This paper and Hasegawa et al. (2021) treat the existence and nonexistence of stable weak solutions to a fractional Hardy–Hénon equation (−Δ)su=|x|ℓ|u|p−1u in RN, where 0<s<1, ℓ>−2s, p>1, N≥1 and N>2s. In this paper, when p is critical or supercritical in the sense of the Joseph–Lundgren, we prove the existence of a family of positive radial stable solutions, which satisfies the separation property. We also show the multiple existence of the Joseph–Lundgren critical exponent for some ℓ∈(0,∞) and s∈(0,1), and this property does not hold in the case s=1.
Nostoc commune is an edible cyanobacterium that produces a massive gelatinous polysaccharide matrix around the filamentous cells. The polysaccharides, more than 70% of which comprise glucose, are essential for resistance to environmental stresses. In the present study, we collected naturally growing N. commune colonies, dried them for preservation, rehydrated them, and then examined their nitrogen-fixing activity using the acetylene reduction method. As expected, the rehydrated N. commune performed nitrogen fixation after illumination with white light. Notably, under dark, aerobic conditions, the rehydrated N. commune exhibited nitrogen fixation in the presence of glucose. In contrast, under dark, anaerobic conditions, nitrogen fixation was low. Because the natural habitats of N. commune are aerobic but lack carbohydrates, N. commune cells may exhibit glucose utilization activity constitutively.
In this study, linear friction welding (LFW) is used to join high carbon steel such as S55C (JIS G 4051) because it controls the maximum temperature during the joining process. The effect of LFW conditions on Charpy absorbed energy is studied. The thickness of a rectangular parallelepiped shape is 14 mm, the width is 20 mm, and the length is 64 mm. The applied pressure (P) controls the maximum temperature. Under high-temperature conditions, P is 100 MPa. Under middle-temperatures conditions, P is between 250 and 350 MPa. Under low-temperature conditions, P is between 400 and 450 MPa. Under all condi-tions, joints are cooled to room temperature. The microstructure and hardness of LFW joints are examined. The toughness is determined using a 300 J instrumented Charpy tester. The absorbed energy is estimated using two methods. The first method uses the potential energy difference, and the second involves calculating the area surrounded by the stroke–load relationship. With an increase in P, the microstructure changes from martensite to ferrite and microcementite. In addition, the maximum hardness at the interface decreases from 500 HV–700 HV to 400 HV. The maximum absorbed energy is confirmed at 400 MPa using the potential energy method and at P of 450 MPa using the area method. Energies absorbed before and after the maximum load are assumed to be crack initiation and propagation (Ep) energies, respectively. The maximum ener-gy is due to an increase in Ep, which is enhanced when the microstructure changes from martensite to ferrite and microcementite. Fullsize Image
Friction stir welding (FSW) is expected to be applied as a welding technique of materials with relatively high melting temperature such as steel materials. Silicon nitride is one of the inexpensive and attractive tool materials for FSW of the thick steel plate. Therefore, in this study, the capability of the silicon nitride tool without groove scroll to weld a low carbon steel plate with a thickness of 15 mm was investigated. The suitability of a tool shape was confirmed by FSW of a thick A5052 plate using a SKD61 tool with same shape as the silicon nitride tool. The defect-free welded specimen of the thick steel plate was obtained using the silicon nitride tool under the optimum welding condition. The silicon nitride tool could be used for FSW of the 15 mm thick steel plate until the welding length of 200 mm without breaking the tool. The defect area in the stir zone of the thick steel plate was decreased with decreasing of the tool rotation speed and tool tilt angle. Especially, the tool tilt angle was effective to increase the heat input and the material flow velocity. It is considered that the defect-free weld specimen of the thick steel plate was obtained to sufficient material supply to the RS of the stir zone by decreasing tool tilt angle to 1°. Fullsize Image
The glucosinolate–myrosinase defense system (GMDS), characteristic of Brassicales, is involved in plant defense. Previous single-cell transcriptomic analyses have reported the expression profiles of multiple GMDS-related cell types (i.e. myrosinase-rich myrosin idioblasts and multiple types of potential glucosinolate synthetic cells as well as a candidate S-cell for glucosinolate accumulation). However, differences in plant stages and cell-type annotation methods have hindered comparisons among studies. Here we used the single-cell transcriptome profiles of extended Arabidopsis leaves and verified the distribution of previously used markers to refine the expression profiles of GMDS-associated cell types. Moreover, we performed beta-glucuronidase promoter assays to confirm the histological expression patterns of newly obtained markers for GMDS-associated candidates. As a result, we found a set of new specific reporters for myrosin cells and potential glucosinolate-producing cells.
