In modern media, the names of fairy-tale and mythological images are used to convey certain emotions and connotations. The aim of the study is to analyze the characteristic associative strategies presented with the mythological images of a dragon, a paper tiger and a chimera in news texts of European and Chinese mass media. In this article, the method of text analysis was used to identify patterns and the most possible interpretations of lexical units. 100 articles from Chinese and European publications were selected for the analysis (About People's Daily Online, China News Service, Guardian and France 24). The required lexemes were most widely used in articles on political topics. The most used was the image of a paper tiger (4001 and 3587 units). This is due to its well-known metaphorical meaning in both cultures, while dragon differs in Chinese and European ones. Further research may focus on the search and analysis of other fairy tale and mythological images in mass media. The present study results may also be applied for further research in the field of linguistics and journalism.
Relevance. The history of armed attacks on educational institutions originated in the United States, but in recent decades this social phenomenon has spread widely to other countries, including Russia. Mass social tragedies associated with deaths of the youth cause great concern among all groups of population and require comprehensive prevention measures. The objective of the study is to identify social environmental factors that shape school shooter mentality, as well as to explore various strategies to prevent attacks in educational institutions of different levels (kindergartens, schools, universities). Methods. Armed attacks in educational institutions are the focus of our research. The material includes published research data (articles, dissertations and monographs) in English and Russian. The set of methods included generalizing conclusions published by peer investigators regarding the considered matter. Bibliographic databases (i.e. Federal State Institution “Russian State Library”, library platforms of Lomonosov Moscow State University and Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia) and scientific networks (ResearchGate, Web of Knowledge, Scopus, Google Scholar, Academia.edu, Mendeley) were used to explore research data. The findings present over 127 thousand publications regarding meta-analysis of armed attacks and mass shooting that occurred in educational institutions, as well as their social, psychological, cultural, and informational implications. Results and Discussion. The analysis of data regarding armed attacks in educational institutions demonstrates a very specific phenomenon that belongs to a specific type of crimes. Findings show that mass shootings of schoolchildren and students occur annually in the United States, apparently due to the free circulation of firearms and the cult of the guns. From 1974 to 1921 the US witnesses over 50 major armed attacks causing over a hundred deaths. In China, this problem is also substantial due to the country’s rapid and profound social changes (reforms, gender imbalance and demographic policy). Cold arms (knives, hammers) is the major weapon of assault in China, which caused deaths of at least a hundred children. In Europe, school shooting is not a critical problem, with only few cases reported by a few countries (Germany, Denmark and Finland). Russia shows no increase in the number of armed attacks using firearms or cold arms. In general, such incidents occur annually (1 to 4 violence cases) and are associated with slumped standards of living, increased aggression, social and psychological maladaptation among the population. To solve this problem, an integrated approach is needed, which could bring together technical and social aspects. The technical aspects imply broader use of video surveillance security systems and barriers, as well as regular profound inspections of school grounds (the venue and inside the school building). However, preventive measures should effectively provide for the social aspect to ensure expanded and deeper social and communicative relations within the student – administration / school teacher – parents paradigm. Taken together, these measures are bound o mitigate many factors of antisocial, aggressive, and violent behaviors in schools. Conclusion. A comprehensive analysis of Russian and foreign literature regarding armed attacks in educational institutions suggests that this is an independent psychosocial phenomenon. A system approach of the study allowed to establish a school shooter’s presumable portrait, as well as to identify typical social and personal characteristics of a shooter’s personality (i.e. social isolation; lack of individual ability to cope with life difficulties, such as study failures, conflicts at school or in the family; weak social integration at school and in other communities; decreased self-esteem and identity-related problems, in particular gender-related issues).
Для заданного ленточного графа произвольного рода строится сферический граф с теми же двумя столбцами паспорта. Также для данного сферического графа представлен алгоритм построения графа любого допустимого рода с двумя столбцами того же паспорта. Обсуждаются возможные приложения к теории детских рисунков.
The author analyzes the dynamics of scientometrical indicators (publication activity, citation and impact) of Russian research in storytelling in 2012–2021. Storytelling is seen as the marketing technology used to deliver information to the audience through stories. In recent years, storytelling has been intensively used in advertising, social media, corporate blogging, and in education. The lines of research of the greatest impact are identified, among them: storytelling as an efficient communication technology, digital storytelling in students’ projects, and storytelling method in corporate management. In accordance with the Hirsch index, the Russian scholars’ research activity in the field exceeds significantly the world minimum value of 16. The dynamics of the above indicators is revealed, including the rare occurrence of continuous growth in the number of publications by the end of the existent period; the organization which storytelling studies are extensively used by country’s other institutions, are identified, among them Nizhny Novgorod Kozma Minin Pedagogical University, Ural State Pedagogical University, RF Ministry for Civil Defense Academy of State Fire-fighting Service. The analysis was accomplished based on Russian Science Citation Index (RISC) database. The illustrations are included to visualize the research findings.
