Moonlighting proteins have more than one physiologically significant role within one polypeptide chain. The multifunctionality of proteins was first described in 1987 by Joram Piatigorsky and Graeme Wistow. Cells can benefit from involvement of these proteins in biological processes in several ways, e.g. at the energy level. Furthermore, cells have developed a number of mechanisms to change these proteins' functions. Moonlighting proteins are found in all types of organisms, including prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and even viruses. These proteins include a variety of enzymes that serve as receptors, secreted cytokines, transcription factors, or proteasome components. Additionally, there are many combinations of functions, e.g. among receptors and transcription factors, chaperones and cytokines, as well as transcription factors within the ribosome. This work describes enzymes involved in several important metabolic processes in cells, namely cellular respiration, gluconeogenesis, the urea cycle, and pentose phosphate metabolism.
The phenomenon of platinum resistance is a very serious problem in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Unfortunately, no molecular, genetic marker that could be used in assigning women suffering from ovarian cancer to the platinum-resistant or platinum-sensitive group has been discovered so far. Therefore, in this study, for the first time, we used FT-Raman spectroscopy to determine chemical differences and chemical markers presented in serum, which could be used to differentiate platinum-resistant and platinum-sensitive women. The result obtained showed that in the serum collected from platinum-resistant women, a significant increase of chemical compounds was observed in comparison with the serum collected from platinum-sensitive woman. Moreover, a decrease in the ratio between amides vibrations and shifts of peaks, respectively, corresponding to C–C/C–N stretching vibrations from proteins, amide III, amide II, C = O and CH lipids vibrations suggested that in these compounds, structural changes occurred. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that using FT-Raman range, where the above-mentioned functional groups were present, it was possible to differentiate the serum collected from both analyzed groups. Moreover, C5.0 decision tree clearly showed that Raman shifts at 1224 cm⁻¹ and 2713 cm⁻¹ could be used as a marker of platinum resistance. Importantly, machine learning methods showed that the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the FT-Raman spectroscopy were from 95 to 100%.
CT-P43 is a candidate ustekinumab biosimilar in clinical development. This paper aims to demonstrate equivalent efficacy of CT-P43 to originator ustekinumab in adults with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. This double-blind, phase III trial randomised patients (1:1) to receive subcutaneous CT-P43 or originator ustekinumab (45/90 mg for patients with baseline body weight ≤ 100 kg/> 100 kg) at week 0 and week 4 in Treatment Period I. Prior to week 16 dosing in Treatment Period II, patients receiving originator ustekinumab were re-randomised (1:1) to continue originator ustekinumab or switch to CT-P43; patients initially randomised to CT-P43 continued receiving CT-P43 (at weeks 16, 28 and 40). The primary endpoint of the trial was mean per cent improvement from baseline in Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) score at week 12. Equivalence was concluded if confidence intervals (CIs) for the estimate of treatment difference were within pre-defined equivalence margins: ± 10% [90% CI; modified intent-to-treat set; Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approach] or ± 15% [95% CI; full analysis set for patients only receiving 45 mg doses in Treatment Period I; European Medicines Agency (EMA) approach]. Additional efficacy, pharmacokinetic, safety and immunogenicity endpoints were evaluated through week 52. Results to week 28 are reported here. In Treatment Period I, 509 patients were randomised (CT-P43: N = 256; originator ustekinumab: N = 253). The mean per cent improvement in PASI score at week12 was 77.93% and 75.89% for CT-P43 and originator ustekinumab, respectively (FDA approach); per the EMA approach, corresponding values were 78.26% and 77.33%. Estimated treatment differences were 2.05 (90% CI −0.23, 4.32) and 0.94 (95% CI −2.29, 4.16); equivalence was achieved for both sets of assumptions. Further efficacy parameters and pharmacokinetic, safety and immunogenicity outcomes were comparable between treatment groups, including after switching from originator ustekinumab to CT-P43. CT-P43 demonstrated equivalent efficacy to originator ustekinumab in patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis, with comparable pharmacokinetic, safety and immunogenicity profiles. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04673786; date of registration: 17 December, 2020
Overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) is a prevalent condition that affects the elderly population in particular and significantly impairs quality of life. Imperatorin, a naturally occurring furocoumarin, possesses diverse pharmacological properties that warrant consideration for drug development. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of imperatorin (IMP) to attenuate the cystometric and biochemical changes typically associated with retinyl acetate-induced overactive bladder (OAB) and to assess its viability as a pharmacological intervention for OAB patients. A total of 60 rats were divided into four groups: I—control, II—rats with rapamycin (RA)-induced OAB, III—rats administered IMP at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day, and IV—rats with RA-induced OAB treated with IMP. IMP or vehicle were injected intraperitoneally for 14 days. The cystometry and assessment of bladder blood flow were performed two days after the last dose of IMP. The rats were then placed in metabolic cages for 24 h. Urothelial thickness measurements and biochemical analyses were performed. Intravesical infusion of RA induced OAB. Notably, intraperitoneal administration of imperatorin had no discernible effect on urinary bladder function and micturition cycles in normal rats. IMP attenuated the severity of RA-induced OAB. RA induced increases in urothelial ATP, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), organic cation transporter 3 (OCT3), and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), as well as significant c-Fos expression in all micturition areas analyzed, which were attenuated by IMP. Furthermore, elevated levels of Rho kinase (ROCK1) and VAChT were observed in the detrusor, which were reversed by IMP in the context of RA-induced OAB in the urothelium, detrusor muscle, and urine. Imperatorin has a mitigating effect on detrusor overactivity. The mechanisms of action of IMP in the bladder appear to be diverse and complex. These findings suggest that IMP may provide protection against RA-induced OAB and could potentially develop into an innovative therapeutic strategy for the treatment of OAB.
Depression is a serious neuropsychiatric disease affecting an increasing number of people worldwide. Cognitive deficits (including inattention, poor memory, and decision-making difficulties) are common in the clinical picture of depression. Cognitive impairment has been hypothesized to be one of the most important components of major depressive disorder (MDD; referred to as clinical depression), although typical cognitive symptoms are less frequent in people with depression than in people with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder (BD; sometimes referred to as manic-depressive disorder). The importance of α-Klotho in the aging process has been well-documented. Growing evidence points to the role of α-Klotho in regulating other biological functions, including responses to oxidative stress and the modulation of synaptic plasticity. It has been proven that a Klotho deficit may contribute to the development of various nervous system pathologies, such as behavioral disorders or neurodegeneration. Given the growing evidence of the role of α-Klotho in depression and cognitive impairment, it is assumed that this protein may be a molecular link between them. Here, we provide a research review of the role of α-Klotho in depression and cognitive impairment. Furthermore, we propose potential mechanisms (related to oxidative stress and glutamatergic transmission) that may be important in α-Klotho-mediated regulation of mental and cognitive function.
Giant ovarian tumors are rare, as most cases are diagnosed during routine gynecological check-ups or abdominal ultrasound examinations. They are a challenge for gynecologists and surgeons. Diagnosis in such patients is difficult due to the limitations of the medical apparatus. Perioperative management requires specialized anesthetic medical care and is associated with high mortality. The paper presents the case of a 23-year-old woman with a giant ovarian serous tumor, characterized by an enlargement of the abdominal circumference, periodic abdominal pain, irregular menstruation, and infertility. The patient attributed these nonspecific symptoms to obesity; therefore, she was hesitant to schedule a doctor’s appointment. The patient underwent laparotomy, and the cyst originating from the left ovary was removed along with part of the organ. An intraoperative examination was performed. After confirming the benign nature of the lesion, the operation was completed. In our work, we concentrated on the multidisciplinary care of the patient who required enhanced medical care from the internal medicine, cardiology, anesthesiology, rehabilitation medicine, and gynecology specialists. There were no hemodynamic changes in the heart during hospitalization. There were no significant early or late postoperative complications. In this case, we also paid attention to compression symptoms resulting from a giant ovarian tumor and the high risk of intraoperative complications resulting from its resection.
Biomaterial engineering approaches involve using a combination of miscellaneous bioactive molecules which may promote cell proliferation and, thus, form a scaffold with the environment that favors the regeneration process. Chitosan, a naturally occurring biodegradable polymer, possess some essential features, i.e., biodegradability, biocompatibility, and in the solid phase good porosity, which may contribute to promote cell adhesion. Moreover, doping of the materials with other biocompounds will create a unique and multifunctional scaffold that will be useful in regenerative medicine. This study is focused on the manufacturing and characterization of composite materials based on chitosan, hydroxyapatite, and riboflavin. The resulting films were fabricated by the casting/solvent evaporation method. Morphological and spectroscopy analyses of the films revealed a porous structure and an interconnection between chitosan and apatite. The composite material showed an inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus aureus and exhibited higher antioxidant activity compared to pure chitosan. In vitro studies on riboflavin showed increased cell proliferation and migration of fibroblasts and osteosarcoma cells, thus demonstrating their potential for bone tissue engineering applications.
