultural and psychosocial factors, still not comprehensively explored. This topic is especially important for religious-affiliated chronic patients such as those diagnosed with multiple sclerosis. Religion can deliver a sense of meaning, direction, and purpose in life and be an additional source of support to cope with the stress and limitations connected with the disease. The aim of the present study was to verify whether religiosity, directly and indirectly, through finding meaning in life, is related to one’s level of happiness and whether gender, the drinking of alcohol, financial status, and age are moderators in this relationship. In sum, 600 patients from Poland who suffered from multiple sclerosis were included in the study. Firstly, some gender differences were noticed. In women, religiosity was both directly and indirectly, through finding significance, positively related to happiness. Secondly, it was found that in women, the direct effect of age on happiness was generally negative but was positively affected by religiosity; however, among men, age was not correlated with happiness. In the group of women, religiosity and a lower propensity to drink alcohol in an interactive way explained happiness. Thirdly, both in men and women, financial status positively correlated with happiness, but in the group of wealthy men only, religiosity was negatively related to happiness. In conclusion, religion was found to show a positive correlation with the happiness of Roman Catholic multiple sclerosis patients from Poland. In this group of patients, religious involvement can be suggested and implemented as a factor positively related to happiness, with the one exception regarding wealthy men.
Cadherin 12 (CDH 12) can play a role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. The aim of this study was to compare the levels of cadherin 12 in the peritoneal fluid between women with and without endometriosis. This was a multicenter cross-sectional study. Eighty-two patients undergoing laparoscopic procedures were enrolled in the study. Cadherin 12 concentrations were determined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The level of statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. No differences in cadherin 12 concentrations between patients with and without endometriosis were observed (p = 0.4). Subgroup analyses showed that CDH 12 concentrations were significantly higher in patients with infertility or primary infertility and endometriosis in comparison with patients without endometriosis and without infertility or primary infertility (p = 0.02) and also higher in patients with stage I or II endometriosis and infertility or primary infertility than in patients without endometriosis and infertility or primary infertility (p = 0.03, p = 0.048, respectively). In total, CDH 12 levels were significantly higher in patients diagnosed with infertility or primary infertility (p = 0.0092, p = 0.009, respectively) than in fertile women. Cadherin 12 can possibly play a role in the pathogenesis of infertility, both in women with and without endometriosis.
The purpose of this paper is to review the scientific results and summarise the emerging topic of the effects of statistic magnetic field on the structure, biochemical activity, and gene expression of plants. The literature on the subject reports a wide range of possibilities regarding the use of the magnetic field to modify the properties of plant cells. MFs have a significant impact on the photosynthesis efficiency of the biomass and vigour accumulation indexes. Treating plants with SMFs accelerates the formation and accumulation of reactive oxygen species. At the same time, the influence of MFs causes the high activity of antioxidant enzymes, which reduces oxidative stress. SMFs have a strong influence on the shape of the cell and the structure of the cell membrane, thus increasing their permeability and influencing the various activities of the metabolic pathways. The use of magnetic treatments on plants causes a higher content of proteins, carbohydrates, soluble and reducing sugars, and in some cases, lipids and fatty acid composition and influences the uptake of macro- and microelements and different levels of gene expression. In this study, the effect of MFs was considered as a combination of MF intensity and time exposure, for different varieties and plant species. The following article shows the wide-ranging possibilities of applying magnetic fields to the dynamics of changes in the life processes and structures of plants. Thus far, the magnetic field is not widely used in agricultural practice. The current knowledge about the influence of MFs on plant cells is still insufficient. It is, therefore, necessary to carry out detailed research for a more in-depth understanding of the possibilities of modifying the properties of plant cells and achieving the desired effects by means of a magnetic field.
