This paper studies the potential impact of ‘paid translation crowdsourcing’ on translators’ status through a corpus study of discourses found in language industry websites. Jiménez-Crespo (2017b, 2018, 2022) has argued that, in this model, crowdsourcing companies attempt to redefine translation ‘professionalism’ or ‘competence’ as a monolithic notion to include a dynamic range of price segments supposedly associated with degrees of translation competence and fitness-for-purpose. The results of the corpus study show that industry websites present a range of ‘expertise’ or ‘skillset’ in which different levels of translation competence associated with different content types and fit-for-purpose tiers coexist. The study concludes that published materials in themselves do not display the potential to impact the status of translators negatively, but rather the opposite: the website materials reinforce that for some content types or high-quality levels, high levels of expertise and professionalism are required. Nevertheless, this might not be necessary for all translation projects, content types and-or client needs.
Melanoma is the most aggressive type of skin cancer and is responsible for the majority of deaths from skin cancer. Therapeutic advances in the last few decades, notably the development of novel targeted therapies and immunotherapies have significantly improved patient outcomes; nonetheless, these options remain limited due to the onset of resistance to treatment modalities and relapse. In this review, we focus on the available therapeutic options, their benefits, and limitations.
Here, the formation of type‐I and type‐II electronic junctions with or without any structural discontinuity along a well‐defined 1 nm‐wide 1D electronic channel within a van der Waals layer is reported. Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy techniques are employed to investigate the atomic and electronic structure along peculiar domain walls formed on the charge‐density–wave phase of 1T‐TaS2. Distinct kinds of abrupt electronic junctions with discontinuities of the band gap along the domain walls are found, some of which even do not have any structural kinks and defects. Density‐functional calculations reveal a novel mechanism of the electronic junction formation; they are formed by a kinked domain wall in the layer underneath through substantial electronic interlayer coupling. This work demonstrates that the interlayer electronic coupling can be an effective control knob over nanometer‐scale electronic property of 2D atomic monolayers.
The interaction between social media and its consequences, especially cyberbullying, has become a focal point of interest in both academic and public realms. In a digital era where technology reshapes communication landscapes, this study investigates the intricate connection between social media (SM) use and how it affects young children's violent behavior and mental health. This study is motivated by the rapid integration of technology into daily life and the imperative to comprehend the implications of these changes. Just as empathy's role in moral behavior has been explored, this research delves into the connection between SM and cyberbullying, especially among youth. The omnipresence of digital platforms brings both advantages and risks, exemplified by the emergence of cyberbullying. Unlike traditional bullying, online platforms amplify its reach and severity, particularly affecting youth, who are prolific SM users. Understanding this interplay between cyberbullying, mental health (MH), and SM is crucial. By drawing on the link between empathy and moral behavior, this research seeks to explore how SM influences these dynamics in evolving digital landscape.
In this article, I grapple with the educational implications of the sociopolitical realities characterizing the uncertainty of the present moment—a time defined by the rise of Trumpism, fascism, and the far right, and the onslaught of racist and anti- 2SLGBTQ + legislation amid the ongoing consequences of COVID-19—for the official and unofficial bodies of knowledge about gender and sexuality that are taught and learned in educational spaces. I share my critical perspective through a series of letters containing stories situated at the intersection of my personal/political lived experience as a Black woman(ist) and my professional/political project exploring Indigenous/African traditions of kin, gender, sexuality, and education. In these letters, I probe archival material as juxtaposed against (a) my sense of hopelessness about the present moment, (b) my past lived experience, and (c) my educational experience (un)learning the colonial violence of hegemonic gender and sexuality curriculum. Harnessing the spirit of curriculum inquiry, I pose questions intended to provoke thinking and action vis-à-vis critical, decolonial approaches to knowledge generation in the context of gender and sexuality curriculum.
