# Roskilde University

• Roskilde, Denmark
Recent publications
Background The beneficial role of gut microbiota and bacterial metabolites, including short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), is well recognized, although the available literature around their role in colorectal cancer (CRC) has been inconsistent. Methods We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the associations of fecal SCFA concentrations to the incidence and risk of CRC. Data extraction through Medline, Embase, and Web of Science was carried out from database conception to June 29, 2022. Predefined inclusion/exclusion criteria led to the selection of 17 case-control and six cross-sectional studies for quality assessment and analyses. Studies were categorized for CRC risk or incidence, and RevMan 5.4 was used to perform the meta-analyses. Standardized mean differences (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using a random-effects model. Studies lacking quantitation were included in qualitative analyses. Results Combined analysis of acetic, propionic, and butyric acid revealed significantly lower concentrations of these SCFAs in individuals with a high-risk of CRC (SMD = 2.02, 95% CI 0.31 to 3.74, P = 0.02). Additionally, CRC incidence was higher in individuals with lower levels of SCFAs (SMD = 0.45, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.72, P = 0.0009), compared to healthy individuals. Qualitative analyses identified 70.4% of studies reporting significantly lower concentrations of fecal acetic, propionic, butyric acid, or total SCFAs in those at higher risk of CRC, while 66.7% reported significantly lower concentrations of fecal acetic and butyric acid in CRC patients compared to healthy controls. Conclusions Overall, lower fecal concentrations of the three major SCFAs are associated with higher risk of CRC and incidence of CRC.
Government responses to the Covid‐19 pandemic in the Nordic states—Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden—exhibit similarities and differences. This article investigates the extent to which crisis policymaking diverges from normal policymaking within the Nordic countries and whether variations between the countries are associated with the role of expertise and the level of politicization. Government responses are analyzed in terms of governance arrangements and regulatory instruments. Findings demonstrate some deviation from normal policymaking within and considerable variation between the Nordic countries, as Denmark, Finland, and to some extent Norway exhibit similar patterns with hierarchical command and control governance arrangements, while Iceland, in some instances, resembles the case of Sweden, which has made use of network‐based governance. The article shows that the higher the influence of experts, the more likely it is that the governance arrangement will be network‐based.
This article focuses on students’ experiences of psychosocial problems and how these problems relate to the ideas of ‘good students’ in higher education. The empirical basis of the article is a qualitative research project following Danish students with a range of psychosocial problems. Forty-seven students were followed for up to 2 years, in several rounds of in-depth interviewing. A key finding of the research is that students with problems often meet the attitude that they are not ‘proper’ students or ‘suitable’ for university. Psychosocial problems seem to be understood as antithetical to the prevalent, culturally normative ideas of the ‘good student’, producing a range of (extra) problems for the students in question. The article discusses this, unfolding two students’ examples, pointing out how (academic) self-understanding, individual and independent working routines and dilemmas of getting support challenged them in higher education as they ‘climbed Mount Adversity’.
A discrete and exact algorithm for obtaining planetary systems is derived in a recent article (Eur. Phys. J. Plus 2022, 137:99). Here, the algorithm is used to obtain planetary systems with forces different from the Newtonian inverse-square gravitational forces. A Newtonian planetary system exhibits regular elliptical orbits, and here, it is demonstrated that a planetary system with pure inverse forces also is stable and with regular orbits, whereas a planetary system with inverse cubic forces is unstable and without regular orbits. The regular orbits in a planetary system with inverse forces deviate, however, from the usual elliptical orbits by having revolving orbits with tendency to orbits with three or eight loops. Newton’s Proposition 45 in $$\textit{Principia}$$ for the Moon’s revolving orbits caused by an additional attraction to the gravitational attraction is confirmed, but whereas the additional inverse forces stabilize the planetary system, the additional inverse cubic forces can destabilize the planetary system at a sufficient strength.