The article discusses ways of developing bioethical guidance in the Orthodox Christian discourse. Here, “ethical” refers to what contributes to holiness, “un-ethical” refers to sin as what hinders man’s foundational calling to holiness. To explore the development of guidance for emerging bioethical issues, we use the “therapeutic” understanding of treatment for sin in two senses. (1) It refers to the spiritual means provided by the “hospital” of the Orthodox Church for healing the fallenness of human nature in general; and (2) it helps identify in particular cases both what counts as transgression of unconditional boundaries (defining what is illicit for everyone) and what is advisable in order to help particular persons to choose rightly within the area of the “more or less licit” (or “permissible”). Sources of the Orthodox faith that frame the general understanding of the boundaries between the permissible and the impermissible reflect the work of the Holy Spirit in the Church framing her Sacred (Holy) Tradition. In Holy Tradition, prayers, as communion with God, occupy a central position. This is why Orthodox moral reasoning, and thus also Orthodox bioethics, takes the form of liturgical bioethics. Penalties of excommunication determine hard boundaries that believers should not overstep: when crossing such boundaries, they enter on a spiritually dangerous path that completely distracts them away from God. Many minor sins, by contrast, have not been codified in Canons. They are not taken to remove the sinner completely from contact with the Lord. Within this realm of actions, it depends on a person’s spiritual maturity whether such actions are classified as sinful. Thus, an act can be counted merely as a small offense if committed by a beginner, while that same act can become a grave sin for an advanced believer. Due to acceleration of the technological progress, Orthodox recourse to Holy Tradition encounters ever-new challenges. There are bioethical issues that had not surfaced at the time of the Fathers of the Church. Today, Bishops gathered at a local council can supply the guidance lacking on a newly emerging bioethical problem. Even if ratified only by such local councils, the resulting decrees can also be regarded as the expression of the Holy Spirit working within a local Church and conveying His guidance. The article illustrates this source of Christian bioethics by reference to how the Russian Orthodox Church orients and develops its position on the ethics of reproductive technologies.
Intraindividual response time variability (RTV) is considered as a general marker of neurological health. In adults, the central executive and salience networks (task-positive networks, TPN) and the default mode network (DMN) are critical for RTV. Given that RTV decreases with growing up, and that boys are likely somewhat behind girls with respect to the network development, we aimed to clarify age and sex effects. Electroencephalogram was recorded during Stroop-like test performance in 124 typically developing children aged 5-12 years. Network fluctuations were calculated as changes of current source density (CSD) in regions of interest (ROIs) from pretest to 1-s test interval. In boys, TPN activation (CSD increase in ROIs included in the TPN) was associated with lower RTV, suggesting a greater engagement of attentional control. In children younger than 9.5 years, higher response stability was associated with the predominance of TPN activation over DMN activation (CSD increase in ROIs included in the TPN > that in the DMN); this predominance increased with age, suggesting that variability among younger children may be due to network immaturity. These findings suggest that the TPN and DMN may play different roles within the network mechanisms of RTV in boys and girls and at different developmental stages.
This work is devoted to the search for effective preventive and therapeutic measures for frequently ill (respiratory diseases) preschool children, improving the health of the younger generation. Possibilities of using therapeutic physical culture, a complex of hardening procedures, physical activity in order to reduce the incidence of diseases and form a healthy lifestyle.