The current global crisis facing the world is the COVID-19 pandemic. Infection from the SARS-CoV-2 virus leads to serious health complications and even death. As it turns out, COVID-19 not only physically assails the health of those infected, but also leads to serious mental illness regardless of the presence of the disease. Social isolation, fear, concern for oneself and one's loved ones, all of this occurs when a pandemic overloads people. People exhibit numerous neurological disorders that have never happened to them before. Patients are diagnosed with frequent panic attacks, the result of which can be seen in their Quantitative Electroencephalogram results. This test may be one of the main diagnostic tools of the COVID-19 pandemic. From the results obtained, it is possible to compare and draw conclusions. This method of testing effectively allows EEG biofeedback training and observes its effect on brain activity. The feedback received in this way gives us the opportunity to properly tailor a protocol for the patient and their conditions. Numerous studies support the effectiveness of EEG biofeedback for panic attacks and other psychiatric disorders. The purpose of our study was to show the effectiveness of EEG biofeedback with a Quantitative Electroencephalogram of the brainwave pattern after having COVID-19 and what symptoms may result.
Background Ossifications of intracranial ligaments may have clinical meaning during various neurosurgical procedures and imaging diagnostics. Most of the observations of these ossifications reported in the literature are presented on material from adult humans. Descriptions made in the early stages of ontogenesis, when all kinds of intracranial bony bridges or intracranial ossifications are just taking shape, are rare. This case report analyses the formation of unilateral petrosphenoidal ligament ossification with coexisting sellar bridges on the fetal skull. Case description Ossification (in progress) of the petrosphenoidal ligament with the canal formation for the abducens nerve was observed on the right side of this specimen. The bridge developing over the petrous apex bounded this atypical canal, or foramen, together with the postero-lateral surface of the dorsum sellae, petroclival suture (in the floor), and petrous apex. On this fetal skull, the dorsum sellae was not yet fully ossified. Moreover, bilateral formation of sellar bridges (between anterior and posterior clinoid processes) and caroticoclinoid foramina (between middle and anterior clinoid processes) was observed. Extensions of the anterior clinoid processes were not fully ossified, and the formation of the atypical bony bridges and foramina was captured (depicted) on this specimen just during ossification. Conclusions Ossifications of the petrosphenoidal ligament may be observed in the fetal period and may be accompanied by sellar bridges. Knowledge of intracranial ligaments' mineralization may be vital in diagnostics and neurosurgical procedures in children and adults.
Background Chronic spontaneous urticaria is inadequately controlled in many patients and severely impacts the quality of life. Remibrutinib, a highly selective, oral, novel covalent Bruton’s tyrosine kinase inhibitor, might be effective in chronic spontaneous urticaria. Objective This first-in-patient trial aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of remibrutinib in chronic spontaneous urticaria treatment and characterize the dose-response. Methods This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, Phase 2b dose-finding trial evaluated remibrutinib (12 weeks) in patients inadequately controlled with second-generation H1-antihistamines, with at least moderately active chronic spontaneous urticaria, with or without prior anti-immunoglobulin E treatment (NCT03926611). Patients received remibrutinib 10mg once daily (q.d.), 35mg q.d., 100mg q.d., 10mg twice daily (b.i.d.), 25mg b.i.d., 100mg b.i.d., or placebo (1:1:1:1:1:1:1 ratio). The main endpoints were weekly Urticaria Activity Score (UAS7) change from baseline at Week 4 and safety. Results Overall, 311 patients were randomized. Reduced symptom score was observed for all remibrutinib doses from Week 1 until Week 12, with UAS7 change from baseline at Week 4: −19.1 (10mg q.d.), −19.1 (35mg q.d.), −14.7 (100mg q.d.), −16.0 (10mg b.i.d.), −20.0 (25mg b.i.d.), −18.1 (100mg b.i.d.), and −5.4 for placebo (nominal P < .0001 for all doses vs placebo). Most adverse events were mild/moderate, with no dose-dependent pattern. Conclusion Remibrutinib was highly effective in the treatment of chronic spontaneous urticaria over the entire dose range, with a rapid onset of action and a favorable safety profile. Clinical implication Remibrutinib shows potential as a preferred oral treatment option for patients with moderate to severe chronic spontaneous urticaria.