Diagnosis and management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) requires accurate assessment of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). In practice, GFR is typically estimated by equations based on creatinine concentration in blood, but creatinine is affected by non‐GFR factors such as age and sex. Alternative filtration markers such as cystatin C, beta‐trace protein (BTP), and beta‐2 microglobulin (B2M) may be less dependent on age and sex, but equations combining these markers have not been investigated in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this cross‐sectional study of 50 patients with CKD stage 3–4, we compared kidney function estimates based on creatinine, cystatin C, BTP, B2M, or a combination of markers. Compared to the creatinine/cystatin C combination equation, the panel equation yielded a mean difference of only 2.8 ml/min/1.73 m2, indicating that switching to the panel equation would be unlikely to affect management.
International education scholars often theorise alternative models of knowledge work in the university. These imagine the transformation of teaching and learning and a more inclusive society. This article presents the case of a university in Denmark, where problem-oriented, interdisciplinary, collaborative project work has been the pedagogic norm for over forty years. It draws on a theoretical basis that asserts the value of a different onto-epistemological paradigm for doing knowledge work, one that engages students in knowing as troublesome (stimulated through a personally-interesting complex issue) and contested (subject to different perspectives and purposes) to enact immersive and multifaceted learning processes. Mixed-method data from the case illustrate plural outcomes of the approach. While quantitative achievement data reveal a general pattern of higher achievement in problem-focused projects when compared to coursework, teasing into qualitative statements reveals a matrix of co-existing outcomes and epistemic dispositions for graduates. While a singular case, the study illuminates the ways that learning outcomes entwine with the ways students encounter and generate knowledge in a university setting. Through processes of inquiry, students are invited to develop epistemic dispositions for engaging willingly with complexity, knowledge, others, and the world.
This article places ambiguity at the centre of Human Resource Management theory and practice of organizational culture and advances a multi‐dimensional framework that makes productive use of tensions between cultural integration and differentiation. Providing an illustrative analysis of Greenland Police, we identify a clash between a strong integrational pull and a similarly powerful differentiating force, involving an integrated occupational culture and differentiated national sub‐cultures. This clash, we show, becomes productive when organizational members articulate and enact ambiguous identities. Emphasising the contextuality of organizational culture, we do not believe the empirical findings to be generalisable, but, instead, offer the analytical framework for studying multi‐dimensional organizational culture as our main contribution. Conceptually, we emphasise how ambiguity is articulated in and between integration and differentiation, thus enhancing the relationality of the dimensions. The practical aim is to set ambiguous dynamics in motion that enable productive relations between different cultural dimensions.
Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae can convert biowaste and by-products into body mass high in protein (~40% dry matter, DM) and lipid (~30% DM). However, the type of rearing substrate also affects the larval body composition and thus its nutritional value. Hitherto, it remains unclear how and to what extent the larval body composition can be altered by the substrate. This study was therefore performed to examine the possibilities of modifying larval body composition using different rearing substrates. To investigate this, 5-days old larvae were reared for seven days on different locally available waste and by-products: brewer’s spent grain, mitigation mussels (Mytilus edulis), rapeseed cake, and shrimp waste meal (Pandalus borealis). Larval composition and performance were compared to larvae reared on a commercial chicken feed as well as a mixed feed (mixture of chicken feed and by-products, with a similar macronutrient composition to chicken feed). Larval body weight was recorded daily to determine growth over time whereas larvae and substrates were sampled at the start and end of the trial and analysed for their nutritional composition. The type of rearing substrate affected both larval body composition and growth performance. There was a clear relation between the nutritional composition of the substrate and larvae for certain fatty acids. Larvae reared on marine-based waste substrates contained a higher share of omega-3 fatty acids than larvae reared on the other substrates, indicating an accumulation of omega-3 fatty acids from the substrate. There was a strong positive linear correlation between the ash content in the substrate and larvae whereas larval lipid, protein, amino acid, and chitin content seemed more affected by larval development. Overall, this study showed that the rearing substrate affects larval composition and development, and that larval composition of certain nutrients can be tailored depending on further food and feed applications.