Introduction. The article is devoted to a comparative analysis of the burnout syndrome in military and civilian doctors, as well as nurses. At the present stage of healthcare development, the professional activity of medical personnel is accompanied by increasing requirements for the quality of medical care provided to the population. Recently, in a variety of sources: scientific literature and the media, it is indicated that specialists are overloaded with both a large flow of patients and documentation, as well as the minimum amount of time allotted for one patient. These factors are both the main cause of the ever-decreasing quality of medical care and professional burnout among the majority of medical personnel. There is much less information in the available sources about the activities of military doctors, however, in connection with the well-known events, the problem of burnout syndrome is becoming more and more urgent. Materials and Methods. Analysis of the literature on the syndrome of emotional burnout, the study of literature covering the activities of military doctors for the development of a professiogram. As empirical methods, the questionnaire "System index of burnout syndrome" based on the MBI test (Maslach Burnout Inventory) was used. For statistical processing, the nonparametric Mann-Whitney difference test was used; SPSS 19.0 software was also used to calculate Pearson's Chi-square test. Results. The results of the analysis showed that the level of emotional burnout among civilian doctors is higher in all indicators. In addition, it was found that civilian doctors have a significantly higher level of reduction in professional achievements. In turn, professional burnout in nurses is expressed mainly at the average level. Discussion and Conclusions. The analysis of the differences between civilian and military doctors for all indicators of emotional burnout showed that the average values for all indicators of the scale are higher for civilian doctors, that is, civilian doctors are more susceptible to this process compared to military doctors. The study of the qualities that ensure the success of professional activity revealed that volitional qualities, speed of decision-making, the ability to concentrate, as well as great responsibility for the results of their activities, dominate among military medical specialists. At the same time, the listed qualities are no less important in the work of a doctor in a civilian medical institution. A comparative analysis of the characteristics of the professional activities of military and civilian doctors led to the conclusion that such factors as a greater opportunity for creativity, a greater measure of responsibility and military discipline, and professional growth prospects influence the reduction in the risk of professional burnout among military doctors.
This article is an introduction to the translation of “How Funerals accomplish Family: Findings from a Mass-Observation Study” by T. Walter and T. Bailey published in this issue. It reviews methods and techniques used to study death and funerals invented by specialists from different fields of knowledge. The qualitative research procedure used by T. Walter and T. Bailey is placed into that research continuum. They used funeral rituals to study social representations of the family. The research revealed the dominance of the blood relation correlation criterion. The study failed to identify the phenomenon of disenfranchised grief.
The review of the HSE Youth Research Center conference demonstrates the actualization of youth research in the context of intergenerational transfers in modern Russia. The following issues have become particularly relevant: how young people comprehend reality, how their identity is formed; what are the new forms of youth activity and specific lifestyles. The focus is on the issues of patriotism, attitude to the state, trust in government institutions, youth migration, as well as employment. A diverse palette of studies using mainly qualitative methodology is demonstrated.
In the article, by the history of dacha settlements of academicians, the evolution of the principles of organization of privileged dacha space in the USSR is characterized. The author examines the practices of distribution and organization of departmental dachas,attempts to fit their history into the focus of everyday collective and interpersonal interactions of scientists, broad social processesof intertwining elitists and egalitarian tendencies of the epoch under consideration. Obtaining “academic” dachas was closely related to the reputational component, social and professional recognition, and the administrative resource of a particular researcher. In this regard, the practiceof departmental suburban space consolidate the established hierarchyin the Soviet scientific community. The principle of complex development (concentration of construction in one place, in the format of a closedsettlement, with the presence of a settlement-orient infrastructure) resultedin corporate isolationof socio-professional groups (primarily the nobility). In the competition of several principles - open and closedtypecooperation, departmental and private economic structure, the right of use and the right of personal property - distinct features of Soviet society were manifested: limited resources, bureaucratization of the distribution system, instability of property rights, but formed a unique “informal” space of “old-timers” settlements. Theresearchis based on a wide range of unpublished sources (clerical work, documents of personal origin) from the funds of the Archive of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the State Archive of the Russian Federation, the Russian State Archive of Literature and Art, introduced into scientific circulation for the first time.
The article deals with innovations in the fi eld of versification technique used by Apollon Grigoriev in his poetic translations from German, English and Ancient Greek. These are accentual verse (dolnik), metrical composite, free verse, new syllabics, as well as prose miniature used to translate lyrical poetry, and prosimetrum, with the help of which the poet sought to accurately convey the rhythmic features of the works by Heine, Goethe, Shakespeare and Sophocles.
Until now, a German quote from Grigoriev’s article “Th e Last Phase of Love” (1846) in A. Blok’s “The Fate of Apollo Grigoriev”, has remained not only uncommented, but also untranslated. A dictionary analysis showed that a major misprint was made in the magazine “Repertuar i Pantheon” (Erwürdigster instead of Ehrwürdigster). In Blok’s article, another inaccuracy was added to this typo, as a result of which the quote turned into an “obscure passage in the text”. Correction of typos showed that Grigoriev quotes a remark from a Masonic ritual, which corresponds to his passion for Freemasonry and mysticism during the translation of the “Hymns”, with which Block correlated the quoted fragment.