Mutations in cis-regulatory regions play an important role in the domestication and improvement of crops by altering gene expression. However, assessing the in vivo impact of cis-regulatory elements on transcriptional regulation and phenotypic outcomes remains challenging. Previously, we showed that the dominant Barren inflorescence3 (Bif3) mutant of maize (Zea mays) contains a duplicated copy of the homeobox transcription factor gene ZmWUSCHEL1 (ZmWUS1), named ZmWUS1-B. ZmWUS1-B is controlled by a spontaneously generated novel promoter region that dramatically increases its expression and alters patterning and development of young ears. Overexpression of ZmWUS1-B is caused by a unique enhancer region containing multimerized binding sites for type-B RESPONSE REGULATORs (RRs), key transcription factors in cytokinin signaling. To better understand how the enhancer increases the expression of ZmWUS1 in vivo, we specifically targeted the ZmWUS1-B enhancer region by CRISPR-Cas9-mediated editing. A series of deletion events with different numbers of type-B RR DNA binding motifs (AGATAT) enabled us to determine how the number of AGATAT motifs impacts in vivo expression of ZmWUS1-B and consequently ear development. In combination with dual luciferase assays in maize protoplasts, our analysis reveals that AGATAT motifs have an additive effect on ZmWUS1-B expression, while the distance separating AGATAT motifs does not appear to have a meaningful impact, indicating that the enhancer activity derives from the sum of individual cis-regulatory elements. These results also suggest that in maize inflorescence development there is a threshold of buffering capacity for ZmWUS1 overexpression.
Purpose: The abundance and biological contribution of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in glioblastoma are poorly understood. Here, we aim to uncover its molecular signature, cellular roles, and potential tumorigenesis implications. Experimental design: We first applied single-cell RNA sequencing and bioinformatics analysis to identify and characterize stromal cells with CAF transcriptomic features in human glioblastoma tumors. Then, we performed functional enrichment analysis and in vitro assays to investigate their interactions with malignant glioblastoma cells. Results: We found that CAF abundance was low but significantly correlated with tumor grade, poor clinical outcome, and activation of extracellular matrix remodeling using three large cohorts containing bulk RNA-sequencing data and clinical information. Proteomic analysis of a glioblastoma-derived CAF line and its secretome revealed fibronectin (FN1) as a critical candidate factor mediating CAF functions. This was validated using in vitro cellular models, which demonstrated that CAF-conditioned media and recombinant FN1 could facilitate the migration and invasion of glioblastoma cells. In addition, we showed that CAFs were more abundant in the mesenchymal-like state (or subtype) than in other states of glioblastomas. Interestingly, cell lines resembling the proneural state responded to the CAF signaling better for the migratory and invasive phenotypes. Conclusions: Overall, this study characterized the molecular features and functional impacts of CAFs in glioblastoma, alluding to novel cell interactions mediated by CAFs in the glioblastoma microenvironment.
Twisted interfaces between stacked van der Waals (vdW) cuprate crystals present a platform for engineering superconducting order parameters by adjusting stacking angles. Employing a cryogenic assembly technique, we construct twisted vdW Josephson junctions (JJ) at atomically sharp interfaces between Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+ x crystals with quality approaching the limit set by intrinsic JJ. Near 45° twist angle, we observe fractional Shapiro steps and Fraunhofer patterns, consistent with the existence of two degenerate Josephson ground states related by time-reversal symmetry (TRS). By programming the JJ current bias sequence, we controllably break TRS to place the JJ into either of the two ground states, realizing reversible Josephson diodes without external magnetic fields. Our results open a path to engineering topological devices at higher temperatures.