Along with the significant elongation in the average life expectancy of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), there are still significant discrepancies in the height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) of patients compared to controls without CF. The correlation between hormones that regulate appetite and body fat mass may be an additional factor in weight loss or poor weight gain in CF patients. Our objective was to estimate serum concentrations of leptin and neuropeptide Y in patients with CF as well as to assess correlations between studied hormones and the clinical parameters of CF. Leptin and neuropeptide Y serum concentrations after an overnight fast were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All study participants had anthropometric tests and spirometry. In addition, fasting serum lipid profile was also analyzed. Fasting leptin levels in CF were significantly higher in patients with CF patients (13.9 ± 6.9 vs. 6.5 ± 2.6 ng/mL, p < 0.001) compared to controls. There were no differences in leptin concentration between female and male CF participants (15.7 ± 7.8 vs. 12.2 ± 5.6 ng/mL, p = 0.13). Leptin was correlated with age (R = 0.64, p < 0.001), BMI (R = 0.65, p < 0.001), spirometry results (R = −0.49, p < 0.01), and body fat (R = 0.5, p < 0.05). There were no differences in neuropeptide Y concentration between participants with CF and controls as well as neuropeptide Y was not correlated with any studied parameters. The results of our study suggest that weight loss may be associated with a decreased level of leptin, while reduced pulmonary function in CF may be related to an elevated level of leptin.
We establish sufficient conditions for the unique solvability of the inverse problem of finding two unknown functions from a Schwarz-type space of smooth functions rapidly decreasing at infinity on the right-hand side of the diffusion equation with Caputo–Djrbashian time fractional derivative. In this case, we use two overdetermination conditions integral with respect to time.
IntroductionChronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CCLE) comprises three major clinical variants: discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE), chilblain lupus erythematosus (CHLE), and lupus erythematosus profundus, also referred to as lupus erythematosus panniculitis (LEP). The aim of the current study was to systematically describe the dermoscopic features of CCLE in Polish patients with Fitzpatrick skin phototypes I–III.Methods The videodermoscopic images from patients with various clinical variants of CCLE (DLE, CHLE and LEP) were reviewed. Predefined parameters for dermoscopic evaluation in general dermatology were used to describe the findings in lesions located beyond the scalp. In the analysis of trichoscopic findings in lesions located on the scalp, dermoscopic features of follicular openings, hair shafts, the perifollicular surface, the interfollicular surface and vessel morphology were considered. Based on personal experience, several additional dermoscopic and trichoscopic characteristics were included in the analysis.ResultsA total of 85 lesions from 26 patients (16 women and 10 men; mean age 40.8 ± 11.2 years) were assessed. DLE on glabrous skin showed polymorphous vessels (89.1%), pink-red background (70.9%), follicular plugs (67.3%) and white scaling (58.2%), while scalp DLE was characterized by polymorphous vessels (83.3%), yellow dots (66.7%), follicular plugs (55.6%) and a reduced number of follicles (55.6%). Labial DLE (n = 2) showed linear branched and linear curved vessels, white structureless areas, red structureless (hemorrhagic) areas and red dots/globules. White scaling (61.1% vs. 34.1%; p = 0.042), gray-brown dots/globules (44.4% vs. 12.2%; p = 0.015) and peripheral pigmentation (100.0% vs. 46.2%; p = 0.036) were significantly more common in long-lasting (> 1 year) DLE lesions. CHLE (n = 5) presented with polymorphous vessels, white scales, pink-red background, red structureless areas and red dots/globules. LEP showed polymorphous vessels, white-yellow scales, follicular plugs, white structureless areas and red hemorrhagic areas.Conclusions Dermoscopy might be useful in the preliminary diagnosis of DLE, and its role in the diagnosis of CHLE and LEP needs further elucidation.
