Roskilde University
  • Roskilde, Denmark
Recent publications
Recent years have seen a resurgent debate on economic planning in the age of digitalization and climate crisis and an extremely dynamic research community has formed around the theme of planning. Although the notion that “planning is already endemic in capitalism” has originally sparked the debate, the literature has mostly focused on theory and models of postcapitalist economic planning, not on how planning in capitalism actually works. Considering the financial system as one of the ways capitalism “plans,” this paper will expand on a rather dispersed series of observations by different commentators that “finance is a form of planning,” that central banks share similarities with “central planners” and that horizontal ownership across markets turns index funds into universal owners with the capacity to steer economic development. I will first argue that financialization has strongly influenced how contemporary economic planning works. Against this background, the text will then elaborate on how finance’s capacity for economic coordination makes it a potential tool for transformation towards increasing social and democratic control over the economy. In doing so, this paper connects the new debate on economic planning to the academic literature on financialization and the democratization of finance.
This chapter discusses Donald Trump and the American far right from the perspective of Friedrich Nietzsche’s philosophy, which is the inspiration for right-wing ideologists behind Trump’s ideology and politics. Trump adopts Nietzsche’s perspectivism, the morality of ressentiment, and the search for superman. These elements of Nietzsche are the basis of ultra-Conservative political ideology in America and Republican politics. Their use of Nietzsche requires analysis. To what extent do far-right ideology and Trump abuse the thought of Nietzsche as a political philosopher? Is it correct to say that Nietzsche was a radical conservative? Finally, it is important to demonstrate that Nietzsche’s philosophy differs from Trump’s political ideology.
Background. We describe how rates of two frequently occurring notifiable diseases—diphtheria and scarlet fever—varied between regions of The Netherlands in the early twentieth century, and identify potential factors underlying this variation. Methods. Digitized weekly mandatory notification data for 1905–1925, municipality level, were aggregated into 27 ‘spatial units’ defined by unique combinations of province and population density category (high: more than 4500; mid : 1250–4500; low: less than 1250 inhabitants km⁻²). Generalized additive regression models were fitted to estimate the associations between notification rates and population density, infant mortality rate and household income, while adjusting for temporal trends per spatial unit. Results. Annual per capita notification rates for both diphtheria and scarlet fever tended to rise from the beginning of the period 1905–1925 until peaking around 1918/1919. Adjusted diphtheria notification rates were higher for high- and mid- compared with low-density municipalities (by 71.6 cases per 100 000, 95% confidence interval (CI) : 52.7–90.5; 39.0/100 k, 95% CI : 24.7–53.3, respectively). Scarlet fever showed similar associations with population density (35.7 cases per 100 000, 95% CI : 9.4–62.0; 21.4/100 k, 95% CI: 1.5–41.3). Conclusions. There was considerable spatial variation in notification rates for both diseases in early twentieth century Netherlands, which could partly be explained by factors capturing variation in living conditions and socio-economic circumstances. These findings aid understanding of contemporary respiratory infection transmission.
A model of the evolution of the onshore wind turbine blade mass installed in Denmark is proposed described by a Weibull distribution, and the age of the blades is estimated from decommissioning data to t50%,onshore$$ {t}_{50\%, onshore} $$ = 29 years when half of the blade mass of an installation year has been decommissioned. This is considerably longer than the 20 year design lifetime of onshore turbines, which is often assumed to be an estimate of the End‐of‐Life of turbine blades. Thus, blade waste predictions using the simple assumption may predict that installed blade masses are entering recycling processes about 9 years sooner that what is observed in Denmark. The blade mass for decommissioning in Denmark is estimated to peak at 2000 and 5000 ton/year in 2028 and 2045 using the Weibull model.
Is citizen participation in policymaking and implementation desirable? Numerous studies have explored its effects on policy outcomes and citizen attitudes. We, instead, examine its effects on public servants. Citizen participation changes public sector job characteristics and thus potentially job attitudes. Looking at job satisfaction, we argue that citizen participation negatively affects public servants who observe, but do not participate in citizen participation initiatives in their institution's decisions (“Spectators”), yet not public servants who are “Participants.” “Participants” learn to appreciate the benefits of citizen participation while minimizing its cost. Survey data from public servants in one developing country, Bangladesh, provides empirical support.