OBJECTIVE To measure the association between ambient heat and hypoglycemia-related emergency department visit or hospitalization in insulin users. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We identified cases of serious hypoglycemia among adults using insulin aged ≥65 in the U.S. (via Medicare Part A/B/D-eligible beneficiaries) and Taiwan (via National Health Insurance Database) from June to September, 2016–2019. We then estimated odds of hypoglycemia by heat index (HI) percentile categories using conditional logistic regression with a time-stratified case-crossover design. RESULTS Among ∼2 million insulin users in the U.S. (32,461 hypoglycemia case subjects), odds ratios of hypoglycemia for HI >99th, 95–98th, 85–94th, and 75–84th percentiles compared with the 25–74th percentile were 1.38 (95% CI, 1.28–1.48), 1.14 (1.08–1.20), 1.12 (1.08–1.17), and 1.09 (1.04–1.13) respectively. Overall patterns of associations were similar for insulin users in the Taiwan sample (∼283,000 insulin users, 10,162 hypoglycemia case subjects). CONCLUSIONS In two national samples of older insulin users, higher ambient temperature was associated with increased hypoglycemia risk.
Attract-and-kill (A&K) is a potential alternative control tactic for managing the invasive spotted-wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura. Here, we compared the efficacy of two novel A&K formulations based on proprietary blends–ACTTRA SWD OR1 (henceforth OR1) and ACTTRA SWD TD (henceforth TD)–in managing D . suzukii . Using two-choice bioassays, we compared OR1 and TD for their relative attractiveness to adult D . suzukii . Additionally, we tested how the addition of (1) a red dye (visual cue) and (2) the insecticide spinosad (Entrust™) to the OR1 and TD formulations influenced the attraction of adult D . suzukii in the presence of blueberry fruits. Finally, complementary laboratory efficacy (no-choice) bioassays were conducted to assess the mortality of adult D . suzukii exposed to OR1 and TD. A direct comparison between TD and OR1 formulations indicated the TD formulation was ~8 times more attractive than OR1. Adding a red dye to the TD or OR1 formulation did not significantly alter the attraction or mortality of adult D . suzukii compared to the formulation without a dye. Similarly, irrespective of dye status, adding spinosad to either the TD or OR1 formulation did not alter the adult D . suzukii behavioral response to these formulations but resulted in significantly higher D . suzukii mortality. Overall, the TD formulations resulted in significantly higher, or at least comparable, mortality to the OR1 formulations. In summary, our laboratory results demonstrated the higher efficacy of a TD-based A&K product in managing D . suzukii over its well-tested predecessor, the OR1 formulation, confirming its potential as a new behavioral tactic against this pest.
This study analyzed physical distancing in people’s daily lives and its association with travel behavior and the use of transportation modes before the COVID-19 outbreak. We used data from photographic images acquired automatically by lifelogging devices every 5 seconds, on average, from 170 participants of a 2-day wearable camera study, in order to identify their physical distancing status throughout the day. Using deep-learning computer vision algorithms, we developed three measures which provided a near-continuous quantification of the proportion of time spent without anyone else within a distance of approximately 13 meters, as well as the proportion of time spent without others within approximately 2 meters. These measures are then used as outcomes in beta regression and multinomial logit models to explore the association between the participant’s physical distancing and travel behavior and transportation choices. The multidisciplinary research approach to understand these associations accounted for a number of social, economic, and cultural factors that potentially influenced their physical isolation levels. We found that participants spend a significant amount of time physically separated from others, without anyone else within 2 meters. The use of public transportation, automobiles, active travel, and an increase in trip frequency, including trips to transportation facilities, reduced the extent of physical distancing, with public transportation having the most significant impact. Higher incomes, strong social networks, and a sense of belonging to the community reduced the tendency for physical distancing. In contrast, factors such as age, obesity, dog ownership, intensive use of the Internet, and being knowledgeable about climate change issues increased the likelihood of physical distancing. The paper addresses a crucial gap in our understanding of how these factors intersect to create the dynamics of physical distancing in non-emergency situations and highlights their planning and operational implications while showcasing the use of unique person-based physical distancing measures derived from autonomously collected image data.
