Background The oral, selective SMN2 -splicing modifier risdiplam obtained European approval in March 2021 for the treatment of patients ≥ 2 months old with a clinical diagnosis of 5q-associated spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) 1/2/3 or with 1–4 SMN2 gene copies. For the preceding 12 months, this compassionate use program (CUP) made risdiplam available to patients with SMA1/2 in Germany who could not receive any approved SMA therapy. Patients and methods Patients with SMA1/2, aged ≥ 2 months at enrollment, could be included if they were not eligible for, no longer responsive to, or not able to tolerate nusinersen or not able to receive onasemnogene abeparvovec. Oral risdiplam dosing ranged from 0.2 mg/kg to 5 mg depending on age and weight. All treatment decisions were made by the attending physicians, who were required to report all adverse events (AEs). Results Between March 12, 2020 and March 30, 2021, 36 patients with SMA1 and 98 patients with SMA2 were enrolled, with 31 patients and 80 patients receiving ≥ 1 risdiplam dose, respectively. The median (range) age was 10.5 (3–52) years in the SMA1 cohort, and 26.5 (3–60) years in the SMA2 cohort. 22.2% of patients with SMA1 and 48.0% with SMA2 were treatment-naïve. Most patients were not eligible/could not continue to receive nusinersen due to scoliosis/safety risk (SMA1: 75.0%; SMA2: 96.9%), risks associated with sedation (77.8%; 63.3%), or loss of efficacy (30.6%; 12.2%). Safety data were generally in line with the safety profile of risdiplam in ongoing clinical studies. Gastrointestinal disorders were the most common AEs. For patients with SMA1, 30 AEs were reported in 13 cases with 2 serious AEs in 1 patient. For SMA2, 100 AEs were documented in 31 case reports, including 8 serious AEs in 2 patients. Conclusions We present the first real-world safety data of risdiplam in patients with SMA in Germany. Our observations indicated no new safety signals under real-world conditions. Real-world SMA1/2 populations comprise considerable numbers of patients who are not eligible for gene therapy and cannot tolerate or have failed nusinersen treatment. This medical need may be addressed by oral risdiplam.
Advances in the technologies to enable patient-centric sampling (PCS) have the potential to improve blood sample collection by enabling clinical trial participants to collect samples via self-collection or with the help of a caregiver in their home. Typically, blood samples to assess pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a drug during clinical development are collected at a clinical site via venous blood draw. In this position paper by the International Consortium for Innovation and Quality in Pharmaceutical Development (IQ), the potential value PCS can bring to patients, to the clinical datasets generated, and to clinical trial sponsors is discussed, along with considerations for program decision-making, bioanalytical feasibility, operations, and regulatory implications. With an understanding of the value of PCS and considerations when implementing during clinical drug development, we can bring the promise of PCS closer to reality and enable decentralized clinical trials.
Background: Sphingomyelin (SM) levels have been associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but the association direction has been inconsistent and research on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) SMs has been limited by sample size, breadth of SMs examined, and diversity of biomarkers available. Objective: Here, we seek to build on our understanding of the role of SM metabolites in AD by studying a broad range of CSF SMs and biomarkers of AD, neurodegeneration, and neuroinflammation. Methods: Leveraging two longitudinal AD cohorts with metabolome-wide CSF metabolomics data (n = 502), we analyzed the relationship between the levels of 12 CSF SMs, and AD diagnosis and biomarkers of pathology, neurodegeneration, and neuroinflammation using logistic, linear, and linear mixed effects models. Results: No SMs were significantly associated with AD diagnosis, mild cognitive impairment, or amyloid biomarkers. Phosphorylated tau, neurofilament light, α-synuclein, neurogranin, soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2, and chitinase-3-like-protein 1 were each significantly, positively associated with at least 5 of the SMs. Conclusion: The associations between SMs and biomarkers of neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation, but not biomarkers of amyloid or diagnosis of AD, point to SMs as potential biomarkers for neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation that may not be AD-specific.
