Robert Gordon University
  • Aberdeen, United Kingdom
Recent publications
Rapid, accurate, and nondestructive internal quality detection for large and rough surface fruit, such as translucency in pineapples, is challenging. In this paper, a visible and near infrared (VIS/NIR) spectrum-based platform is proposed for optimized detection of pineapple translucency. The internal quality of three batches of samples harvested at the same maturity but on different dates (early, middle, and mid to late harvest stage) were acquired with different spectral settings: VIS to shortwave NIR(400–1100 nm), NIR (900–1700 nm) and VIS/NIR (400–1700 nm). The pineapple samples were manually cut open and divided into three translucency degrees (no, slight, and heavy), according to marketing standards. The Savitzky Golay (SG) and standard normal variate (SNV) were applied to remove jitter and scattering noise, respectively. The successive projections algorithm, principal component analysis and Euclidean distance were combined for feature extraction and measurement, followed by data modeling using the partial least squares regression and probabilistic neural network (PNN). Data correction, data supplementation, and a combination of these were applied for model updating. Experimental results showed that the optimal solution for pineapple translucency detection was to use 400–1100 nm spectrum with SG, SNV, PNN and data supplementation for model updating. With only the first and second batch of samples used for modeling (validation set accuracy 91.2 %) and updating (validation set accuracy 100 %), the detection accuracy on the third batch samples was 100 %. The proposed methodologies therefore can be used as rapid, nondestructive, and cost-effective tools to detect pineapple translucency to guarantee the marketing of high-quality fruit, which can also guide the postharvest treatment for the pineapple industry to improve market competitiveness as well as to benefit nondestructive quality assessment of other large fruit.
The rapid development of new energy fields such as electric vehicles and smart grids has put forward higher requirements for the power management of battery integrated systems. Considering that internal temperature and parameter consistency are important factors affecting battery safety and state estimation accuracy, a lumped thermoelectric coupling model based on the multi-time scale effects of battery dynamics parameter is established in this paper. On this basis, a new multi-feature separation modeling idea is proposed and adopted to complete the development of the strong coupling adaptive asynchronous identification strategy to realize the solution of the model. Specifically, the high-frequency and low-frequency characteristics of the resistor–capacitor link under different time constants are distinguished on different time scales. Three sub-filters based on forgetting factor recursive least squares, extended Kalman filtering and joint Kalman filtering are used to realize the adaptive asynchronous synergistic estimation of battery high-frequency dynamics parameter, low-frequency dynamics parameter and internal temperature. In addition, the filters at different time scales are strongly coupled through the voltage response on the diffusion impedance, and the time scale drive under slow dynamics depends on the current distribution of the test conditions. The experimental results of two long-term cycles show that the proposed strategy exhibits excellent terminal voltage tracking effect and internal temperature estimation accuracy. Finally, the concept of parameter dispersion is proposed and discussed. Compared with the results under the traditional identification method, the proposed strategy reduces the maximum parameter dispersion by 51.9%.
Improved thermal management in high-temperature tribological systems requires novel developments in lubricants. Motivated by combining nanoparticle and magnetorheological plastomer features, this research paper deals with the analysis of the high-temperature magnetohydrodynamic squeeze flow of a Casson nanofluid between parallel disks with the Fourier-type boundary conditions including radiation. Rosseland’s diffusion flux and the Buongiorno nanoscale model are used. Suction and injection effects at the disks are also considered as is viscous heating. Robin (Fourier) boundary conditions are included, and the Buongiorno nanoscale model is used which enables the simulation of nanoparticle mass diffusion, Brownian motion and thermophoresis. The emerging nonlinear boundary value problem is solved with the bvp4c routine in MATLAB routine with appropriate boundary conditions at the disks. The effects of squeeze number, Hartmann number, Brownian motion parameter, Prandtl number, Eckert number, thermophoresis parameter, Casson viscoplastic rheological parameter and thermal radiation parameter for both disk suction and injection cases and also with equivalent and different Biot numbers at the disks are presented graphically. MATLAB solutions are validated with earlier published results. Drag force increases with greater magnetic field strength. Increasing squeezing parameter substantially modifies the velocity distribution, causing a deceleration near the disk surfaces but an acceleration further from the disks. Elevation in Prandtl number and Eckert number results in a significant enhancement in temperature but a strong depletion in nanoparticle concentration for both equal and unequal Biot numbers at the disk surfaces. Nanoparticle concentration is depleted at the disk surfaces with increasing Brownian motion parameter values. With an increase in the Casson viscoplastic parameter, temperature decreases, i.e., cooling is induced, whereas nanoparticle concentration increases. The simulations show that significant temperature elevation is produced with increasing Brownian diffusion, viscous dissipation and radiative flux effects and that combining nanoparticles and viscoplastic effects offers a good thermal management mechanism in squeezing lubrication.