Background and aims An opioid-sparing postoperative analgesic regimen following laparoscopic hemicolectomy is optimal to promote minimal postoperative pain, early mobilization, and improved quality of recovery. Various regional anesthesia techniques have been tested to improve postoperative pain management after laparoscopic hemicolectomy. In this study, we aimed to assess the effect of administering a preoperative bilateral ultrasound-guided anterior quadratus lumborum nerve block on postoperative opioid consumption after laparoscopic colon cancer surgery. Methods In this randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial, 69 patients undergoing laparoscopic hemicolectomy due to colon cancer were randomized to receive an anterior quadratus lumborum block with ropivacaine 0.375% 30 mL on each side or isotonic saline (placebo). The primary outcome measure was total opioid consumption during the first 24 hours postsurgery. The secondary outcome measures were pain scores, accumulated opioid consumption in 6-hour intervals, nausea and vomiting, ability of postoperative ambulation, time to first opioid, orthostatic hypotension or intolerance, postoperative Quality of Recovery-15 scores, surgical complications, length of hospital stay, and adverse events. Results The total opioid consumption in the first 24 hours postsurgery was not significantly reduced in the ropivacaine group compared with the saline group (mean 129 mg (SD 88.4) vs mean 127.2 mg (SD 89.9), p=0.93). In addition, no secondary outcome measures showed any statistically significant intergroup differences. Conclusion The administration of a preoperative bilateral anterior quadratus lumborum nerve block as part of a multimodal analgesic regimen for laparoscopic hemicolectomy did not significantly reduce opioid consumption 24 hours postsurgery. Trial registration number NCT03570541 .
Organised policy learning among the Nordic countries—Finland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Iceland—has been around for more than 50 years, but it is an under‐researched subject. This article analyses the process as well as the output of policy learning among Nordic countries on adult education in networks under the auspices of the Nordic Council of Ministers. The data material consists of 10 in‐depth interviews with actors herein over a period of 2 years, as well as the few documents available. The most important results are that the policy learning process is characterised by so‐called epistemic and reflexive learning modes dominated by cooperation, inputs from science and dialogue. The output from the Nordic policy learning networks mainly consists of combining elements from other Nordic countries that are frontrunners in the relevant policy area. The output of Nordic policy learning is certainly much more than just being inspired by practices in Nordic countries. The results from the analysed networks can easily be generalised to other Nordic networks, but to a lesser extent to international policy learning networks where ‘value consensus’ is not as pronounced as among the Nordic countries.
The existing, liberal world order is under pressure and transatlantic cooperation on security is challenged. The paper raises the question, why have the European steps and policy initiatives towards addressing the new international threats and challenges to Europe been so limited and cautious. The first argument states it is because the European decision-makers were unable to agree when it came to implementing salient and concrete policies addressing new security threats and building strategic autonomy. The second argument states that the European decision-makers were only able to reach agreement on diffuse and symbolic policy ideas like building “strategic autonomy” for the European Union. The third argument states that the Europeans were able to address some of the new security challenges if it took place within NATO. The analysis shows that the European responses and reactions to the increasing tensions in the Indo-Pacific were subdued. The Europeans were unable to launch any concrete reactions to the American unilateral abrogation of the Iranian nuclear deal, to the unilateral American policy initiatives in the Israel-Palestine conflict or to the US withdrawal from Afghanistan. However, the Europeans increased the level of their defense spending and they also cooperated closely with their transatlantic partner to counter the assertive Russian foreign policy behavior.