The patient safety climate is a key element of quality in healthcare. It should be a priority in the healthcare systems of all countries in the world. The goal of patient safety programs is to prevent errors and reduce the potential harm to patients when using healthcare services. A safety climate is also necessary to ensure a safe working environment for healthcare professionals. The attitudes of healthcare workers toward patient safety in various aspects of work, organization and functioning of the ward are important elements of the organization's safety culture. The aim of this study was to determine the perception of the patient safety climate by healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: The study was conducted in five European countries. The Safety Attitude Questionnaire (SAQ) short version was used for the study. A total of 1061 healthcare workers: physicians, nurses and paramedics, participated in this study. Results: All groups received the highest mean results on the stress recognition subscale (SR): nurses 98.77, paramedics 96.39 and physician 98.28. Nurses and physicians evaluated work conditions (WC) to be the lowest (47.19 and 44.99), while paramedics evaluated perceptions of management (PM) as the worst (46.44). Paramedics achieved statistically significantly lower scores compared to nurses and physicians in job satisfaction (JS), stress recognition (SR) and perception of management (PM) (p < 0.0001). Paramedics compared to nurses and physicians rank better in working conditions (WC) in relation to patient safety (16.21%). Most often, persons of lower seniority scored higher in all subscales (p = 0.001). In Poland, Spain, France, Turkey, and Greece, healthcare workers scored highest in stress recognition (SR). In Poland, Spain, France, and Turkey, they assessed working conditions (WC) as the worst, while in Greece, the perception of management (PM) had the lowest result. Conclusion: Participant perceptions about the patient safety climate were not at a particularly satisfactory level, and there is still a need for the development of patient safety culture in healthcare in Europe. Overall, positive working conditions, good management and effective teamwork can contribute to improving employees' attitudes toward patient safety. This study was carried out during the COVID-19 pandemic and should be repeated after its completion, and comparative studies will allow for a more precise determination of the safety climate in the assessment of employees.
The phase III study was designed to compare event‐free survival (EFS) after treosulfan‐based conditioning with a widely applied reduced‐intensity conditioning (RIC) busulfan regimen in older or comorbid patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). A previously reported confirmatory interim analysis of the randomized clinical study including 476 patients demonstrated statistically significant non‐inferiority for treosulfan with clinically meaningful improvement in EFS. Here, the final study results and pre‐specified subgroup analyses of all 570 randomized patients with completed longer term follow‐up are presented. Patients presenting HCT‐specific comorbidity index > 2 or aged ≥ 50 years were randomly assigned (1:1) to intravenous (IV) fludarabine with either treosulfan (30 g/m2 IV) or busulfan (6.4 mg/kg IV) after stratification by disease risk group, donor type, and participating institution. The primary endpoint was EFS with disease recurrence, graft failure, or death from any cause as events. EFS of patients (median age 60 years) was superior after treosulfan compared to RIC busulfan: 36‐months‐EFS rate 59.5% (95% CI, 52.2 to 66.1) vs 49.7% (95% CI, 43.3 to 55.7) with a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.64 (95% CI, 0.49 to 0.84), P = 0.0006. Likewise, overall survival (OS) with treosulfan was superior compared to busulfan: 36‐months‐OS rate 66.8% vs 56.3%; HR 0.64 (95% CI, 0.48 to 0.87), P = 0.0037. Post hoc analyses revealed that these differences were consistent with the confirmatory interim analysis, and thereby the treosulfan regimen appears particularly suitable for older AML and MDS patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Atopic dermatitis (AD) and chronic urticaria (CU) are common skin diseases with an increasing prevalence and pathogenesis that are not fully understood. Emerging evidence suggests that oxidative stress plays a role in AD and CU. The aim of the single-center cross-sectional study was to compare markers of oxidative stress in 21 patients with AD, and 19 CU patients. The products of protein oxidation, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and markers of lipid peroxidation were estimated in the serum. AD patients had a higher level of advanced protein oxidation products and a lower level of thiol groups than healthy participants. However, CU patients had statistically higher levels of AOPP and 3-nitrotyrosine than healthy subjects. The level of thiol groups and serum TAC decreased significantly in patients with CU. There was no difference in serum concentration of lipid peroxidation products, Amadori products, ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione, and ability of albumin to binding cobalt between AD or CU patients compared to healthy subjects. We found a moderate positive significant correlation between AOPP and age in patients with AD. In patients with CU, TAC was negatively correlated with age. These results may shed light on the etiopathogenesis of AD or CU, and confirm an oxidative burden in these patients. Furthermore, our study could be useful in developing new therapeutic methods that include using antioxidants in dermatological diseases.