Vertebrate populations are often monitored as part of broader assessments of ecosystem status, where they are expected to provide information on the ability of the ecosystem to support higher‐level predators. However, because many vertebrates are long‐lived and often only subsets of their populations can be monitored, abundance may not be sufficiently responsive to ecosystem status to provide early warnings of impending changes. Marine birds are often used as indicators of ecosystem status but, due to their long lifespan and delayed recruitment to the breeding population, changes in abundance are generally slow and often difficult to interpret. Their breeding productivity is, however, also widely monitored and much more responsive to ecosystem status, but the relevance of variation in productivity may be difficult to assess. We propose a model‐based indicator that integrates monitoring of abundance and breeding productivity through demographic matrix models. The metric of the proposed indicator is the expected population growth rate, given the observed level of breeding productivity. This expected growth rate is then compared with a threshold derived from the criteria employed for red‐listing of threatened species by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. We demonstrate the suggested approach using data from Black‐legged Kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla in the Greater North Sea region, Northwest Europe. The proposed indicator shows that the current level of breeding productivity is expected to lead to a population decline of 3–4% per year, which is equivalent to a red‐list status as Endangered for the species in this region. Our indicator approach is used in OSPAR's Quality Status Report 2023 and is expected to be used by European Union member states for reporting under the Marine Strategy Framework Directive in 2024. Our approach represents a major step forward in assessing the status of marine bird populations; the ideal next step would be to develop a coherent Integrated Population Modelling (IPM) framework that would allow inclusion of all data on population abundance and demography collected across the large and diverse marine ecosystems involved.
In recent years, the sediment compartment has gained more attention when performing toxicity assessments with the growing emphasis on gaining more ecological relevance in testing. Though many standard guidelines recommend using artificially formulated sediment, most sediment studies are using natural sediment collected in the field. Although the use of natural field collected sediment contributes to more environmentally realistic exposure scenarios and higher well‐being for sediment‐dwelling organisms, it lowers comparability and reproducibility among studies due to e.g., differences in the base sediment depending on sampling site, background contamination, particle size distribution, or organic matter content. The aim of this methodology paper is to present and discuss best practices related to collecting, handling, describing, and applying natural field collected sediment in ecotoxicological testing. We propose six recommendations: 1) natural sediment should be collected at a well‐studied site, historically and by laboratory analysis; 2) to collect and store larger quantities of sediment prior to initiation of an experiment to ensure a uniform sediment base; 3) any sediment used in ecotoxicological testing should be characterized, at the very least, for its water content, organic matter content, pH, and particle size distribution; 4) to select a spiking method, equilibration time, and experimental setup based on the properties of the contaminant and the research question; 5) to include control‐, treated similarly to the spiked sediment, and solvent control sediment when appropriate; and, 6) to quantify experimental exposure concentrations in the overlying water, porewater (if applicable), and bulk sediment at least at the beginning and the end of each experiment.
Despite a growing number of studies on how prior beliefs distort citizens' interpretation of performance information for service providers, little is known about whether prior beliefs matter equally across different services and types of providers. In this study, we provide a wide replication and extension of the experimental design used in Baekgaard and Serritzlew (2016) with three types of providers (public, non‐profit, and for‐profit) across two services (nursing homes and refuse collection). Based on two large‐N nationally representative experiments (N = 3018 and N = 3020), we find that citizens' sector preference does indeed impact their interpretation of performance information, corresponding to the original study. However, public sector preference plays a substantially different role in the two services. Our findings strengthen the external validity of previous research and simultaneously identify theoretical boundaries to its application across various services and providers. This, we argue, underlines the importance of replicating and extending pivotal studies on performance information.
Plain Language Summary The Arctic is warming much faster than the rest of the globe due to increases in carbon dioxide, and other trace constituents like ozone, also an air pollutant. However, improved understanding is needed about long‐term changes or trends in Arctic tropospheric ozone. A coherent methodology is used to identify trends in surface and regular profile measurements over the last 20–30 years, and results from six chemistry‐climate models. Increases in observed ozone are found at the surface and in the free troposphere during winter in the high Arctic. Paradoxically, decreases in nitrogen oxide emissions at mid‐latitudes appear to be leading to increases in ozone during winter, but associated increases in Arctic tropospheric ozone tend to be overestimated in the models. Increases are also found at the surface in northern Alaska during spring but not reproduced by the models. The causes are unknown but could be related to changes in local sources or sinks of Arctic ozone or in large‐scale weather patterns. Declining mid‐latitude emissions, or increased dry deposition to northern forests, may explain negative surface ozone trends over northern Scandinavia in spring that are not always captured by the models. Further work is needed to understand changes in Arctic tropospheric ozone.