In recent decades, many phase II clinical trials have used survival outcomes as the primary endpoints. If radiotherapy is involved, the competing risk issue often arises because the time to disease progression can be censored by the time to normal tissue complications, and vice versa. Besides, many existing research has examined that patients receiving the same radiotherapy dose may yield distinct responses due to their heterogeneous radiation susceptibility statuses. Therefore, the “one-size-fits-all” strategy often fails, and it is more relevant to evaluate the subgroup-specific treatment effect with the subgroup defined by the radiation susceptibility status. In this paper, we propose a Bayesian adaptive biomarker stratified phase II trial design evaluating the subgroup-specific treatment effects of radiotherapy. We use the cause-specific hazard approach to model the competing risk survival outcomes. We propose restricting the candidate radiation doses based on each patient’s radiation susceptibility status. Only the clinically feasible personalized dose will be considered, which enhances the benefit for the patients in the trial. In addition, we propose a stratified Bayesian adaptive randomization scheme such that more patients will be randomized to the dose reporting more favorable survival outcomes. Numerical studies and an illustrative trial example have shown that the proposed design performed well and outperformed the conventional design ignoring the competing risk issue.
Plain Language Summary Approximately 250 million years ago, the supercontinent Pangea included most of the Earth's landmass. The northern Appalachians of Québec and Maine were in the center of Pangea and preserve a record of its assembly in the surface rocks and the deep structure of the lithosphere. Rock outcrops on the surface enable the crust to be subdivided into regions (terranes) that originated as parts of proto‐continents Laurentia and Gondwana. An ocean called Iapetus separated those continents and the trace of its eventual closure is recognized in the surface rocks of the region. We probe the structure beneath the trace of Iapetus Ocean closure using seismic waves from distant earthquakes that traverse the upper layers of the Earth and provide information on their properties. We identify a zone of well‐developed rock fabric that likely originated when blocks of Earth's crust moved relative to each other as Pangea was put together. This dipping boundary (called décollement) extends beneath the trace of the Iapetus Ocean closure without interruption, documenting a mismatch between the record of Pangea's assembly preserved on the surface and the deeper structure of the continent. Our findings are instructive for understanding how the supercontinent cycle, a process unique to Earth, operates.
The social and mating systems of orangutans, one of our closest relatives, remain poorly understood. Orangutans (Pongo spp.) are highly sexually dimorphic and females are philopatric and maintain individual, but overlapping home ranges, whereas males disperse, are non-territorial and wide-ranging, and show bimaturism, with many years between reaching sexual maturity and attaining full secondary sexual characteristics (including cheek pads (flanges) and emitting long calls). We report on 21 assigned paternities, among 35 flanged and 15 unflanged, genotyped male Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii), studied from 2003 to 2018 in Tuanan (Central Kalimantan, Indonesia). All 10 infants born since mid-2003 with an already identified sire were sired by flanged males. All adult males ranged well beyond the study area (c. 1000 ha), and their dominance relations fluctuated even within short periods. However, 5 of the 10 identified sires had multiple offspring within the monitored area. Several sired over a period of c. 10 years, which overlapped with siring periods of other males. The long-calling behavior of sires indicated they were not consistently dominant over other males in the area around the time of known conceptions. Instead, when they were seen in the area, the known sires spent most of their time within the home ranges of the females whose offspring they sired. Overall, successful sires were older and more often resident than others. Significance statement It is difficult to assess reproductive success for individuals of long-lived species, especially for dispersing males, who cannot be monitored throughout their lives. Due to extremely long interbirth intervals, orangutans have highly male-skewed operational sex ratios and thus intensive male-male competition for every conception. Paternity analyses matched 21 immature Bornean orangutans with their most likely sire (only 10 of 50 genotyped males) in a natural population. Half of these identified sires had multiple offspring in the study area spread over periods of at least 10 years, despite frequently ranging outside this area. Dominance was a poor predictor of success, but, consistent with female mating tactics to reduce the risk of infanticide, known “sires” tended to have relatively high local presence, which seems to contribute to the males’ siring success. The results highlight the importance of large protected areas to enable a natural pattern of dispersal and ranging.