Background Scottish Government is increasing independent prescribers (IP) in community pharmacy (CP). A new preceptorship model using IPs as Designated Prescribing Practitioners (DPPs) has been introduced. Aim To investigate stakeholder views of implementation of a novel regulator mandated IP course preceptorship model. Method A theory-based online pre-piloted survey of stakeholders including e.g. directors of pharmacy, prescribing, education leads, policy & strategy leads and CPs. Questionnaire development used Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) and a DPP Competency Framework. Data were analysed descriptively and presented with mapping to CFIR constructs. Results Of ninety-nine responses 82.5% (80/97) responded ‘yes’ to ‘..abilities in reporting concerns..’ and 53.1% (51/96) indicating ‘no’ to ‘..anticipated issues with clinical and diagnostic skills’. CFIR related facilitators included agreement that; there was tension for change with 84 (85%) indicating ‘….urgent need to implement role …’, that incentives are likely to help (6566%) and small pilots would help (8588%). Barriers were evident related to ‘unsure’ responses about sufficiency of; DPP capacity (39/97, 40.2%), time (48/96, 50%) and support and resources (4445%) to undertake the role. Concerns were expressed with 81 (83%) in agreement or unsure that leadership commitment may be lacking and 48 (48.9%) were ‘unsure’ about availability of good training for the DPP role. Conclusion There was DPP role positivity but expressed barriers and facilitators at policy, organisational and individual practitioner levels needing further consideration. Further research is warranted on uptake and embedding of the role.
As the world population increases, the generation of waste bones will multiply exponentially, increasing landfill usage and posing health risks.
This study explores the multiple and distinct cultures of oilfield masculinity uncovered during an embedded ethnographic study of masculinities onboard a remote UK offshore drilling platform. Oilmen revealed shifting interpretations for how risky and dangerous oil work “should be done.” Changes led to the construction of three distinct masculine cultures intertwined with positive safety behaviors and one culture intertwined with negative risky behaviors. Tracing the trajectory of Connell’s hegemonic masculinity theory, no singular “hegemonic” or dominant masculinity existed in the oilfield. Also, unlike some existing oilfield research, masculine reformations and subsequent divisions and associations between local cultures were triggered by factors independent from shifts in workplace policies. Rather, and linking with emerging research exploring “manhood acts”; oilmen consciously reformulated their masculine identities, embodying self-awareness and self-reflection for reimagining processes, and themselves recognized each industrial identity as unique and capable of cultural support or resistance. Perspectives of growth for “hegemonic” masculinities theory are presented, alongside suggestions for further examination of masculinities in understudied male-dominated workplaces, to further expand the “manhood acts” research perspective.
This manuscript presents a systematic meta-narrative review of peer-reviewed publications considering community acceptance and social impacts of site-specific Carbon Capture Utilization and Storage (CCUS) projects to inform the design and implementation of CCUS projects who seek to engage with communities during this process, as well as similar climate mitigation and adaptation initiatives. A meta-narrative approach to systematic review was utilized to understand literature from a range of site specific CCUS studies. 53 peer-reviewed papers were assessed reporting empirical evidence from studies on community impacts and social acceptance of CCUS projects published between 2009 and 2021. Three separate areas of contestation were identified. The first contestation was on acceptance, including how acceptance was conceptualized, how the different CCUS projects engaged with communities, and the role of acceptance in social learning. The second contestation related to communities: how communities were represented, where the communities were located in relation to the CCUS projects, and how the communities were defined. The third contestation was around CCUS impacts and the factors influencing individuals’ perceptions of impacts, the role of uncertainty, and how impacts were challenged by local communities, politicians and scientists involved in the projects. The next step was to explore how these contestations were conceptualised, the aspects of commonality and difference, as well as the notable omissions. This facilitated a synthesis of the key dimensions of each contestation to inform our discussion regarding community awareness and acceptance of CCUS projects. This review concludes that each CCUS project is complex thus it is not advisable to provide best practice guidelines that will ensure particular outcomes. This systematic review shared recommendations in the literature as to how best to facilitate community engagement in relation to CCUS projects and similar place-based industrial innovation projects. These recommendations focus on the importance of providing transparency, acknowledging uncertainty and encouraging collaboration.
