Rutgers School of Nursing
  • Newark, United States
Recent publications
Introduction Rural health clinics in low-resource settings worldwide are usually staffed with health care workers with limited knowledge and skills in managing acute emergencies. The Emergency Centre (EC) at the district hospital or primary hospital serves as an entry point for patients with diverse medical needs from health posts and community clinics. The study described the socio-demographic characteristics, primary diagnosis, and disposition of patients transferred from the clinics and health posts to the district hospital in the Kweneng district. Method This study is a chart audit of the triage sheets and admitting medical records (Botswana Integrated Patient Management System, IPMS) conducted for the period June through to December 2020. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the quantitative data. Frequencies, percentages, and measures of central tendency were calculated using the software, SPSS version 27. Results A total of 1565 charts were reviewed; 56% (n = 877) were females and 43.5% (n = 681) were males. Half of the patients presenting to the EC ranged from ages 21 to 50, with a mean age of 36.49. The most frequently reported reason for referral was “trauma,” (23.5%, n = 368) whereas the second common reason for referral was abortion-related complications (14.2%, n = 222). The highest admissions were from abortion-related complications (20.2%, n = 169). Most patients’ transfers were from clinics and health posts outside Molepolole (59.4%, n = 930). More than half of the patients (64.2%, n = 537) transferred from outside Molepolole were admitted than discharged from the EC. Discussion Our study has shown significant transfers to a higher facility for emergency care. The higher number of transfers are trauma-related cases, whereas most patients were admitted for abortion-related complications indicating the need for skill-building in trauma care and management of abortions.
In 2020, California passed a flavored tobacco sales restriction (FTSR), but the tobacco companies filed a referendum, and the ban will not be implemented unless approved by voters in November 2022. This study examined the percentage of the California population covered by a city FTSR and identified groups more likely to be covered. Mean demographics as well as tobacco use and control measures were compared for California cities with (n = 93) and without (n = 389) a FTSR, and t tests were used to examine the differences. We calculated adjusted odds ratios using logistic regression models. City FTSR policies covered 20.7% of the California population. Adjusted predictors of having a FTSR included the American Lung Association tobacco control score (odds ratio [OR] = 1.27, 95% confidence interval [CI]: [1.17, 1.38]), voting democratic (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: [1.02, 1.10]). and having a lower adult smoking prevalence (OR = 0.84, 95% CI: [0.72, 0.99]). A state-level policy would cover all populations in California.
This pilot qualitative case study was able to elicit rich data enabling a description of how women went through the journey of achieving pregnancy using fertility awareness-based methods. Findings underscore that women preferred using natural ways to detect ovulation and would recommend other women to do so, but with healthcare providers’ guidance. The findings of this case study can serve as a starting point to provide a framework to understand women's experiences of enduring trial and error with multiple fertility awareness-based methods before discovering their effective method. Findings emphasize the importance for healthcare providers to guide women in using fertility awareness-based methods.
The rate of syphilis infections among sexual minority men (SMM) has continued to increase in recent decades. As such, this analysis sought to identify demographic, biological, and behavioral factors associated with recent syphilis infection in emerging adult SMM. Data were drawn from a 3-year cohort study of emerging adult SMM (n = 665), from July 2014 to March 2019. Biannual study assessments included rapid HIV testing and behavioral surveys. At baseline, and at the 18-and 36-month time points, participants underwent chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis screening. Generalized estimating equations were used to generate four models of repeated syphilis screening. In this racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of SMM, 5.0% of participants tested positive for syphilis at baseline and 9.0% had an infection at the subsequent time points. Across all models, racial/ethnic minority SMM had higher odds of syphilis. Higher odds of syphilis infection were also significantly associated with more frequent condomless anal sex, more frequent marijuana use, HIV seropositivity, not currently using pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and not receiving syphilis testing in the previous 6 months; lower odds were associated with more frequent oral sex and more frequent alcohol use. These findings support current screening guidelines based on SMM who may be at increased risk for sexually transmitted infection (STI) acquisition, such as people living with HIV or those who engage in condomless sex. Further, our findings of reduced syphilis incidence among those who are on PrEP and engaged in regular STI testing support existing efforts to increase the availability and accessibility of preventive sexual health care for SMM.