Aging is inevitable and affects all cell types, thus yeast cells are often used as a model in aging studies. There are two approaches to studying aging in yeast: replicative aging, which describes the proliferative potential of cells, and chronological aging, which is used for studying post-mitotic cells. While analyzing the chronological lifespan (CLS) of diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, we discovered a remarkable phenomenon: ploidy reduction during aging progression. To uncover the mechanism behind this unusual process we used yeast strains undergoing a CLS assay, looking for various aging parameters. Cell mortality, regrowth ability, autophagy induction and cellular DNA content measurements indicated that during the CLS assay, dying cells lost their DNA, and only diploids survived. We demonstrated that autophagy was responsible for the gradual loss of DNA. The nucleophagy marker activation at the start of the CLS experiment correlated with the significant drop in cell viability. The activation of piecemeal microautophagy of nucleus (PMN) markers appeared to accompany the chronological aging process until the end. Our findings emphasize the significance of maintaining at least one intact copy of the genome for the survival of post-mitotic diploid cells. During chronological aging, cellular components, including DNA, are exposed to increasing stress, leading to DNA damage and fragmentation in aging cells. We propose that PMN-dependent clearance of damaged DNA from the nucleus helps prevent genome rearrangements. However, as long as one copy of the genome can be rebuilt, cells can still survive.
Pruritus is defined as an unpleasant sensation causing a desire to scratch. Three clinical presentations of pruritus may be distinguished: (1) pruritus on diseased, inflamed skin, (2) pruritus on normal, non-inflamed skin, and (3) pruritus with chronic secondary scratch lesions. Due to its subjective character, a valid measurement of pruritus remains a challenge. In the vast majority of patients pruritus is a symptom, and antipruritic therapy may only be successful, if underlying cause is identified, however, establishing the pruritus origin may be challenging and every patient with itch has to be considered individually. General antipruritic measures should be used in all patients with itch as an adjunct treatment to the specific antipruritic therapy. Local therapy include cooling agents, anesthetics, capsaicin, antihistamines, calcineurin inhibitors, corticosteroids, and crisaborole. However, many patients with pruritus require systemic antipruritic therapy, including but not limited to antihistamines, gabapentinoids, antidepressants, immunosuppresants, and biologics.
Disclosure: K.M. Dahir: Consulting Fee; Self; Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Ultragenyx, Inozyme, AM Pharma. Grant Recipient; Self; Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Inc., AstraZeneca, Ultragenyx. J. McGinniss: Employee; Self; Regeneron Pharmaceuticals. Stock Owner; Self; Regeneron Pharmaceuticals. E. Forleo-Neto: Employee; Self; Regeneron Pharmaceuticals. Stock Owner; Self; Regeneron Pharmaceuticals. S. Mellis: Employee; Self; Regeneron Pharmaceuticals. Stock Owner; Self; Regeneron Pharmaceuticals. R.J. Sanchez: Employee; Self; Regeneron Pharmaceuticals. Stock Owner; Self; Regeneron Pharmaceuticals. M. Di Rocco: Research Investigator; Self; Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Ipsen. R. Keen: Advisory Board Member; Self; International Clinical Council on FOP and IFOPA Registry. Research Investigator; Self; Ipsen, Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Clementia. P. Orcel: Research Investigator; Self; Regeneron Pharmaceuticals. C. Roux: Consulting Fee; Self; Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Amgen Inc. Grant Recipient; Self; Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Kyowa, Kirin Brewery, Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Inc. J. Tabarkiewicz: Speaker; Self; Merck, Novartis Pharmaceuticals. Other; Self; SoftSystem. J. Bachiller-Corral: Research Investigator; Self; Regeneron Pharmaceuticals. A.M. Cheung: Consulting Fee; Self; Ipsen. Grant Recipient; Self; Ipsen, Incyte, Regeneron Pharmaceuticals. M. Al Mukaddam: Grant Recipient; Self; Ipsen, Clementia, Incyte, Regeneron Pharmaceuticals. K. Mohammadi: Employee; Self; Regeneron Pharmaceuticals. Stock Owner; Self; Regeneron Pharmaceuticals. D. Srinivasan: Employee; Self; Regeneron Pharmaceuticals. Stock Owner; Self; Regeneron Pharmaceuticals. A. Rankin: Employee; Self; Regeneron Pharmaceuticals. Stock Owner; Self; Regeneron Pharmaceuticals. A.N. Economides: Employee; Self; Regeneron Pharmaceuticals. Stock Owner; Self; Regeneron Pharmaceuticals. D. Gonzalez Trotter: Employee; Self; Regeneron Pharmaceuticals. Stock Owner; Self; Regeneron Pharmaceuticals. F.S. Kaplan: Research Investigator; Self; Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Clementia, Ipsen. M.W. Eekhoff: Grant