The paper quantitatively explore the influence of injection rate and temperature on oil-water relative permeability curves during hot water flooding operations in a porous medium flow. ANSYS-CFD was used to construct a numerical model of hot-water injection into an oil saturated sandstone core sample. The modelling technique is based on the Eulerian-Mixture model, using a 3D cylindrical core sample with known inherent permeability and porosity. Injection water at 20 °C was injected into a core sample that was kept at 63 °C and had 14-mD permeability and 26% porosity. For the investigation, three distinct injection rates of 2.9410–6 m/s, 4.41 × 10⁻⁶ m/s, and 5.88 × 10⁻⁶ m/s were utilised. Furthermore, same injection procedures were repeated under the same conditions, but the core temperature was changed to 90 °C, allowing us to quantify the influence of temperature on the relative permeability curves of oil-water immiscible flow. The results of this study show that the relative permeability of oil is strongly influenced by flow, while the effect of the relative permeability of water is negligible. In addition, the flow rate influences the residual oil and water saturation, as well as the associated effective permeability. From 20 to 90 °C there is little sensitivity to relative permeability or temperature. This study does not provide proof that temperature effects do not exist with genuine reservoir fluids, rocks, and temperature ranges. However, this study has demonstrated the feasibility of utilising CFD approaches to estimate fluid relative permeability, as well as the combined influence of temperature change and flow rate on relative permeability, with the potential for considerable cost-time advantages.
COVID-19 is the most recent respiratory pandemic to necessitate better knowledge about city planning and design. The complex connections between cities and pandemics, however challenge traditional approaches to reviewing literature. In this article we adopted a rapid review methodology. We review the historical literature on respiratory pandemics and their documented connections to urban planning and design (both broadly defined as being concerned with cities as complex systems). Our systematic search across multidisciplinary databases returned a total of 1323 sources, with 92 articles included in the final review. Findings showed that the literature represents the multi-scalar nature of cities and pandemics – pandemics are global phenomena spread through an interconnected world, but require regional, city, local and individual responses. We characterise the literature under ten themes: scale (global to local); built environment; governance; modelling; non-pharmaceutical interventions; socioeconomic factors; system preparedness; system responses; underserved and vulnerable populations; and future-proofing urban planning and design. We conclude that the historical literature captures how city planning and design intersects with a public health response to respiratory pandemics. Our thematic framework provides parameters for future research and policy responses to the varied connections between cities and respiratory pandemics.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the structure of relationships between measures of training load and assess whether these can be modified through non-linear transformations. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and seven external load measures (total distance covered, PlayerLoad, low-intensity running distance, high-speed running distance, sprinting distance , accelerations, and decelerations) were collected from 20 academy soccer players (age = 17.4 ± 1.3 years, stature = 178.0 ± 8.1 cm, body-mass = 71.8 ± 7.2 kg), with 3220 recordings taken across a 47-week season. To control for the effects of session duration, sessions were categorised as short (≤60 min) or long (>60 min). All RPE and sessional RPE-training load (sRPE-TL; RPE multiplied by session duration) were analysed in their raw form and through raising to a series of exponentials. The underlying structure of the data was investigated using principal component analysis. Two components were retained for each analysis and varimax rotation was performed. The first rotated component (RC) was best represented as a measure of volume (RC volume) with high loadings for RPE and sRPE-TL, whilst the second RC was best represented as a measure of intensity (RC intensity). Non-linear transformations had little effect on loading of modified measures for long sessions for sRPE-TL (RC volume : 0.87-0.8; RC intensity : 0.27-0.13), and for RPE (RC volume : 0.76-0.79; RC intensity : 0.17-0.10). For short sessions, the loading became more equal between intensity and volume for sRPE-TL (RC volume : 0.88-0.41; RC intensity : 0.32-0.36) and more aligned to intensity (RC intensity : 0.52-0.61) compared with volume (RC volume : 0.44-0.23) for RPE. The present study demonstrates that RPE and sRPE-TL predominantly reflect measures of training volume, however, they can be modified to better reflect intensity for training sessions <60 min in duration.