Data from the National Survey of Children’s Health 2016–2019 was used to examine the co-occurrence of autism and ADHD and the impact on anxiety and depression among adolescents age 12–17. Rates of anxiety and depression were up to ten-fold the prevalence of adolescents not diagnosed with autism or ADHD. Over half of autistic females (57%) and nearly half of autistic males (49%) are also diagnosed with ADHD. Autistic females with ADHD had the highest co-occurrence of anxiety at 72% followed by autistic males with ADHD at 69%. The prevalence of depression was highest among autistic adolescents with ADHD yet was consistent across genders (male/female) at 38–39%. Adolescents diagnosed with autism and/or ADHD are at heightened risk for anxiety and depression.
Purpose To explore how parents understand their children's falls during hospitalization and how they perceive hospital interventions and messaging related to fall risk and prevention. Design and methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore parent-caregiver descriptions of their children's falls during hospitalization. Prospective purposive sampling was used to identify eligible participants. Interviews were conducted with the parent-caregiver who was present at the time of the fall event. Themes were coded both inductively and deductively using a constant comparative method. Results Twelve parent-child groupings participated. Three themes emerged: parental knowledge of risk, parent sense of threat to the identity of the child, and age differences in perception of level of controllability of risk. Conclusions Falls prevention education is usually delivered as a straightforward presentation of generic factual information about risk factors, with the assumption that families need more information. Findings from this study challenge this approach. This study indicates that parent-caregivers have fairly high levels of knowledge about children's fall risks; parent-caregiver beliefs about the controllability of falls may differ based on age of the child; finally, as has been found in previous studies of adult falls, parent-caregivers may perceive hospital falls prevention measures as a source of potential threat to their child’'s already vulnerable social identity. Practice implications Involving the parent-caregiver in the fall risk assessment and collaborative development of falls prevention interventions may increase family alliance with health advice and reduce the incidence of falls in hospitalized children.
Elective admission to the epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) is an essential service provided by epilepsy centers, particularly for those with drug-resistant epilepsy. Given previously characterized racial and socioeconomic healthcare disparities in the management of epilepsy, we sought to understand access and utilization of this service in New Jersey (NJ). We examined epilepsy hospitalizations in NJ between 2014 and 2016 using state inpatient and emergency department (ED) databases. We stratified admissions by race/ethnicity and primary payer and used these to estimate and compare (1) admission rates per capita in NJ, as well as (2) admission rates per number of ED visits for each group. Patients without insurance underwent elective EMU admission at the lowest rates across all racial/ethnic groups and payer types studied. Black patients with Medicaid and private insurance were admitted at disproportionately low rates relative to their number of ED visits. Hispanic/Latino and Asian/Pacific Islanders with private insurance, Hispanic/Latinos with Medicaid, and Asian/Pacific Islanders with Medicare were also admitted at low rates per capita within each respective payer category. Future studies should focus on addressing causal factors driving healthcare disparities in epilepsy, particularly for patients without adequate health insurance coverage and those who have been historically underserved by the healthcare system.