Recipient; Self; Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Ipsen, AstraZeneca, IMI, IFOPA. R.J. Pignolo: Grant Recipient; Self; Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Clementia, Ipsen, Incyte. Background: Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is an ultra-rare autosomal dominant disorder driven by missense mutations in ACVR1. This results in inappropriate activation by activin-A. FOP is characterized by progressive heterotopic ossification and painful soft tissue inflammatory events known as flare-ups. Garetosmab, an investigational, fully human monoclonal antibody against activin-A, prevents formation of new heterotopic ossification lesions in FOP. Here we describe the impact of garetosmab on flare-up events in the LUMINA-1 study (NCT03188666). Methods: This was a post hoc analysis of phase 2 LUMINA-1, a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study that evaluated the safety and efficacy of garetosmab 10 mg/kg/every 4 weeks intravenous vs placebo in adult patients with FOP over 28 weeks (Period 1), followed by a 28-week open-label treatment period (Period 2) and subsequent open-label extension (Period 3). Patient-reported flare-ups were collected via a patient diary and severity of symptoms was reported as mild, moderate, or severe. Clinician-reported flare-ups were collected as adverse events. Results: In Period 1, there was a significant reduction in the proportion of patients reporting one or more flare-ups (35% vs 71%, p=0.032) and clinician-reported flare-ups (10% vs 42%, p=0.039) with garetosmab vs placebo, respectively. The overall number of patient-reported flare-ups (13 vs 34) and mean days experiencing new flare-ups (42.6 days vs 65.4 days) were also reduced with garetosmab vs placebo, respectively. Most flare-ups occurred in the back in garetosmab-treated patients, and most flare-ups occurred in the lower extremities and back for those on placebo. Pain was the most frequent symptom among both cohorts. Flare-up associated joint stiffness and severity of flare-up associated symptoms were nominally reduced at both patient and flare-up level of assessment in those treated with garetosmab. No patients reported severe swelling or severe decrease in movement. One patient reported severe pain and joint stiffness in the garetosmab cohort. In Period 2, there were significant reductions in the proportion of patients experiencing flare-ups (68% vs 14%, p=0.0002) and number of patient-reported flares (31 vs 11) among those who crossed over from placebo in Period 1 to garetosmab. Patients who continued on garetosmab through Period 2 maintained a sustained reduction in number of flare-ups (12 vs 6) and proportion of patients experiencing flare-ups (33.3% vs 22.2%). Reductions were maintained through the open-label extension. Conclusions: Patients treated with garetosmab experienced significant and sustained reductions in the frequency, duration, and severity of flare-ups. The ability of garetosmab to reduce flare-up events may provide a clinically meaningful benefit for patients with FOP. Presentation: Sunday, June 18, 2023
Prenatal alcohol exposure is the cause of impaired growth and a wide range of developmental and behavioral disorders in the child. Improper eating patterns are commonly associated with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and may contribute to poor nutrition and growth restriction. To date, there have been only a few studies investigating the hormonal regulation of appetite in patients with FASD. We analyzed the levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY), Agouti signaling protein (ASP), alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), and kisspeptin (KISS1) in 57 patients with FASD and 23 healthy controls. A comparison of the hormone levels studied was also performed in subgroups of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and neurobehavioral disorder associated with prenatal alcohol exposure (ND PAE), as well as in males and females. We have found no differences in hormone levels tested between affected individuals and the controls and between FASD subgroups. In addition, sex had no effect on hormone levels. However, we identified some associations between hormone concentrations and parameters describing the clinical status of patients with FASD. Most of them concerned ASP, which has shown a positive correlation with age and hormones involved in appetite and metabolism, such as proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). We have also found a negative correlation of a-MSH with age, BMI percentile, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Furthermore, we found a weak negative correlation of NPY with HbA1c. Although FASD has been associated with impaired child growth and development, including nutrition and puberty onset, we did not identify differences in the levels of the hormones studied, which may suggest that prenatal alcohol exposure does not affect the levels of these metabolites.