This article evaluates the performance of pharmacokinetic (PK) equivalence testing between two formulations of a drug through the Two-One Sided Tests (TOST) by a model-based approach (MB-TOST), as an alternative to the classical non-compartmental approach (NCA-TOST), for a sparse design with a few time points per subject. We focused on the impact of model misspecification and the relevance of model selection for the reference data. We first analysed PK data from phase I studies of gantenerumab, a monoclonal antibody for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Using the original rich sample data, we compared MB-TOST to NCA-TOST for validation. Then, the analysis was repeated on a sparse subset of the original data with MB-TOST. This analysis inspired a simulation study with rich and sparse designs. With rich designs, we compared NCA-TOST and MB-TOST in terms of type I error and study power. With both designs, we explored the impact of misspecifying the model on the performance of MB-TOST and adding a model selection step. Using the observed data, the results of both approaches were in general concordance. MB-TOST results were robust with sparse designs when the underlying PK structural model was correctly specified. Using the simulated data with a rich design, the type I error of NCA-TOST was close to the nominal level. When using the simulated model, the type I error of MB-TOST was controlled on rich and sparse designs, but using a misspecified model led to inflated type I errors. Adding a model selection step on the reference data reduced the inflation. MB-TOST appears as a robust alternative to NCA-TOST, provided that the PK model is correctly specified and the test drug has the same PK structural model as the reference drug.
Purpose NIS HELENA documented outcomes in clinical routine practice of first-line therapy with P plus T and docetaxel (D) of patients with advanced HER2-positive BC and prior (neo)adjuvant T. Methods Between 06/2013 through 07/2016, 126 patients (in-label use of P at study start = full analysis set, FAS) in 81 German study sites were included. Intense documentation period was limited to 28 treatment cycles. Maximum follow-up (FU) was 24 months (mos). Safety was assessed in the safety set (SAF = eligible patients with at least one dose of P, n = 132). Median progression-free survival (PFS) was the main parameter of interest. Results Mean age of FAS patients was 55.1 [30.7–80.2] years, 81.7% (95.2%) were < 65 (75) years of age. 51.6% of the FAS patients were hormone receptor-positive (HR+), 91.3% had distant, 73.0% visceral, and 18.3% non-visceral metastases. Median disease-free interval was 40.2 [6.6–95.9] mos. Effectiveness (FAS): Median PFS was 18.8 [15.1; 24.2] mos. Overall response rate was 64.3% (55.6; 72.1). Median overall survival was 55.9 mos [41.2, not reached]. Safety (SAF): 93.9% of patients had an adverse event (AE), 32.6% a serious AE (SAE). AEs related to P occurred in 53.8% of SAF, SAEs related to P in 13.6%. Diarrhea was the most frequently reported related (S)AE. There were 8 (6.1%) patients with a fatal AE. Conclusion Based on the outcomes from NIS HELENA, results of dual blockade with P+T in patients relapsing after (neo)adjuvant T as reported from the CLEOPATRA study (NCT01777958) can be transferred to routine clinical practice. No new safety signals were detected.
A machine learning-based tool that provides conditions and predicted yields for Buchwald-Hartwig couplings from a ChemDraw™ structure input is described. The tool is built on an in-house generated experimental dataset that explores a diverse network of reactant pairings. To minimize the number of experiments necessary to produce models and maximize data value, a workflow based on unsupervised machine leaning tools was created. The workflow enables the construction of models which can successfully generalize—making predictions for reactants which are not represented in the dataset.
Background Measurements of the amyloid-β (Aβ) 42/40 ratio in blood plasma may support the early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease and aid in the selection of suitable participants in clinical trials. Here, we compared the diagnostic performance of fully automated prototype plasma Aβ42/40 assays with and without pre-analytical sample workup by immunoprecipitation. Methods A pre-selected clinical sample comprising 42 subjects with normal and 38 subjects with low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Aβ42/40 ratios was studied. The plasma Aβ42/40 ratios were determined with fully automated prototype Elecsys® immunoassays (Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Penzberg, Germany) by direct measurements in EDTA plasma or after pre-analytical Aβ immunoprecipitation. The diagnostic performance for the detection of abnormal CSF Aβ42/40 was analyzed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. In an additional post hoc analysis, a biomarker-supported clinical diagnosis was used as a second endpoint. Results Pre-analytical immunoprecipitation resulted in a significant increase in the area under the ROC curve (AUC) from 0.73 to 0.88 ( p = 0.01547) for identifying subjects with abnormal CSF Aβ42/40. A similar improvement in the diagnostic performance by pre-analytical immunoprecipitation was also observed when a biomarker-supported clinical diagnosis was used as a second endpoint (AUC increase from 0.77 to 0.92, p = 0.01576). Conclusions Our preliminary observations indicate that pre-analytical Aβ immunoprecipitation can improve the diagnostic performance of plasma Aβ assays for detecting brain amyloid pathology. The findings may aid in the further development of blood-based immunoassays for Alzheimer’s disease ultimately suitable for screening and routine use.