Purpose/Objective(s) Pneumonitis is a common complication of treatment for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Radiation pneumonitis and immune-related pneumonitis have been studied independently, but little information has emerged on the interactions between radiation therapy (RT) and immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI). In this study, we aim to examine if RT and ICI interact in causing pneumonitis. Materials/Methods A retrospective cohort was assembled using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare database, including Medicare beneficiaries diagnosed with American Joint Committee on Cancer 7th ed. (AJCC) stages 3B-4 NSCLC between 2013-2017. Exposures to RT and ICI were determined by evaluating for treatment codes in the 12 months after diagnosis and evaluating for a second exposure (e.g., ICI after RT) within 3 months after the first exposure. A previously validated algorithm for identifying cases of pneumonitis in inpatient and outpatient claims was used to evaluate for the outcome in the 6 months after treatment. Cox regression was performed to estimate hazard ratios of pneumonitis for patients treated with RT, ICI, and both therapies (RT+ICI), relative to a cohort unexposed to RT and ICI. Presence of an additive interaction was determined by computing the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) and constructing 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) through bootstrapping. Results There were 18,780 patients included in the analysis with 9,345 (49.8%), 7,533 (40.2%), 1,332 (7.1%), and 550 (2.9%) in the control, RT, ICI, and RT+ICI groups. There were more patients with squamous histology and AJCC stage 3B disease in the RT group (p<0.01). The incidence and hazard ratios of pneumonitis are presented in Table 1. The RERIs were -6.1 (95% CI: -13.1–0.6, p=0.97) and -4.0 (95% CI: -10.7-1.5, p=0.91) in the unadjusted and adjusted analyses, respectively, consistent with no evidence of additive interaction (RERI≤0) between RT and ICI. These results were stable when varying the allowable time to be exposed, time to develop pneumonitis, algorithms for identifying pneumonitis, and limiting immortal-time bias through landmark analyses and measuring RT and ICI exposure as time-varying covariates. Conclusion In this retrospective study of Medicare beneficiaries with advanced NSCLC, there was no clear synergy between RT and ICI in causing pneumonitis. The risk of pneumonitis in patients treated with RT and ICI is not more than could be expected from each therapy alone. These data support the safety of combining RT and ICI in clinical practice.
With consistently rising rates of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) since 2014, the need for increased screening, testing, and treatment of bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in people at risk is clear. In this study, people with HIV were asked to complete a comprehensive audio computer-assisted self-interview sexual history at routine clinic-based laboratory visits every 3-6 months. The sexual health screening resulted in an automated summary of recommended bacterial STI tests. Self-collection of recommended extragenital CT/GC specimens was implemented to decrease the need for a provider to collect the specimen(s) and to give more control to the client. In total, extragenital CT/GC testing returned a 7.3% (n = 11) test positivity for CT and/or GC, with the highest test positivity of 14% (n = 7) among rectal swabs and 4% (n = 4) for pharyngeal swabs. Urogenital testing for combined CT/GC returned a 4.8% (n = 11) test positivity. All participants with extragenital CT/GC who underwent simultaneous urine testing returned discordant laboratory results, with urine collected at the same clinic visit resulting as negative. In addition, 7 of 11 (63.6%) of the positive extragenital GC/CT cases were asymptomatic. Therefore, extragenital site-specific testing was essential in appropriately diagnosing and treating CT and GC among participants. When extragenital STI testing was recommended, participants needing extragenital CT/GC specimens primarily chose self-collection after a brief demonstration. Error rates between self- versus provider-collected samples did not differ, and participants provided positive feedback on the intervention and self-collection process in satisfaction surveys taken at the end of each visit.
In response to rising rates of bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the United States, this evaluative study of the implementation of four evidence-based interventions was developed and implemented. In three STI and HIV high-incidence jurisdictions of the United States, nine federally funded Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program clinical demonstration sites implemented (1) audio computer-assisted self-interview sexual history taking, (2) patient self-collection of urogenital and extragenital site chlamydia/gonorrhea nucleic acid amplification test specimens, (3) sexual and gender minority welcoming indicators, and (4) provider training, to make STI screening, testing, and treatment routine in their HIV primary care clinics. The priority populations of young adults, men who have sex with men, and sexual and gender minority patients were found to have risk behaviors identified in the self-interview sexual history, to prefer to self-collect urogenital and extragenital site specimens for STI testing, and to notice and like the sexual and gender minority welcoming indicators. Testing positive for a bacterial STI was significantly associated with using alcohol or recreational drugs before sex, being younger than 50 years, and having two or more sexual partners with other concurrent sexual partners. Of 255 cases of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis infections, only 13.73% of patients reported related symptoms when screened and tested.