Background: Psychological characteristics of eating behaviour may be related to dietary habits. Aim: We investigated the association between eating behaviour characteristics and nutrition and food intake adequacy in Japanese adolescents. Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted among 136 junior high school students (boys: 90, girls: 46) at a junior high school in Tokyo, Japan. Eating behaviour was categorised into three types (emotional, external, and restrained) using scores on the Japanese version of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated, brief self-administered diet history questionnaire. Inadequate nutrient intake was determined by counting the number of nutrients not meeting the dietary reference intake (DRI) for the Japanese population. The statistical analyses included Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, and multiple regression analysis using JMP ver.14 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA). All reported p values are two-tailed, and p < 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. Results: Multiple regression analysis showed that restrained eating score was inversely associated with the number of nutrients not meeting the DRI (β = - 0.28; p = 0.0027) and with total weight of snack intake (β = - 0.30; p = 0.0010). Neither emotional nor external eating was significantly associated with the number of nutrients not meeting the DRI and with total weight of snack intake. Conclusions: These results suggest that adolescents with low restrained eating scores may have less self-control over their eating behaviour and may therefore have inadequate dietary intake.
Chinese government has introduced Pro-Poor Tourism (PPT) for poverty alleviation since 2014 and the policy has been evaluated positively. This study deals with evaluation of the policy by measuring income impacts of the forms of farmersʼ entry into the tourism industry in rural poor areas. Although the policy has been promoted through focusing and accelerating an enterprise form of tourism business, there are many different forms of entry into tourism business, and also the impacts of income formation should be different by the forms of entry. To clarify this research question, three PPT villages in Henan Province were selected as typical successful case of the policy. 394 households were collected from the three villages (78.8％ as effective sample size). The study based on logistic multiple regression analysis clarified that the enterprise form of business requires relatively stronger base of business background such as family size, education, and social networks. As a result, the policy directly supported more relatively well-off farm households than those in poverty. However, the study based on propensity score match (PSM) clarified that the income impacts of participating tourism industry by non-enterprise form is stronger than those of participation by enterprise form if controlled environmental determining factors of participation forms. Therefore, it is important for PPT of China to emphasize more participation through non-enterprise form into tourism which poor farm households can cope easily with normal or weaker business backgrounds.
The soil-borne Gram-negative β-proteobacterium Ralstonia solanacearum species complex (RSSC) infects tomato roots through the wounds where secondary roots emerge, infecting xylem vessels. Because it is difficult to observe the behavior of RSSC by a fluorescence-based microscopic approach at high magnification, we have little information on its behavior at the root apexes in tomato roots. To analyze the infection route of a strain of phylotype I of RSSC, R. pseudosolanacearum strain OE1-1, which invades tomato roots through the root apexes, we first developed an in vitro pathosystem using 4 day-old-tomato seedlings without secondary roots co-incubated with the strain OE1-1. The microscopic observation of toluidine blue-stained longitudinal semi-thin resin sections of tomato roots allowed to detect attachment of the strain OE1-1 to surfaces of the meristematic and elongation zones in tomato roots. We then observed colonization of OE1-1 in intercellular spaces between epidermis and cortex in the elongation zone, and a detached epidermis in the elongation zone. Furthermore, we observed cortical and endodermal cells without a nucleus and with the cell membrane pulling away from the cell wall. The strain OE1-1 next invaded cell wall-degenerated cortical cells and formed mushroom-shaped biofilms to progress through intercellular spaces of the cortex and endodermis, infecting pericycle cells and xylem vessels. The deletion of egl encoding β-1,4-endoglucanase, which is one of quorum sensing (QS)-inducible plant cell wall-degrading enzymes (PCDWEs) secreted via the type II secretion system (T2SS) led to a reduced infectivity in cortical cells. Furthermore, the QS-deficient and T2SS-deficient mutants lost their infectivity in cortical cells and the following infection in xylem vessels. Taking together, infection of OE1-1, which attaches to surfaces of the meristematic and elongation zones, in cortical cells of the elongation zone in tomato roots, dependently on QS-inducible PCDWEs secreted via the T2SS, leads to its subsequent infection in xylem vessels.