Innovations in monetary design continue to develop alongside insights from heterodox schools of thought, notably ecological economics. Feminist approaches, however, have lacked some critical purchase on the issue, guided by a feminist economics tradition which reflects certain ideas about value from neoliberal economic orthodoxy – including on the neutrality of money. This article situates discussion of the principles of money in the context of COVID-19, interpreting a paradox of hope for monetary design as the need to close an ‘epistemological gap’ between money and either the value of speech or the materiality of bodies. Using a post-structural analysis of the governing tendencies of ‘fiat money’, the article demonstrates possibilities and risks for feminist interventions in monetary re-design. The conclusions offer a biopolitical interpretation of Christine Desan’s influential ‘constitutional approach’ to money as a form of vulnerability for citizens, and the need for feminist political economy to uphold a referential gap in money’s design, looking to innovations beyond the state.
Introduction Periprosthetic infection is one of the most severe complications following implant-based breast reconstruction affecting 5%–10% of the women. Currently, many surgeons apply antibiotics locally on the breast implant to reduce the risk of postoperative infection, but no randomised, placebo-controlled trials have tested the treatment’s efficacy. Methods and analysis The BREAST-AB trial (BREAST-AntiBiotics) is an investigator-initiated, multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of local treatment with gentamicin, vancomycin and cefazolin on breast implants in women undergoing implant-based breast reconstruction. The trial drug consists of 80 mg gentamicin, 1 g vancomycin and 1 g cefazolin dissolved in 500 mL of isotonic saline. The placebo solution consists of 500 mL isotonic saline. The trial drug is used to wash the dissected tissue pocket and the breast implant prior to insertion. The primary outcome is all-cause explantation of the breast implant within 180 days after the breast reconstruction surgery. This excludes cases where the implant is replaced with a new permanent implant, for example, for cosmetic reasons. Key long-term outcomes include capsular contracture and quality of life. The trial started on 26 January 2021 and is currently recruiting. Ethics and dissemination The trial was approved by the Regional Ethics Committee of the Capital Region (H-20056592) on 1 January 2021 and the Danish Medicines Agency (2020070016) on 2 August 2020. The main paper will include the primary and secondary outcomes and will be submitted to an international peer-reviewed journal. Trial registration number NCT04731025 .
Background: Severe physical inactivity (SPI) in patients with COPD is associated with a poor prognosis. It is unknown whether there is a link between SPI and systemic inflammation, and if systemic inflammation in SPI changes following pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). Methods: A prospective, observational study of patients referred for at least 7 weeks of PR comprising 2 h of exercise therapy and education twice weekly. At baseline and after PR, daily physical activity level (PAL) was measured with a validated activity monitor, SenseWear ® as well as systemic inflammation: b-eosinophils, p-fibrinogen, p-CRP, s-IL-6 and s-CD 163. SPI was defined as PAL <1.4. Results: At baseline, SPI was present in 31 of the 57 patients included, and 23% (7/31) improved to non-SPI after PR. We observed no differences between patients with SPI and non-SPI, except baseline plasma fibrinogen level was slightly yet significantly higher in patients with SPI (median 13.3 [6.2–23.6] vs 11.2 [6.5–16.7] µmol/l) but change in fibrinogen levels differed insignificantly between patients who improved to non-SPI at follow-up compared to patients with persistent SPI (−0.6 [−16.9–9.9] vs −0.4 [−11.2–1.2] µmol/l). Conclusion: SPI in COPD appears not to be associated with a distinct inflammatory profile compared to less sedentary COPD patients attending pulmonary rehabilitation. Currently biomarkers have no role in the detection of SPI in COPD.
The important question of the legality of the state obliging trial incompetent defendants to receive competency-restoring treatment against their wishes, is one that has received much attention by legal scholars. Surprisingly, however, little attention has been paid to the, in many ways more fundamental, moral question of whether the state ought to administer such treatments. The aim of this paper is to start filling this gap in the literature. I begin by offering some reasons for thinking it morally acceptable to, at least sometimes, oblige trial-incompetent defendants to receive competency-restoring treatments. The paper then discusses whether three prominent arguments (and their variations) offered by legal scholars against using non-consensual treatment to restore trial competence provide grounds for thinking there to be a general moral prohibition against these treatments. I argue that they do not.