Football has become the most popular spectator sport in the United States today and attracts millions of players, both professional and amateur. This article discusses the risks of playing football. It is a contact sport and can result in a wide variety of injuries to the players. The rules of the game are based on adult participation; however, 2.8 million children participate in recreational tackle football every year. An understanding of the game and the risks associated with playing football is presented. The risks of the game are discussed with a focus on the prevention of injury. The most common injuries are presented, which include concussion and the major risk of traumatic brain injury. The importance of wearing appropriate protective gear and developing strategies to avoid head and neck injuries is presented. The role of parents and coaches is described, with tips on how to identify injuries and how to prevent them to guarantee the safety of players. Finally, the role of the nurse and other health care providers is discussed. This article presents an overview of the complexity of tackle football and strategies to keep the players safe.
Prior interventions have repeatedly failed to decrease the prescription and receipt of treatments and procedures that confer more harm than benefit at the End-of-Life (EoL); new approaches to intervention are needed. Ideally, future interventions would be informed by a social-ecological conceptual model that explains EoL healthcare utilization patterns, but current models ignore two facts: (1) healthcare is an inherently social activity, involving clinical teams and patients' social networks, and (2) emotions influence social activity. To address this omission, we scaffolded Terror Management Theory and Socioemotional Selectivity Theory to create the Transtheoretical Model of Irrational Biomedical Exuberance (TRIBE). Based on Terror Management Theory, TRIBE suggests that the prospect of patient death motivates healthcare teams to conform to a biomedical norm of care, even when clinicians believe that biomedical interventions will probably be unhelpful. Based on Socioemotional Selectivity Theory, TRIBE suggests that the prospect of dwindling time motivates families to prioritize emotional goals, and leads patients to consent to disease-directed treatments they know will likely be unhelpful, as moral emotions motivate deference to the perceived emotional needs of their loved ones. TRIBE is unique among models of healthcare utilization in its acknowledgement that moral emotions and processes (e.g., shame, compassion, regret-avoidance) influence healthcare delivery, patients' interactions with family members, and patients’ outcomes. TRIBE is especially relevant to potentially harmful EoL care in the United States, and it also offers insights into the epidemics of overtreatment in healthcare settings worldwide. By outlining the role of socioemotional processes in the care of persons with serious conditions, TRIBE underscores the critical need for psychological innovation in interventions, health policy and research on healthcare utilization.
Purpose: The aim of this manuscript is to embolden nurses to engage in policy that promotes diversity, equity, inclusion, and belonging to advance health equity. Background: It uses the Future of Nursing Report 2020-2030 to acknowledge the impact of structural racism and the need for a more equitable, just, and fair society. Discussion: It also recognizes that nurses must harness their power and political will, to change and strengthen policies, so all nurses can practice to the full extent of their education and license. Conclusion: A case study of the response to COVID-19 in one underserved community is included to illustrate policy in action.
Dismantling structural racism in nursing research is key to achieving health equity for populations that experience disproportionate burden of health disparities. Several nursing organizations have advocated for the nursing profession to address structural racism in the discipline and the Future of Nursing 2020 to 2030: Charting a Path to Achieve Health Equity specifically calls for research that addresses equity and social justice. Bold calls to conduct research to address structural racism notwithstanding, what remains less clear are the strategies needed. We propose key considerations for the design of research to address structural racism and offer examples from behavioral and biobehavioral research designed to dismantle structural racism.