Pruritus is defined as an unpleasant sensation that elicits a desire to scratch. Nearly a third of the world’s population may suffer from pruritus during their lifetime. This symptom is widely observed in numerous inflammatory skin diseases—e.g., approximately 70–90% of patients with psoriasis and almost every patient with atopic dermatitis suffer from pruritus. Although the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis and psoriasis is different, the complex intricacies between several biochemical mediators, enzymes, and pathways seem to play a crucial role in both conditions. Despite the high prevalence of pruritus in the general population, the pathogenesis of this symptom in various conditions remains elusive. This review aims to summarize current knowledge about the pathogenesis of pruritus in psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. Each molecule involved in the pruritic pathway would merit a separate chapter or even an entire book, however, in the current review we have concentrated on some reports which we found crucial in the understanding of pruritus. However, the pathomechanism of pruritus is an extremely complex and intricate process. Moreover, many of these signaling pathways are currently undergoing detailed analysis or are still unexplained. As a result, it is currently difficult to take an objective view of how far we have come in elucidating the pathogenesis of pruritus in the described diseases. Nevertheless, considerable progress has been made in recent years.
Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare disease characterized by heterotopic ossification (HO) in connective tissues and painful flare-ups. In the phase 2 LUMINA-1 trial, adult patients with FOP were randomized to garetosmab, an activin A-blocking antibody (n = 20) or placebo (n = 24) in period 1 (28 weeks), followed by an open-label period 2 (28 weeks; n = 43). The primary end points were safety and for period 1, the activity and size of HO lesions. All patients experienced at least one treatment-emergent adverse event during period 1, notably epistaxis, madarosis and skin abscesses. Five deaths (5 of 44; 11.4%) occurred in the open-label period and, while considered unlikely to be related, causality cannot be ruled out. The primary efficacy end point in period 1 (total lesion activity by PET–CT) was not met (P = 0.0741). As the development of new HO lesions was suppressed in period 1, the primary efficacy end point in period 2 was prospectively changed to the number of new HO lesions versus period 1. No placebo patients crossing over to garetosmab developed new HO lesions (0% in period 2 versus 40.9% in period 1; P = 0.0027). Further investigation of garetosmab in FOP is ongoing. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT03188666.
Atypical pigmented facial lesions (aPFLs)—including lentigo maligna (LM) and lentigo maligna melanoma (LMM), solar lentigo (SL), pigmented actinic keratosis (PAK), atypical nevi (AN), seborrheic keratosis (SK) and lichen planus‐like keratosis (LPLK)—can exhibit clinical and dermoscopic overlapping features. We aimed to investigate if and how 14 dermoscopic features suggestive for the aforementioned aPFLs vary according to six facial sites among 1197 aPFLs cases (excised to rule out malignancy) along with lesion and patients' metadata. According to distribution and association analysis, aPFLs on the forehead of a male patient aged > 69 years displaying the obliterated follicular openings pattern, appear to be more at risk of malignancy. Of converse, aPFLs of the orbital/cheek/nose area with evident and regular follicular openings with diameter < 10 mm in a female aged below 68 are probably benign. The obliterated follicular openings , keratin plugs , evident and regular follicular openings and target‐like pattern features differed significantly among six facial areas in all aPFLs cases. Lesion of the nose may show both features suggestive of malignancy and benignity (e.g. many SL and PAK may display target‐like pattern and some LM/LMM cases display keratin plugs and evident and follicular openings ), making these features less specific.