Purpose of Review Review comprehensive data on rates of toxoplasmosis in Panama and Colombia. Recent Findings Samples and data sets from Panama and Colombia, that facilitated estimates regarding seroprevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma and risk factors, were reviewed. Summary Screening maps, seroprevalence maps, and risk factor mathematical models were devised based on these data. Studies in Ciudad de Panamá estimated seroprevalence at between 22 and 44%. Consistent relationships were found between higher prevalence rates and factors such as poverty and proximity to water sources. Prenatal screening rates for anti-Toxoplasma antibodies were variable, despite existence of a screening law. Heat maps showed a correlation between proximity to bodies of water and overall Toxoplasma seroprevalence. Spatial epidemiological maps and mathematical models identify specific regions that could most benefit from comprehensive, preventive healthcare campaigns related to congenital toxoplasmosis and Toxoplasma infection.
Purpose of Review Review work to create and evaluate educational materials that could serve as a primary prevention strategy to help both providers and patients in Panama, Colombia, and the USA reduce disease burden of Toxoplasma infections. Recent Findings Educational programs had not been evaluated for efficacy in Panama, USA, or Colombia. Summary Educational programs for high school students, pregnant women, medical students and professionals, scientists, and lay personnel were created. In most settings, short-term effects were evaluated. In Panama, Colombia, and USA, all materials showed short-term utility in transmitting information to learners. These educational materials can serve as a component of larger public health programs to lower disease burden from congenital toxoplasmosis. Future priorities include conducting robust longitudinal studies of whether education correlates with reduced adverse disease outcomes, modifying educational materials as new information regarding region-specific risk factors is discovered, and ensuring materials are widely accessible.
Introduction Huntington’s disease (HD) services throughout the UK have grown organically and are embedded in different healthcare specialties: psychiatry, neurology and genetics. There is currently no picture of how these services are delivered nationally. This project was undertaken to map the current organisation, resources and funding of HD services and explore future resource needs. Methods This was a mixed methodology study. Existing HD services were identified using desktop research and data was collected on each service via a cross-sectional online survey and follow-up web-assisted semi-structured interviews led by the HDA or SHA. Results 31 specialist HD services were identified: 18 in England, 10 in Scotland, 2 in Wales, and 1 in N Ireland. The survey included 27 out of 31 (four centres did not respond). Over half of specialist services were led by a mental health trust (n=7) or tertiary referral hospital (n=7), and the majority had a neurologist (n=10) or psychiatrist (n=8) as clinical lead. The mean number of patients managed by each service was 173, ranging from 5 to 950. On average 18% were pre-manifest, 24% stage 1-2, 32% stage 3 and 26% stage 4-5. This project is funded solely by Roche Products Ltd.
Purpose of Review Review international efforts to build a global public health initiative focused on toxoplasmosis with spillover benefits to save lives, sight, cognition and motor function benefiting maternal and child health. Recent Findings Multiple countries’ efforts to eliminate toxoplasmosis demonstrate progress and context for this review and new work. Summary Problems with potential solutions proposed include accessibility of accurate, inexpensive diagnostic testing, pre-natal screening and facilitating tools, missed and delayed neonatal diagnosis, restricted access, high costs, delays in obtaining medicines emergently, delayed insurance pre-approvals and high medicare copays taking considerable physician time and effort, harmful shortcuts being taken in methods to prepare medicines in settings where access is restricted, reluctance to perform ventriculoperitoneal shunts promptly when needed without recognition of potential benefit, access to resources for care, especially for marginalized populations, and limited use of recent advances in management of neurologic and retinal disease which can lead to good outcomes.