The disproportionate health disparities in ethnoracial groups highlighted by the COVID-19 pandemic catalyzed a sociopolitical momentum for transformative approaches in health care. As the U.S. population progressively becomes more ethnoracially diverse and older, growing vulnerable ethnogeriatric groups of older individuals with contrasting ethnic/racial and social histories are estimated to experience age-related cardiovascular complications with resulting chronic disabilities, such as post-stroke aphasia. Grounded in principles of equity and social justice, transformative health care approaches use input from marginalized communities to inform service strategies to minimize health disparities. This article discusses the population scenario, principles, and possible strategies to support the call for stakeholder-informed intervention toward the social reintegration of ethnosocially mixed geriatric populations with aphasia in the United States. Based on the principles from the Life Participation Approach to Aphasia (LPAA) and intersectional narratives, we discuss how client and caregiver stories can inform culturally authentic individualized aphasia intervention for social readaptation. We conclude with future directions in aphasia education, research, and practice to promote stakeholder-informed strategies for culturally aligned social reintegration of older ethnosocially diverse aphasia populations in post-stroke care.
Background In the U.S., ~50% of those who meet criteria for alcohol use disorder (AUD) during their lifetimes do not remit. We previously reported that a polygenic score for AUD (PGS AUD ) was positively associated with AUD severity as measured by DSM‐5 lifetime criteria count, and AUD severity was negatively associated with remission, therefore, we hypothesized that PGS AUD would be negatively associated with remission. Methods Individuals of European (EA) and African ancestry (AA) from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) who met lifetime criteria for AUD, and two EA cohorts ascertained for studying liver diseases and substance use disorders, respectively, from Indiana Biobank, were included. In COGA, 12‐month remission was defined as any period of ≥12 consecutive months without AUD criteria except craving and was further categorized as abstinent and non‐abstinent . In Indiana Biobank, remission was defined based on ICD codes and could not be further distinguished as abstinent or non‐abstinent . Sex and age were included as covariates. COGA analyses included additional adjustment for AUD severity, family history of remission, and AUD treatment history. Results In COGA EA, PGS AUD was negatively associated with 12‐month and non‐abstinent remission (P≤0.013, betas between ‐0.15 and ‐0.10) after adjusting for all covariates. In contrast to COGA findings, PGS AUD was positively associated with remission (P=0.004, beta=0.28) in Indiana Biobank liver diseases cohort but not in Indiana Biobank substance use disorder cohort (P=0.17, beta=0.15). Conclusions PGS AUD was negatively associated with 12‐month and non‐abstinent remission in COGA EA, independent of behavioral measures of AUD severity and family history of remission. The discrepant results in COGA and Indiana Biobank might reflect different ascertainment strategies: Indiana Biobank participants were older and had higher rates of liver diseases, suggesting remission due to alcohol‐related health conditions that manifested in later life.
Transcription therapy is an emerging approach that centers on identifying the factors associated with the malfunctioning gene transcription machinery that causes diseases and controlling them with designer agents. Until now, the primary research focus in therapeutic gene modulation has been on small‐molecule drugs that target epigenetic enzymes and critical signaling pathways. However, nucleic acid‐based small molecules have gained popularity in recent years for their amenability to be pre‐designed and realize operative control over the dynamic transcription machinery that governs how the immune system responds to diseases. Pyrrole–imidazole polyamides (PIPs) are well‐established DNA‐based small‐molecule gene regulators that overcome the limitations of their conventional counterparts owing to their sequence‐targeted specificity, versatile regulatory efficiency, and biocompatibility. Here, we emphasize the rational design of PIPs, their functional mechanisms, and their potential as targeted transcription therapeutics for disease treatment by regulating the immune response. Furthermore, we also discuss the challenges and foresight of this approach in personalized immunotherapy in precision medicine.
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