Background The ectopic ureter is any single or duplex ureter that enters beyond the anatomical area of the triangle of the urinary bladder. Abnormal ureter opening is one of the rare defects resulting from abnormalities in fetal development. The present study focuses on an up-to-date narrative review of the clinical and anatomical aspects of the ectopic ureter and coexisting urinary tract abnormalities. Materials and methods This review includes an analysis of the literature on the ectopic ureter and coexisting urinary tract anomalies. A query was conducted in electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, and ScienceDirect) to investigate the abovementioned topic. The literature search was based on the following criteria and keywords: ectopic ureter, duplication of the ureter, and ureterocele. The date and language of publication were not the exclusion criteria. Conclusion and outcome of the review The ectopic ureter is one of the anomalies among congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract. In about four out of five cases, it coexists with other defects of the upper urinary tract, such as ureter duplication and ureterocele. Urinary incontinence is the main symptom of ectopic ureter among women due to the most common location of the ureter orifice below the bladder sphincter. It may be asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic in men and cause recurrent epididymitis or urinary tract infections. Treatment of this disease consists of constant observation by regular control visits, and when the abnormality becomes symptomatic, a surgical procedure should be performed. It should be underlined that after finding an anatomical defect of the urinary system, clinicians should consider whether it causes disturbing symptoms and whether its corrective maintenance operation will be beneficial to the patient.
Introduction Inferior vena cava (IVC) anomalies rarely occur in the population, although the double vena cava presented is the most common among them. Typically, the posterior cardinal veins undergo regression, whereas the subcardinal veins join to form the suprarenal part of the vena cava (above renal arteries). The supracardinal veins connect to the inferior infrarenal vena cava (under renal arteries). If the veins are separated and do not form a common vein trunk, the double IVC develops. Double IVC is usually asymptomatic as it is discovered mainly intraoperatively or incidentally in imagining tests. Case description During routine dissection of the abdominal cavity of a female cadaver, duplication of the IVC was observed. Above the renal arteries, at the level of the first lumbar vertebra, the right and left vena cava drained into a short common trunk of the IVC. We also observed that the left renal vein opened into the left vena cava while the right renal vein drained into the common venous trunk, just above the left and right vena cava. Conclusions This report shows a double IVC variant in which, during embryological development, the supracardinal veins remained separated, forming a duplication of the infrarenal IVC. Additionally, the short part of the subcardinal veins also did not connect to the common trunk. Therefore, the right and left vein junction was located above the renal arteries. Clinicians should be aware of this anomaly because knowledge of retroperitoneal space venous drainage variants allows one to avoid unforeseen severe complications during urological and gynecological procedures, which is crucial for the patient's safety.