Purpose of Review Review building of programs to eliminate Toxoplasma infections. Recent Findings Morbidity and mortality from toxoplasmosis led to programs in USA, Panama, and Colombia to facilitate understanding, treatment, prevention, and regional resources, incorporating student work. Summary Studies foundational for building recent, regional approaches/programs are reviewed. Introduction provides an overview/review of programs in Panamá, the United States, and other countries. High prevalence/risk of exposure led to laws mandating testing in gestation, reporting, and development of broad-based teaching materials about Toxoplasma. These were tested for efficacy as learning tools for high-school students, pregnant women, medical students, physicians, scientists, public health officials and general public. Digitized, free, smart phone application effectively taught pregnant women about toxoplasmosis prevention. Perinatal infection care programs, identifying true regional risk factors, and point-of-care gestational screening facilitate prevention and care. When implemented fully across all demographics, such programs present opportunities to save lives, sight, and cognition with considerable spillover benefits for individuals and societies.
Diagnostic testing is essential for management of the COVID-19 pandemic. An agile assay design methodology, optimized for the cobas® 6800/8800 system, was used to develop a dual-target, qualitative SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test using commercially available reagents and existing sample processing and thermocycling profiles. The limit of detection was 30–52 copies/mL for USA-WA1/2020. Assay sensitivity was confirmed for SARS-CoV-2 variants Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta and Kappa. The coefficients of variation of the cycle threshold number (Ct) were between 1.1 and 2.2%. There was no difference in Ct using nasopharyngeal compared to oropharyngeal swabs in universal transport medium (UTM). A small increase in Ct was observed with specimens collected in cobas PCR medium compared to UTM. In silico analysis indicated that the dual-target test is capable of detecting all >1,800,000 SARS-CoV-2 sequences in the GISAID database. Our agile assay design approach facilitated rapid development and deployment of this SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test.
Drug resistance caused by mutations is a public health threat for existing and emerging viral diseases. A wealth of evidence about these mutations and their clinically associated phenotypes is scattered across the literature, but a comprehensive perspective is usually lacking. This work aimed to produce a clinically relevant view for the case of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) mutations by combining a chronic HBV clinical study with a compendium of genetic mutations systematically gathered from the scientific literature. We enriched clinical mutation data by systematically mining 2,472,725 scientific articles from PubMed Central in order to gather information about the HBV mutational landscape. By performing this analysis, we were able to identify mutational hotspots for each HBV genotype (A-E) and gene (C, X, P, S), as well as the location of disulfide bonds associated with these mutations. Through a modelling study, we also identified a mutation position common in both the clinical data and the literature that is located at the binding pocket for a known anti-HBV drug, namely entecavir. The results of this novel approach show the potential of integrated analyses to assist in the development of new drugs for viral diseases that are more robust to resistance. Such analyses should be of particular interest due to the increasing importance of viral resistance in established and emerging viruses, such as for newly developed drugs against SARS-CoV-2.
Background & aims: We investigated the dynamics of serum HBV pre-genomic RNA (pgRNA) and hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) in patients receiving nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) and their predictability for favourable suppression of serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Methods: Serum viral biomarkers were measured at baseline, weeks 4, 12, 24, 36 and 48 of treatment. Patients were followed up thereafter and the serum HBsAg level was measured at end of follow-up (EOFU). Favourable HBsAg response (FHR) was defined as ≤100 IU/mL or HBsAg seroclearance upon EOFU. Results: Twenty-eight HBeAg-positive and 36 HBeAg-negative patients (median 38.2 years old, 71.9% male) were recruited with median follow-up duration of 17.1 (IQR 12.8-18.2) years. For the entire cohort, 22/64 (34.4%, of which 8 achieved HBsAg seroclearance) achieved FHR. For HBeAg-positive patients, serum HBV pgRNA decline at week 4 was significantly greater for patients with FHR compared to non-FHR patients (5.49 vs 4.32 log copies/mL, respectively, p=0.016). The AUROC for week 4 HBV pgRNA reduction to predict FHR in HBeAg-positive patients was 0.825 (95% CI 0.661-0.989). For HBeAg-negative patients, instead of increase in serum HBcrAg from baseline in non-FHR patients, FHR patients had median reduction in HBcrAg at week 4 (increment of 1.75 vs reduction of 2.98 log U/mL; p=0.023). The AUROC for week 4 change of HBcrAg to predict FHR in HBeAg-negative patients was 0.789 (95% CI 0.596-0.982). Conclusions: Early on-treatment changes of serum HBV pgRNA and HBcrAg at 4 weeks predict HBsAg seroclearance or ≤100 IU/mL in NA-treated CHB patients upon long-term FU.