Shortage of labor and increased work of young people are causing problems in terms of care and welfare of a growing proportion of elderly people. This is a looming social problem because people of advanced ages are increasing. Necessary in the fields of care and welfare, pneumatic artificial muscles in actuators of robots are being examined. Pneumatic artificial muscles have a high output per unit of weight, and they are soft, similarly to human muscles. However, in previous research of robots using pneumatic artificial muscles, rigid sensors were often installed at joints and other locations due to the robots’ structures. Therefore, we developed a smart actuator that integrates a bending sensor that functions as a human muscle spindle; it can be externally attached to the pneumatic artificial muscle. This paper reports a smart artificial muscle actuator that can sense contraction, which can be applied to developed self-monitoring and robot posture control.
The sensation of pungency generated by capsaicinoids is a characteristic trait of chili peppers (Capsicum spp.), and the presence or absence of pungency is central in determining its usage as a spice or a vegetable. In the present study, we aimed to clarify the heredity and genetic factors involved in the deficiency of pungency (quite low pungency) that is uniquely observed in the Japanese chili pepper ‘Shishito’ (Capsicum annuum). First, the F2 population (‘Shishito’ × pungent variety ‘Takanotsume’) was used for segregation analysis, and pungency level was investigated using capsaicinoid quantification with high-performance liquid chromatography. Also, restriction site associated DNA sequencing of the F2 population was performed, and genetic map construction and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping were implemented. The results indicated that the F2 population showed varying capsaicinoid content and two major QTLs were detected, Shql3 and Shql7, which explained 39.8 and 19.7% of the genetic variance, respectively. According to these results, the quite low pungency of ‘Shishito’ was a quantitative trait that involved at least the two loci. Further, this trait was completely separate from general non-pungent traits controlled by individual recessive genes, as described in previous studies. The present study is the first report to investigate the genetic mechanism of pungency deficiency in Japanese chili peppers, and our results provide new insights into the genetic regulation of pungency in chili pepper.
Background: Subjective-physiological emotional coherence is thought to be associated with enhanced well-being, and a relationship between subjective-physiological emotional coherence and superior nutritional status has been suggested in older populations. However, no study has examined subjective-physiological emotional coherence among older adults while tasting food. Accordingly, the present study compared subjective-physiological emotional coherence during food consumption among older and younger adults. Methods: Participants consumed bite-sized gel-type foods with different flavors and provided their subjective ratings of the foods while their physiological responses (facial electromyography (EMG) of the corrugator supercilia, masseter, and suprahyoid, and other autonomic nervous system signals) were simultaneously measured. Results: Our primary findings were that (1) the ratings of liking, wanting, and valence were negatively correlated with corrugator EMG activity in older and young adult participants; (2) the positive association between masseter EMG activity and ratings of wanting/valence was weaker in the older than in the young adult group; and (3) arousal ratings were negatively correlated with corrugator EMG activity in the older group only. Conclusions: These results demonstrate commonalities and differences in subjective-physiological emotional coherence during food intake between older and young adults.
Irregular spatial distribution of photon transmission through a photochromic crystal photoisomerized by a local optical near-field excitation was previously reported, which manifested complex branching processes via the interplay of material deformation and near-field photon transfer therein. Furthermore, by combining such naturally constructed complex photon transmission with a simple photon detection protocol, Schubert polynomials, the foundation of versatile permutation operations in mathematics, have been generated. In this study, we demonstrated an order recognition algorithm inspired by Schubert calculus using optical near-field statistics via nanometre-scale photochromism. More specifically, by utilizing Schubert polynomials generated via optical near-field patterns, we showed that the order of slot machines with initially unknown reward probability was successfully recognized. We emphasized that, unlike conventional algorithms, the proposed principle does not estimate the reward probabilities but exploits the inversion relations contained in the Schubert polynomials. To quantitatively evaluate the impact of Schubert polynomials generated from an optical near-field pattern, order recognition performances were compared with uniformly distributed and spatially strongly skewed probability distributions, where the optical near-field pattern outperformed the others. We found that the number of singularities contained in Schubert polynomials and that of the given problem or considered environment exhibited a clear correspondence, indicating that superior order recognition is attained when the singularity of the given situations is presupposed. This study paves way for physical computing through the interplay of complex natural processes and mathematical insights gained by Schubert calculus.