The magnitude and distribution of net primary production (NPP) in the coastal ocean remains poorly constrained, particularly for shallow marine vegetation. Here, using a compilation of in situ annual NPP measurements across >400 sites in 72 geographic ecoregions, we provide global predictions of the productivity of seaweed habitats, which form the largest vegetated coastal biome on the planet. We find that seaweed NPP is strongly coupled to climatic variables, peaks at temperate latitudes, and is dominated by forests of large brown seaweeds. Seaweed forests exhibit exceptionally high per-area production rates (a global average of 656 and 1711 gC m−2 year−1 in the subtidal and intertidal, respectively), being up to 10 times higher than coastal phytoplankton in temperate and polar seas. Our results show that seaweed NPP is a strong driver of production in the coastal ocean and call for its integration in the oceanic carbon cycle, where it has traditionally been overlooked.
In the wake of the financial crisis, Danish retail bankers have experienced a marked increase in mundane administrative tasks, which do not conform to what they expect their work lives to be. Seeking to understand how the bankers cope with this, the paper conducts a qualitative inquiry into the identity work of Danish retail bankers, focusing on the ways in which they reconcile experiences of boredom with their work-identity. Drawing on pragmatic sociology, this reconciliation is conceptualized as individual justifications of boredom through different orders of worth. The paper identifies three justifications of boredom: (1) Projective boredom posits boring administrative tasks as unwanted and problematic. This justification is generally in line with currently dominant empirical and theoretical accounts of the financial sector and finds no justification for boredom, seeking, instead, to eliminate it. (2) Domestic boredom justifies the boring tasks as a duty performed by the humble and respectable banker, who is concerned with their status in the local community and whose sense of pride has been damaged by the many scandals in the sector. Finally, (3) civic boredom justifies boredom as a sacrifice made by the selfless banker who acts in the interest of the common good, understood as a more responsible, and less greedy, financial sector. Here, the meaninglessness of specific tasks is transcended in the service of a higher purpose, which helps the individual sustain an identity as a solidary professional.
People and places are entangled through material, social, discursive and emotional relations, which makes it complex to understand the daily living in a certain place. In this article, we explore such entanglements, with an outset in two underprivileged neighbourhoods in Denmark, by drawing on two sets of theoretical thinking: The framework of multiplicity, and the concept of place. We argue that the neighbourhoods cannot be defined as either good or bad places of living. Rather they exist in complex ways, where what makes some people feel at home, is what makes others feel insecure, and where such ambivalent feelings can co-exist inherently for individual residents. Furthermore, our analysis shows that manifold enactments of residents and places enable multiple trajectories of how to live and identify oneself in relation to the neighbourhood.
Numerous electronic health records (EHRs) offer valuable opportunities for understanding patients’ health status at different stages, namely health progression. Extracting the health progression patterns allows researchers to perform accurate predictive analysis of patient outcomes. However, most existing works on this task suffer from the following two limitations: 1) the diverse dependencies among heterogeneous medical entities are overlooked, which leads to the one-sided modeling of patients’ status and 2) the extraction granularity of patient’s health progression patterns is coarse, limiting the model’s ability to accurately infer the patient’s future status. To address these challenges, a pretrained Health progression network via heterogeneous medical information fusion, HealthNet, is proposed in this article. Specifically, a global heterogeneous graph in HealthNet is built to integrate heterogeneous medical entities and the dependencies among them. In addition, the proposed health progression network is designed to model hierarchical medical event sequences. By this method, the fine-grained health progression patterns of patients’ health can be captured. The experimental results on real disease datasets demonstrate that HealthNet outperforms the state-of-the-art models for both diagnosis prediction task and mortality prediction task.
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• Department of Science and Environment (DSE)
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