Purpose This study assessed the impact of adherence to guidelines-recommended diagnostic testing on treatment selection and overall survival (OS) in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) initiated on rituximab-based first line of treatment (1-LOT). Methods This retrospective cohort study used a nationwide electronic health record-derived de-identified database, including diagnostic testing information on immunohistochemistry (IHC), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and karyotype analysis that were abstracted from pathology reports or clinical visit notes, where available. The study included patients above 18 years old who were diagnosed with DLBCL between January 2011 and December 2019 and initiated on rituximab-based 1-LOT. Patients were classified into ‘non-adherence,’ ‘partial-adherence’ and ‘complete-adherence’ groups according to the evidence/documentation of a confirmed known result for IHC and molecular profiling tests (FISH and karyotyping) on a selection of the markers prior to the initiation of 1-LOT. Logistic regression was used to evaluate associations of adherence to diagnostic testing with 1-LOT between R-CHOP and other rituximab-based regimens. Median OS after the start of rituximab-based 1-LOT was calculated using the Kaplan–Meier method. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess the risk of all-cause death after initiation of 1-LOT by the degrees of adherence to guidelines-recommended diagnostic testing. Results In total, 3730 patients with DLBCL who initiated on rituximab-based 1-LOT were included. No association was found between adherence to guidelines-recommended diagnostic testing and treatment selection of 1-LOT for R-CHOP versus other rituximab-based regimens. Patients with a higher degree of adherence to guidelines-recommended diagnostic testing survived longer (median OS at 5.1, 6.9 and 7.1 years for ‘non-adherence,’ ‘partial-adherence’ and ‘complete-adherence’ groups, respectively [log-rank p < 0.001]) and had a decreased mortality risk (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio with 95% confidence intervals at 0.83 [0.70–0.99] for ‘partial-adherence’ and 0.77 [0.64–0.91] for ‘complete-adherence’ groups, respectively). Conclusion Patients’ adherence to guidelines-recommended diagnostic testing were associated with better survival benefit, reinforcing the need for adoption of diagnostic testing guidelines in routine clinical care.
Introduction: There is a great need for fully automated plasma assays that can measure amyloid beta (Aβ) pathology and predict future Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia. Methods: Two cohorts (n = 920) were examined: Panel A+ (n = 32 cognitively unimpaired [CU], n = 106 mild cognitive impairment [MCI], and n = 89 AD) and BioFINDER-1 (n = 461 CU, n = 232 MCI). Plasma Aβ42/Aβ40, phosphorylated tau (p-tau)181, two p-tau217 variants, ApoE4 protein, neurofilament light, and GFAP were measured using Elecsys prototype immunoassays. Results: The best biomarker for discriminating Aβ-positive versus Aβ-negative participants was Aβ42/Aβ40 (are under the curve [AUC] 0.83-0.87). Combining Aβ42/Aβ40, p-tau181, and ApoE4 improved the AUCs significantly (0.90 to 0.93; P< 0.01). Adding additional biomarkers had marginal effects (ΔAUC ≤0.01). In BioFINDER, p-tau181, p-tau217, and ApoE4 predicted AD dementia within 6 years in CU (AUC 0.88) and p-tau181, p-tau217, and Aβ42/Aβ40 in MCI (AUC 0.87). Discussion: The high accuracies for Aβ pathology and future AD dementia using fully automated instruments are promising for implementing plasma biomarkers in clinical trials and clinical routine.