Cyclophosphamide (CYP) damages all mucosal defence lines and induces hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) leading to detrusor overactivity. Patients who undergo combined chemio-radiotherapy are at higher risk of HC. Potentilla chinensis extract (PCE) prevent oxidative stress-dependent diseases. Thus, the aim of the study was to investigate the effect of PCE on urinary bladder function in CYP-induced HC in preclinical study. 60 rats were divided into 4 groups, as follows: I—control, II—rats with CYP-induced HC, III—rats received PCE in dose of 500 mg/kg, and IV—rats with CYP-induced HC which received PCE in dose of 500 mg/kg. PCE or vehicle were administered orally for 14 days. The cystometry was performed 3 days after the last dose of the PCE. Next, urothelium thickness and oedema measurement and biochemical analyses were performed. Cyclophosphamide induced hemorrhagic cystitis. PCE had no influence on the urinary bladder function and micturition cycles in normal rats. PCE diminished the severity of CYP-induced hemorrhagic cystitis. In the urothelium the cyclophosphamide induced the elevation of CGRP, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, OTC 3, NIT, and MAL. Also, the level of T-H protein, HB-EGF, and ZO1 was decreased. Moreover, the level of ROCK1 and VAChT in detrusor muscle increased. cyclophosphamide caused an increased concentration of BDNF and NGF in the urine. In turn, PCE in cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis caused a reversal of the described biochemical changes within urothelium, detrusor muscle and urine. PCE attenuates detrusor overactivity. In conclusion, our results revealed that PCE attenuates detrusor overactivity in case of cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis. The potential properties of PCE appear to be important in terms of preventing of oxidative stress-dependent dysfunction of urinary bladder. PCE may become a potential supportive treatment in patient to whom cyclophosphamide-based chemotherapy is used.
Chromium is pharmacologically active and is not an essential element but is still very intriguing and demanding from the point of view of toxicological risk assessment. Especially as an elemental impurity in final pharmaceuticals. The aim of this article is toxicological risk assessment (TRA) of total Cr impurities in Menthae piperitae tinctura (Mentha x piperita L., folium) available in Polish pharmacies including triple approach. Obtained raw/basal results shows that impurities of total Cr impurities were present in all investigated pharmaceutical with Mentha x piperita L., folium. but at a relatively low level (in the range: 0.39–2.14 µg/L). The regulatory strategy based on the ICH Q3D (R1) elemental impurities guidelines confirms that all the requirements of the analyzed products meet the European Medicine Agency (EMA) requirements. Obtained results obtained show that the estimated maximum daily exposure to Cr (ng/day) are variable between the samples (0.521–3.792 ng/day), but at a relatively low level (< 4.0 ng/day).The final step confirms the safety of analyzed pharmaceuticals, because the comparison of the estimated results with the oral PDE value for Cr in final drugs suggested by the ICH Q3D guideline (10,700 µg/day) show that all the products are below this value. The approach based on the margin of exposure (MoE) for children and adults also confirms the safety of all the products with Mentha x piperita L., (in all cases MoE > > 10 000). It can be concluded that all the samples analyzed should not represent any health hazard to patients due to Cr impurities. To our knowledge, this is the first study about application of comprehensive TRA of total Cr impurities in phytopharmaceuticals with Mentha x piperita L., folium available in European pharmacies. Additionally, we confirm the safety of Cr impurities by applying triple regulatory strategy without the application of an expansive and demanding HPLC-ICP-MS technique for Cr speciation.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the level of life satisfaction and health behaviors presented by patients with diagnosed infertility. This cross-sectional study included 456 patients (235 women and 221 men) from infertile couples in southeastern Poland from June 2019 to February 2020. Participants completed a questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics, the Health Behaviors Inventory (HBI), and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). The average score of severity of health behaviors for the study group was 82.96 points. Satisfaction with life at a higher level was declared by 57.6% of respondents, at an average level was declared by 31.4%, and at a lower level was declared by 11%. The SWLS score for the entire study group was 24.11 points (6.82 points on the sten scale). Respondents who achieved a higher rate of life satisfaction also had a higher level of severity of health behaviors (p < 0.0001). There were no significant differences between male and female SWLS scores, although the women had significantly higher rates of severity of health behaviors than men. The level of health behavior is positively related to life satisfaction in infertile patients. Medical personnel should conduct health education on a healthy lifestyle that promotes the improvement of reproductive health.
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