Aim To understand the self-perceived educational priorities among oncology nurses Background Oncology nurses are the main providers of care to people affected by cancer. However, little is known about the educational needs and priorities of oncology nurses when providing care to people living with cancer. Design A national online survey. Setting The Cancer Nurses Society of Australia (CNSA) is an Australian wide professional body for cancer nurses. At the time of conducting the research, there were approximately 1300 members. All members were invited to participate in the survey. CNSA provided access to nurses working in all areas of cancer care, including inpatient wards, outpatient centres, ambulatory day oncology units, radiation oncology, bone marrow transplant units, educational, and research units. Participants Registered nurses involved in direct care of people affected by cancer who were members of CNSA, and ability to communicate in English. Methods The instrument consisted of a 15-item online questionnaire which included demographic and professional questions related to the self-perceived oncology educational needs which were free-text. This survey was hosted using an online electronic data capture system (i.e., SurveyMonkey®), and the electronic link was sent to the CNSA who then sent an email invitation to the 1,300 members. Results 610 educational needs were identified and ranked. These individual answers were grouped into seven overarching categories with various sub-categories within each group. The oncology nurses identified important educational topics which included: a) cancer biology, b) treatments, c) direct patient care, d) age-specific cancer care, e) leadership and research, and f) law and ethics. Conclusion As the number of people affected by cancer continue to rise, addressing the educational needs and priorities of oncology nurses has never been so important. Higher educational institutions and healthcare institutions should consider these findings in addressing the learning needs for the current oncology nursing workforce.
An advanced persistent threatAdvanced persistent threat, (APTAPT), is an attack that uses multiple attack behavior to penetrate a system, achieve specifically targeted and highly valuable goals within a system. This type of attack has presented an increasing concern for cyber-security and business continuity. The resource availability, integrity, and confidentiality of the operational cyber-physical systems’ (CPS) state and control are highly impacted by the safety and security measures adopted. In this study, we propose a framework based on deep APT steps analysis and correlation, of APTs approach abbreviated as “APT-DASACAPT-DASAC”, for securing industrial control systems (ICSs) against APTs. This approach takes into consideration the distributed and multi-level nature of ICS architecture and reflects on multi-step APT attack lifecycle. We validated the framework with three case studies: (i) network transactions between a remote terminal unit (RTU)Remote Terminal Unit (RTU) and a master control unit (MTU)Master Control Unit (MTU) within a supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADASCADA) gas pipeline control system, (ii) a case study of command and response injection attacks, and (iii) a scenario based on network traffic containing hybrid of the real modern normal and the contemporary synthesized attack activities of the network traffic. Based on the achieved result, we show that the proposed approach achieves a significant attack detection capability and demonstrates that attack detection techniques that performed very well in one application domain may not yield the same result in another. Hence, robustness and resilience of operational CPS state or any system and performance are determined by the security measures in place, which is specific to the application system and domain.
The aims of the current study were to investigate the use of dRPE with academy soccer players to: 1) examine the effect of bio-banded and non-bio-banded maturity groups within SSG on players dRPE; 2) describe the multivariate relationships between dRPE measures investigating the sources of intra and inter-individual variation, and the effects of maturation and bio-banding. Using 32 highly trained under (U) 12 to U14 soccer players (mean (SD) age 12.9 (0.9) years, body mass 46.4 (8.5) kg and stature 158.2 (14.9) cm) academy soccer players from two English professional male soccer academies. Players were categorised according to somatic maturity status using estimated percentage of adult stature attainment, with players randomly assigned into teams to play 4v4 SSG. The study used a repeated measures design, whereby the selected players participated within 6 bio-banded (maturity matched [pre-PHV Vs pre-PHV and post-PHV vs post PHV] and miss-matched [pre-PHV vs post-PHV] and 6 mixed maturity SSG at their respective clubs. Using mixed and fixed effect regression models, it was established hat pre-PHV players exhibited higher dRPE compared with their post-PHV counterparts. Mixed bio-banded games reported higher dRPE outputs overall. Variation in dRPE measures across a series of bio-banded games are caused by both between and within sources of variation in relatively equal amounts. Across a series of bio-banded games, the four dRPE measures do not provide unique information, and between variation is best expressed by one or two highly correlated components, with within variation best explained by a single equally loaded component. Using a bio-banding SSG design study, we have shown that pre-PHV players report higher subjective measures of exertion than post-PHV players during. Additionally, when evenly mixing players based on measures of maturation, higher measures of perceived exertion were generally reported.