Aims We aim to provide real-world evidence on the use of ocrelizumab for treating multiple sclerosis (MS), with specific regard to prescription pattern, adherence, persistence, healthcare resource utilization and related costs, also in relation to other disease-modifying treatments (DMTs). Methods We included 2495 people with MS from the Campania Region (South Italy) who received first or switch DMT prescription from Jan 2018 to Dec 2020, and with at least 6-month follow-up. We collected hospital discharge records, drug prescriptions, and related costs, and calculated persistence (time from first prescription to discontinuation or switch to other DMT), adherence (proportion of days covered (PDC)), annualized hospitalization rate (AHR) for MS-related hospital admissions, and DMT costs. Results Ocrelizumab was the most commonly prescribed DMT ( n = 399; age = 45.74 ± 10.98 years; females = 224), after dimethyl fumarate ( n = 588) and fingolimod ( n = 401); 26% patients treated with ocrelizumab were naïve. When compared with ocrelizumab, the risk of discontinuation was higher for other highly active DMTs (HR = 3.78; p = 0.01), and low/medium efficacy DMTs (HR = 7.59; p < 0.01). When compared with ocrelizumab, PDC was similar to other highly active DMTs (Coeff = 0.01; p = 0.31), but higher for low/medium efficacy DMTs (Coeff = 0.09; p < 0.01). When compared with ocrelizumab, AHR was similar to other highly active DMTs (Coeff = 0.01; p = 0.51), and low/medium efficacy DMTs (Coeff = 0.01; p = 0.55). When compared with ocrelizumab, DMT monthly costs were higher for other highly active DMTs (Coeff = 92.30; p < 0.01), but lower for low/medium efficacy DMTs (Coeff = − 1043.61; p < 0.01). Discussion Ocrelizumab was among the most frequently prescribed DMTs, with 26% prescriptions to treatment-naïve patients, suggesting its relevance in addressing unmet clinical needs (e.g., first approved treatment for primary progressive MS). Ocrelizumab was associated with the highest persistence, confirming its favorable benefit-risk profile. Costs for ocrelizumab were lower than those associated to similarly effective DMTs, in absence of changes in healthcare resource utilization.
Despite unprecedented amount of information now available in medical records, health data remain underexploited due to their heterogeneity and complexity. Simple charts and hypothesis-driven statistics can no longer apprehend the content of information-rich clinical data. There is, therefore, a clear need for powerful interactive visualization tools enabling medical practitioners to perceive the patterns and insights gained by state-of-the-art machine learning algorithms. Here, we report an interactive graphical interface for use as the front end of a machine learning causal inference server (MIIC), to facilitate the visualization and comprehension by clinicians of relationships between clinically relevant variables. The widespread use of such tools, facilitating the interactive exploration of datasets, is crucial both for data visualization and for the generation of research hypotheses. We demonstrate the utility of the MIIC interactive interface, by exploring the clinical network of a large cohort of breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). This example highlights, in particular, the direct and indirect links between post-NAC clinical responses and patient survival. The MIIC interactive graphical interface has the potential to help clinicians identify actionable nodes and edges in clinical networks, thereby ultimately improving the patient care pathway.
Regional homogeneity (ReHo) is a measure of local functional brain connectivity that has been reported to be altered in a wide range of neuropsychiatric disorders. Computed from brain resting-state functional MRI time series, ReHo is also sensitive to fluctuations in cerebral blood flow (CBF) that in turn may be influenced by cerebrovascular health. We accessed cerebrovascular health with Framingham cardiovascular risk score (FCVRS). We hypothesize that ReHo signal may be influenced by regional CBF; and that these associations can be summarized as FCVRS→CBF→ReHo. We used three independent samples to test this hypothesis. A test-retest sample of N=30 healthy volunteers was used for test-retest evaluation of CBF effects on ReHo. Amish Connectome Project (ACP) sample (N=204, healthy individuals) was used to evaluate association between FCVRS and ReHo and testing if the association diminishes given CBF. The UKBB sample (N=6,285, healthy participants) was used to replicate the effects of FCVRS on ReHo. We observed strong CBF→ReHo links (p<2.5×10-3) using a three-point longitudinal sample. In ACP sample, marginal and partial correlations analyses demonstrated that both CBF and FCVRS were significantly correlated with the whole-brain average (p<10-6) and regional ReHo values, with the strongest correlations observed in frontal, parietal, and temporal areas. Yet, the association between ReHo and FCVRS became insignificant once the effect of CBF was accounted for. In contrast, CBF→ReHo remained significantly linked after adjusting for FCVRS and demographic covariates (p<10-6). Analysis in N=6,285 replicated the FCVRS→ReHo effect (p=2.7×10-27). In summary, ReHo alterations in health and neuropsychiatric illnesses may be partially driven by region-specific variability in CBF, which is, in turn, influenced by cardiovascular factors.
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