Despite valuable studies into the uses/functions of sarcasm, no previous investigation has focused on the semantics of “sarcasm” as an emic metapragmatic category. We provide a contrastive lexical study of English and Danish using the Natural Semantic Metalanguage ( NSM ) approach. We find that the English noun sarcasm has been undergoing semantic innovation and is now polysemous, as is its corresponding adjective. Roughly, older sarcasm 1 expresses a positive message with an obvious negative intention, while newer sarcasm 2 expresses a negative message with the aim of being amusing. For Danish, sarkasme is shown to closely align with sarcasm 1 , but semantic innovation has been happening in Danish too. A new expression sarkastisk humor overlaps with sarcasm 2 but is tailored to fit into Danish humor discourses. The study sheds light on insider understandings and metapragmatic discourses in Anglo and Danish linguacultures. There are cautionary implications for the use of “sarcasm” as a second-order concept.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNA molecules, typically 21‒22 nucleotides in size, which play a crucial role in regulating gene expression in most eukaryotes. Their significance in various biological processes and disease pathogenesis has led to considerable interest in their potential as biomarkers for diagnosis and therapeutic applications. In this study, a novel method for sensing target miRNAs using Tailed‐Hoogsteen triplex DNA‐encapsulated Silver Nanoclusters (DNA/AgNCs) is introduced. Upon hybridization of a miRNA with the tail, the Tailed‐Hoogsteen triplex DNA/AgNCs exhibit a pronounced red fluorescence, effectively turning on the signal. It is successfully demonstrated that this miRNA sensor not only recognized target miRNAs in total RNA extracted from cells but also visualized target miRNAs when introduced into live cells, highlighting the advantages of the turn‐on mechanism. Furthermore, through gel‐fluorescence assays and small‐angle X‐ray scattering (SAXS) analysis, the turn‐on mechanism is elucidated, revealing that the Tailed‐Hoogsteen triplex DNA/AgNCs undergo a structural transition from a monomer to a dimer upon sensing the target miRNA. Overall, the findings suggest that Tailed‐Hoogsteen triplex DNA/AgNCs hold great promise as practical sensors for small RNAs in both in vitro and cell imaging applications.
Startup accelerators offer a range of services to entrepreneurs that enable them to accelerate growth and development in just a few months. Typically, small‐, and medium‐sized, growth‐oriented companies are supported early in their development through offers of education and training, mentoring, consulting, and venture capital. The startup accelerator “Growth Train” of Business Lolland‐Falster – a regional development organization in Denmark, has been the subject of a closer investigation as a service journey and business model. Four distinct factors make accelerators unique: time‐limited, cohort‐based (a standard course for a selected group), mentor‐driven, and typically ends with a ‘demo day’. The analysis of Growth Train is based on Service Design Thinking and theories on Business Models. It contributes to the theoretical understanding of startup accelerators as a service journey for the participating startups where Service‐Design Thinking plays a crucial role in the design of the accelerator. It also explains how the accelerators create value for the selected group of startups. Startup accelerators also represent a Business Model (value proposition) for the managers of the accelerators and the stakeholders in the local business ecosystem. It also offers economic growth and employment for outlying areas like Lolland‐Falster in Denmark.