In this paper, as an improvement of the paper (Ishige et al. in SIAM J Math Anal 49:2167–2190, 2017), we obtain the higher order asymptotic expansions of the large time behavior of the solution to the Cauchy problem for inhomogeneous fractional diffusion equations and nonlinear fractional diffusion equations.
The present study was conducted to produce a prototype of a safe dango ball (dumpling) by using the characteristics of various waxy-cereal flours for the purpose of providing meals for the elderly in food service facilities. Waxy rice, waxy foxtail millet, waxy barley, waxy proso millet, waxy wheat, and waxy Japanese barnyard millet were selected as the ingredients of the dango balls. Six kinds of dango balls were evaluated by mechanical measurement and color measurement. Furthermore, based on the results obtained by an objective evaluation, a sensory evaluation of the waxy rice and waxy wheat dango balls was also performed. The mechanical measurement showed that the waxy wheat dango ball had not only a very similar property value to that of the waxy rice dango ball. But also a significantly low adhesiveness. Therefore, the waxy wheat dango ball was considered to have highly safe mechanical characteristics. On the other hand, the sensory evaluation showed that the waxy wheat dango ball was easier to bite off and swallow and adhered less to teeth than the waxy rice dango ball. The present findings suggested that the waxy wheat dango may be a substitute for rice cakes and demonstrated to eaters of meals provided in food service facilities for elderly.
Foeniculoxin is a major phytotoxin produced by Italian strains of Phomopsis foeniculi. The first total synthesis is described utilizing the ene reaction and Sonogashira cross‐coupling reaction as key steps. The absolute configuration of the C6’ was determined using chiral separation and advanced Mosher’s method. The phytotoxicity of the synthesized compound was demonstrated via syringe‐based infiltration into Chenopodium album and Arabidopsis thaliana leaves. Synthetic foeniculoxin induced various defects in A. thaliana leaf cells before lesion formation, including protein leakage into the cytoplasm from both chloroplasts and mitochondria and mitochondrial rounding and swelling. Furthermore, foeniculoxin and the antibiotic hygromycin B caused similar agglomeration of mitochondria around chloroplasts, highlighting this event as a common component in the early stages of plant cell death.
Background Internet-cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) for depression can include multiple components. This study explored depressive symptom improvement prognostic factors (PFs) and effect modifiers (EMs) for five common iCBT components including behavioural activation, cognitive restructuring, problem solving, self-monitoring, and assertion training. Methods We used data from a factorial trial of iCBT for subthreshold depression among Japanese university students (N = 1093). The primary outcome was the change in PHQ-9 scores at 8 weeks from baseline. Interactions between each component and various baseline characteristics were estimated using a mixed-effects model for repeated measures. We calculated multiplicity-adjusted p-values at 5 % false discovery rate using the Benjamini-Hochberg procedure. Results After multiplicity adjustment, the baseline PHQ-9 total score emerged as a PF and exercise habits as an EM for self-monitoring (adjusted p-values <0.05). The higher the PHQ-9 total score at baseline (range: 5–14), the greater the decrease after 8 weeks. For each 5-point increase at baseline, the change from baseline to 8 weeks was bigger by 2.8 points. The more frequent the exercise habits (range: 0–2 points), the less effective the self-monitoring component. The difference in PHQ-9 change scores between presence or absence of self-monitoring was smaller by 0.94 points when the participant exercised one level more frequently. Additionally, the study suggested seven out of 36 PFs and 14 out of 160 EMs examined were candidates for future research. Limitations Generalizability is limited to university students with subthreshold depression. Conclusions These results provide some helpful information for the future development of individualized iCBT algorithms for depression.
German Federal Government had enacted "Stadtumbau Ost Program" from 2002 to 2016 to combat issues that were associated with population shrinking in former East German cities. The program had several measures in its menu. This study focuses on one of these measures, dismantling of prefabricated housing, to understand how local government prepared the plan for shrinking, which was required to get the program's fund, and how the plan was actually implemented. The study surveyed all the dismantling building inventories in Sachesndorf-Madlow in Cottbus. The study found that there were some disparities between the plan and its implication. The disparities were mainly due to the difference of behavior of housing companies regarding obediency to the plan. The result of the study implies that the shrinking plan of Cottbus was lucid, however, actual shrinking plan needs more detailed planning with collaboration with stakeholders, i.e. housing companies.
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