In 1916, at the first meeting of the then newly created American Institute of International Law, jurists from different countries adopted a declaration stipulating that “[i]nternational law is at one and the same time both national and international.” ¹ A century later, Latin American international human rights law clearly reflects that idea. Since the adoption of the American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man in 1948, and especially since the 1950s, with the creation of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, and later with the adoption of the American Convention on Human Rights in 1969, human rights in Latin America have been, are, and will continue to be an essentially regional phenomenon of international law. By examining the Inter-American Court of Human Rights’ case law, this essay analyzes the way in which Latin America has articulated transnational human rights law, from the establishment of the inter-American system, to the distinctive forms of interaction and influence between international law and constitutional law. Drawing from recent jurisprudence on social rights, this essay shows that the idea of a Latin American common law of human rights—an idea that has become highly influential in the past decade—is an example of the outer limits of the potential integration. As such, the idea presents challenges that must be addressed in order for regional human rights to realize their full potential as transnational norms.
Objective Cancer survivors often incur significant out-of-pocket costs; this can result in financial toxicity, defined as the adverse financial impact of cancer due to direct or indirect costs related to the disease. There has been little research on whether spirituality is associated with the experience of financial toxicity. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that spirituality would be inversely associated with financial toxicity. Methods We evaluated these associations in a cross-sectional study of Hispanic breast cancer survivors (n = 102) identified through the New Jersey State Cancer Registry. Participants completed the FACIT-Sp-12, which has two spirituality subscales (meaning/peace; faith). Financial toxicity was assessed using the 11-item COST measure; lower scores suggest worse toxicity. In multivariable linear regression analyses, we examined the associations between spirituality scores and financial toxicity, adjusting for age, race, education, household income, and insurance status. Results The spirituality total score (β = 0.49, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.17, 0.8), meaning/peace subscale score (β = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.12, 1.31), and faith (β = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.2, 1.21) subscale score were all inversely associated with financial toxicity. Conclusions Spirituality may be an important factor in ameliorating the detrimental effects of financial toxicity among Hispanic breast cancer survivors and should be considered in interventions for financial toxicity in this population.
Objective: To assess the prevalence and predictors of underage initiation of selling sex among female sex workers (FSW) in Guinea-Bissau. Methods: 505 adult FSW recruited using respondent-driven sampling were surveyed in 2017. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial characteristics associated with initiation of selling sex while underage (<18 years). Results: A total of 26.3% (133/505) of FSW started selling sex before age 18. Underage initiation of selling sex was associated with experiencing forced sex before age 18 (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 6.74; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.05-22.13), and never being tested for HIV (aOR: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.20-0.91). Despite having lower odds of wanting to have children or more children (aOR: 0.31; 95% CI: 0.17-0.56), FSW who started selling sex while underage had lower odds of using highly effective contraception such as implants (aOR: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.24-0.77). Among those who were ever pregnant, a lower percentage of FSW who started selling sex while underage accessed antenatal care (56.6% vs. 74.7%, p = 0.008). Conclusions: These data suggest that early initiation of selling sex among adult FSW in Guinea-Bissau is common. Social services for youth and integrated HIV and reproductive health services are critical to address the persisting sexual and reproductive health needs of FSW who started selling sex while underage.
Objectives Relationships between perceived faculty support and prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress among undergraduate nursing students were explored. Methods A mixed method design was used for this descriptive, cross-sectional pilot study. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21), Perceived Faculty Support Scale (PFSS), a demographic questionnaire, and open-ended questions were used to collect data. Results Nursing students experienced moderate depression and stress, and severe anxiety. Perceived faculty support was moderate. An inverse correlation between select perceived faculty supportive behaviors and depression, anxiety, and stress was evident. Student stressors were related to faculty actions. The theme being attentive to student stress emerged from the qualitative data. Conclusions Symptoms of poor mental health among undergraduate nursing students are prevalent and represent a significant public health concern among nursing students. Nurse educators must develop psychological and functional supportive behaviors to promote mental health during nursing students’ transition throughout the nursing program and beyond.
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Margaret W Sullivan
  • Nursing Science
Caroline Dorsen
  • School of Nursing
Dennis P. Carmody
  • Nursing Science
Rula Btoush
  • Division of Nursing Science
Wendy Budin
  • Entry to Baccalaureate Practice
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