Body fat (BF) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are important health markers that ought to be considered in screening exams. The aim of this study was to assess the value of six indicators, i.e., tri-ponderal mass index (TMI), relative fat mass (RFM), waist–BMI ratio, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and body mass index (BMI) in predicting CRF in school-aged children. The analysis was based on the data coming from the examination of 190 children participating in school physical education (PE) classes. Their body weight (BW) and height (BH), waist and hip circumference (WC; HC) and percentage of body fat (%BF) were measured; the CRF test was performed with the use of the 20 m shuttle run test (20 mSRT); peak heart rate (HRpeak) was measured; TMI, relative fat mass pediatric (RFMp), waist–BMI ratio, WHtR, BMI and WHR were calculated. Statistical analysis was mainly conducted using regression models. The developed regression models, with respect to the sex and age of the children, revealed RFMp as the strongest CRF indicator (R2 = 51.1%) and WHR as well as waist–BMI ratio as the weakest ones (R2 = 39.2% and R2 = 40.5%, respectively). In predicting CRF in school-aged children, RFMp turned out to be comparable to body fat percentage obtained by means of the bioimpedance analysis (BIA) (R2 = 50.3%), and as such it can be used as a simple screening measure in prophylactic exams of school children. All of these models were statistically significant (p < 0.001). Keywords: body fat; RFM; TMI; waist–BMI ratio; WHtR; WHR; BMI; CRF; disease prevention
Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecological cancer worldwide. Classifying endometrial cancer into low- or high-risk groups based on the following features is recommended: tumor grade, lymphovascular space invasion, myometrial involvement, and non-endometrioid histology. Despite the recent progress in molecular profiling of endometrial cancer, a substantial group of patients are misclassified based on the current criteria. This study aimed to identify proteins that could be used as biomarkers for the stratification of endometrial cancer patients into low- or high-risk groups. The proteomic analysis of serum samples from endometrial cancer patients was performed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The data were then analyzed using chemometric algorithms to identify potential biomarkers. Nineteen precursor ions were identified as fragments of eighteen proteins which included (1) connective tissue matrix proteins, (2) cytoskeletal proteins, and (3) innate immune system molecules and stress proteins. These biomarkers could be used to stratify the high- and low-risk patients, thus enabling more precise treatment decisions.
Endometriosis is a chronic disease in which the endometrium cells are located outside the uterine cavity. The aim of this study was to evaluate circulating 20S proteasome and 20S immunoproteasome levels in plasma and peritoneal fluid in women with and without endometriosis in order to assess their usefulness as biomarkers of disease. Concentrations were measured using surface plasmon resonance imaging biosensors. Patients with suspected endometriosis were included in the study—plasma was collected in 112 cases and peritoneal fluid in 75. Based on the presence of endometriosis lesions detected during laparoscopy, patients were divided into a study group (confirmed endometriosis) and a control group (patients without endometriosis). Proteasome and immunoproteasome levels in both the plasma (p = 0.174; p = 0.696, respectively) and the peritoneal fluid (p = 0.909; p = 0.284, respectively) did not differ between those groups. There was a statistically significant difference in the plasma proteasome levels between patients in the control group and those with mild (Stage I and II) endometriosis (p = 0.047) and in the plasma immunoproteasome levels in patients with ovarian cysts compared to those without (p = 0.017). The results of our study do not support the relevance of proteasome and immunoproteasome determination as biomarkers of the disease but suggest a potentially active role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis.
The treatment of depression with pharmaceuticals is associated with many adverse side effects, including male fertility problems. The precise mechanisms by which these agents affect testicular cells remain largely unknown, but they are believed to induce cellular stress, which is sensed by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi apparatus. These organelles are responsible for maintaining cellular homeostasis and regulating signal pathways that lead to autophagy or apoptosis. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the autophagy, ER, and Golgi stress-related pathways in mouse testis following treatment with antidepressant-like substances (ALS) and ALS combined with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We found that most ALS and activated proteins are associated with the induction of apoptosis. However, when imipramine (IMI) was combined with NS-398 (a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor) after LPS administration, we observed a marked increase in the BECLIN1, Bcl-2, ATG16L, and LC3 expression, which are marker proteins of autophagosome formation. The expression of the BECN1 and ATG16L genes was also high compared to the control, indicating the induction of autophagy processes that may potentially protect mouse testicular cells from death and regulate metabolism in the testis. Our findings may provide a better understanding of the stress-related effects of specific ALS on the testis. Graphical Abstract
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