Introduction In the TARGET AC trial, the biodegradable-polymer sirolimus-eluting Firehawk stent was non-inferior to the everolimus-eluting XIENCE stent with respect to target lesion failure (TLF) at 12 months; however, long-term safety and efficacy in the setting of an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are not known. Purpose To assess the long-term outcomes in ACS vs chronic coronary syndromes (CCS) with the Firehawk stent vs the XIENCE stent Methods The TARGET AC study was a multicentre, open label, noninferiority trial of all comer patients randomised 1:1 (stratified by STEMI) to Firehawk or XIENCE stents. In this substudy, outcomes were compared based on clinical presentation (ACS vs CCS) and treatment allocation. Results A total of 1653 patients were enrolled (728 with ACS and 922 with CCS) with 94% completing 5-year follow-up. Baseline characteristics were well matched. Target lesion failure (TLF) (15.5% vs 17.7%; p=0.24), patient-oriented composite endpoint (death, any myocardial infarction, or any revascularization) (32.0% vs 34.4%; p=0.31), and stent thrombosis (4.1% vs 3.3%; p=0.40) were similar between ACS and CCS patients (Table 1). Among the ACS cohort, outcomes at 5 years for Firehawk vs XIENCE were not different for TLF (16.0% vs 14.9%; p=0.70), ischemia-driven target lesion revascularisation (ID-TLR) (5.6% vs 8.3%; p=0.17), or definite/probable stent thrombosis (2.7% vs 4.6%; p=0.18). The same was true for the CCS cohort, with 5-year outcomes for Firehawk vs XIENCE for TLF (18.0% vs 17.4%; p=0.82), ID-TLR (6.4% vs 5.0%; p=0.37), and definite/probable stent thrombosis (3.0% vs 1.8%; p=0.26) similar between groups. Conclusions One in three patients presenting with CCS or ACS had a major adverse event at 5 years. Long-term, the Firehawk stent was as safe and effective as the XIENCE stent irrespective of clinical presentation. Open in new tabDownload slide
Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a well-established risk factor for heart failure (HF), stroke, and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. However, only limited longitudinal data exist regarding the impact of AF burden on left ventricular (LV) structure and function. Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the association between AF burden and longitudinal changes in LV structure and function in an older patient population with cardiac risk factors. Methods This study was a post-hoc analysis of a randomized clinical trial, which investigated whether AF screening with implantable loop recorders (ILRs) and subsequent initiation of anticoagulation could prevent stroke in high-risk individuals. As a substudy, a group of participants had extensive transthoracic echocardiography performed at baseline and a re-examination after ILR end-of-life. We included participants with available ILR data and echocardiographic data from both baseline and follow-up. We excluded participants with ongoing AF during the baseline echocardiogram. AF episodes were adjudicated by two cardiologists and AF burden was calculated as the percentage of time spent in AF during the total ILR monitoring period. Univariable and multivariable linear regression models were used to investigate the association between AF burden and changes in echocardiographic measures. The multivariable model was adjusted for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, diabetes, smoking status, previously acute myocardial infarction, previous coronary artery bypass grafting, prevalent HF, body mass index, estimated glomerular filtration rate, number of days monitored by ILR, and the number of days between the two echocardiographic examinations. Both models included adjustment for the baseline value of the echocardiographic measure. Results The study population consisted of 640 participants with available baseline and follow-up echocardiograms. Mean age was 73.6 years (±3.4 years) and 278 (43.4%) were women. AF was documented in 188 (29.4%) participants during a median ILR monitoring period of 3.2 years (IQR 2.9-3.4 years). The mean timespan between the echocardiographic examinations was median 5.0 (IQR 4.6-5.2) years. Among participants with AF, the median AF burden was 0.098% (IQR 0.026-0.758%). Over the course of echocardiographic follow-up, mean ∆GLS was -0.59% (±3.49%), mean ∆LVEF was -1.44% (±8.5%), and mean ∆E/e’ was -1.12(±3.23) in those with AF. Increasing AF burden was significantly associated with an accelerated decline in absolute global longitudinal strain in both univariable (ß= -0.12, p=0.002) and multivariable (ß= -0.11, p=0.003) models (Table 1/Figure 1). Conclusions In an older at-risk population, AF was frequent, and increasing AF burden was found to be independently associated with an accelerated decline in LV function. These findings support AF as an independent risk factor in the development of HF.
This topic review communicates working experiences regarding the interaction of a multiplicity of processes. We draw on examples of climate change modelling, materials science, cell physiology, public health, and macroeconomic modelling. Recent years have witnessed astonishing advances not only in broadband temporal frequency sampling, multiscale modelling, and fast large-scale numerical simulation of complex systems, but also in the continual uncertainty of many science-based results. In accordance with the aims of this collection, in this chapter we describe and analyze properties that depend on the time scale of the measurement, structural instability, tipping points, thresholds, hysteresis, and feedback mechanisms with runaways, stabilization or delays. While paying tribute to the advances in data collection and interpretation, we point to grave disorientation in statistical sampling, the interpretation of observations, and the design of control when neglecting the presence or emergence of multiple characteristic times. To us, environmental research is the preferred field of application to demonstrate the meaning of these working experiences, mostly gained in materials science, public health, and macroeconomics.
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2,873 members
Ole Vang
  • Department of Science and Environment (DSE)
Nina Torm
  • Department of Social Sciences and Business
Peter Triantafillou
  • Department of social science and business
Mika Yasuoka
  • Department of People and Technology
Universitetsvej 1, 4000, Roskilde, Denmark
Head of institution
Hanne Leth Andersen
+45 4674 2000