This paper examines the dynamics of public art in Russia, explores specific features of the phenomenon that distinguish it from other new art forms and genres. The authors focus on the historical and cultural aspects of the interaction between Russian artists and urban space, their fruitful communication strategies and successful projects of service, art, PR communications reflecting the communicative behaviour of the artist-viewer-power in the modern information-saturated urban environment of Russia, new turns of instrumental development of territories, conceptual shifts of public art caused by including the impact of digital transformations on the culture of the city. A review of various foreign and domestic studies provides a retrospective look at the interpretation of public art as a creative process, a system of communicative interaction and changes in urban space, and, at the same time, the harmonization of the environment and the person, creative understanding of the involvement of the individual to his place of residence with its cultural codes and meanings. This paper will broadly trace the evolution of public art in Russia and its current scope that was enhanced by the sharp increase of the curatorial projects that deal with public art. On the one hand, the demand for public art in Russia is exacerbated by the growing number of curatorial projects aimed at working with space and environment in the context of the festival and biennial movement and art residencies, and on the other hand, the increased interest of the municipal and government officials in public art as a driving force for territory and urban development. The article provides a comparative analysis of successfully implemented projects in various regions of Russia, which gave a new impetus to the development of public art, bringing the space closer to the population, expanding the communicative capabilities of a smart city and its creative resident.
Aim. To study the prospects for the development of alternative and low-carbon energy in the Republic of Belarus in the context of joining the Shanghai Cooperation Organization as a full member. Methodology. The key research methods were historical and logical analysis, comparative and typological analysis. The focus is on the study of international treaties and agreements essence, various normative legal acts, resolutions, strategies and plans for the development of cooperation, as well as statements and speeches of officials. The work also applied the scenario forecasting method to identify the promising areas for the development of “green” energy in Belarus. Results. It is stated that with the accession of the Republic of Belarus to the SCO as a full member, a potential opportunity appeares for increasing foreign investment in projects for the development of alternative and low-carbon energy; it is expected to strengthen the energy dialogue with Russia, including the field of “green” energy; the strengthening of the position of the Republic of Belarus on the world stage is stated in connection with joining a large organization and the creation of economic and logistics joint projects. Research implications. The study results can be relevant for studying the transformation of the energy markets of the SCO member states in the context of the global energy transition.
The article studies the original way of an action developing, building a narrative in the early films of Charlie Chaplin. Compared to traditional models of film narration in which there is a trajectory of the main character moving through the spatial boundaries of the worlds with a series of trials, losses / gains, and the final return of the renewed hero, the great comedian develops and implements a structure based on the character’s ability to annihilate when he enters an unusual world for him meanings and rules on which the familiar world of other characters, ordinary people, is based. Almost from the first independent works, Chaplin uses the theatrical technique of the quirky quo, the confusion that arose as a result of erroneous recognition, both to achieve a comic effect and for the tasks of film narration, in order to show the main feature of his hero — this is a person who always finds himself out of place, not having an identity. He either pretends to be someone else, or he is not taken for who he really is, and thus penetrates into a strange space for him, the laws of organization of which he undermines with ridiculous behavior, gags, bringing the norms to the point of absurdity, hoatizing the established order.
Forty years ago, in 1982, the Czechoslovak cartoon The Little Mole in the City was released. The story of Little Mole and his friends (Hedgehog and Hare) who find themselves in a metropolis may be considered the most famous episode about Little Mole, a beloved character of Czech culture. This story is also well known in Russia, not only as a cartoon but also as a book. The tale has been reprinted in several editions in the Russian language. Z. Miler’s cartoon appeals both to the immediate realities of the times and to the broader context of Czech culture of popular laughter. A character, vulnerable and sometimes light-minded (e.g. Švejk, Jára Cimrman, characters in Menzel’s films) confronts a vast and unfriendly reality and sometimes faces real trouble (e.g. war in J. Hašek’s novel). The character’s grand purpose is not to overcome circumstances or turn the world upside down, but to preserve himself. The story of Little Mole blends smoothly into this cultural code. The episode The Little Mole in the City was created in the waning days of Czechoslovak socialism. Behind the outer, touching and fascinating plot of the characters’ urban odyssey, one can discern a rather poignant satire on the social order of those times. The author of the article tries to understand how the creators of the cartoon expose the foolish and senseless bureaucracy, narrow-minded officials, cruelty and the suffocating nature of the times, but most importantly, how they teach to maintain inner freedom in an unfree country.
The paper examines the factors that allowed the Greater Middle East monarchies to survive the protests known as the “Arab Spring”. The author considers the popular argument in scientific and media-political discourse about the culturally conditioned legitimacy of the Middle Eastern monarchies, and also presents several cases of successful anti-monarchist revolutions in the region (Egypt, Tunisia, Iraq, Iran, Libya and Yemen). In addition, the work develops the idea that it can conditionally divide all the monarchies of the Greater Middle East into two types: individualistic and clan. The paper shows that patrimonial ties, which have been carefully built over several decades, are an important element in the stability of monarchies.
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