This prospective cohort study within an open‐label, single‐arm, phase 4 vaccination trial ( #NCT04754698) aimed to investigate the association between physical activity and persistent anti‐SARS‐CoV‐2 antibodies 6 months after two‐dose schedule of CoronaVac in autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARD) patients (n=748). Persistent immunogenicity 6 months after the full‐course vaccination was assessed using seroconversion rates of total anti‐SARS‐CoV‐2 S1/S2 IgG, geometric mean titers of anti‐S1/S2 IgG (GMT), and frequency of positive neutralizing antibodies (NAb). Physical activity was assessed trough questionnaire. Adjusted point estimates from logistic regression models indicated greater odds of seroconversion rates (OR: 1.5 [95%CI: 1.1 to 2.1]) and NAb positivity (OR: 1.5 [95%CI: 1.0 to 2.1]) in physically active patients and approximately 43% greater GMT (42.8% [95%CI: 11.9 to 82.2]) than inactive ones. In conclusion, among immunocompromised patients, being physically active was associated with an increment in antibody persistence through 6 months after a full‐course of an inactivated SARS‐CoV‐2 vaccine.
Newly registered pharmacists will need to possess higher-level competencies and, in Great Britain, there is an expectation that assessments are undertaken during experiential learning (EL). The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions and educational needs of practice-based EL facilitators of student pharmacists, undertaking competency-based assessments during EL. Semi-structured one-on-one interviews were conducted with EL facilitators working in the community, hospital, and primary-care pharmacies. Data were thematically analysed. Fifteen facilitators were interviewed, and there were five from each site. There was general support for this role, but also anxiety due to the lack of knowledge about assessments and the repercussions on students. Benefits were that students would receive real-time feedback from workplace-based practitioners and facilitators would benefit from self-development. Challenges included additional workload and lack of consistency in marking. The majority agreed that clinical, professional, and communication skills could be assessed; however, a consensus was not reached regarding the tools, methods, and grading of assessments. The need for training and support were highlighted. A co-design method was proposed to ensure that the assessment methods and processes are accepted by all stakeholders. Training and resources should be tailored to the needs of facilitators.
Background A Pharmacy Longitudinal Clerkship (PLC) was designed to develop student pharmacists’ (SPs) competence in a general practice setting. Aim The aim was to carry out a theoretically underpinned qualitative evaluation of stakeholder perceptions of influences of behavioural determinants on SP development for clinical practice in general practice. Method General practice-based PLCs were delivered in 2019/20 and 2020/21 for two cohorts of SPs in NHS Highland, Scotland. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were used to explore stakeholder perceptions of influences of behavioural determinants on SP development. Informed written consent was obtained. An interview schedule was developed and piloted using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF). Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic methodology. Ethics approval was granted. Results Seven SPs and five general practitioner (GP) tutors were interviewed. Key themes were identified mapped to TDF domains and included: knowledge—utilisation and practical application of knowledge; skills—triangulation of skills under clinical supervision; beliefs about capabilities—confidence building with clinical and patient contact; professional role and identity—elucidation of professional roles within general practice. Conclusion This evaluation shows benefits of embedding SPs within clinical teams and immersing them in a clinical environment over a prolonged period in a general practice Pharmacy Longitudinal Clerkship. It is expected this will translate into a more confident transition to postgraduate professional clinical practice. Funding should be sought to test alternative PLC arrangements including: multiple full-time longitudinal placement blocks; or ultimately a year-long longitudinal clerkship programme with an IPE element.
Computational fluid dynamics modelling of internal two-phase flow induced transient forces at 90° elbows have been carried out to evaluate the effect of pipe diameter on the characteristics of multiphase flow induced vibration. Simulations of two-phase flows of slug, cap bubbly and churn induced vibration at a pipe elbow were carried out using the volume of fluid model for the two-phase flows and the k – ε model for turbulence. Modal analysis has been carried out to evaluate the risk of resonance. Results were compared across three geometrically similar pipes of different diameters. Simulation results showed that the behaviours of the flow induced forces at the pipe elbow as a function of gas velocity for internal diameters of 0.0525 and 0.2032 m are similar. However, the multiphase flow induced force characteristics are different in the 0.1016 m diameter (intermediate) pipe. It can be attributed to the transition behaviour of gas–liquid two-phase flows caused by Taylor instability in an intermediate sized pipe. The predicted root-mean-square flow induced forces as a function of Weber number were correlated with an existing empirical correlation for a wider range of pipe sizes and gas volume fractions between 40% and 80%. Furthermore, the pipe natural frequencies increase with the increase of gas volume fraction in smaller pipes and the resonance risk increases with the increase of pipe diameter.
Flame-retardant science and technology are sciences developed to prevent the occurrence of fire, meet the needs of social safety production, and protect people’s lives and property. Rigid polyurethane (PU) is a polymer formed by the additional polymerization reaction of a molecule with two or more isocyanate functional groups with a polyol containing two or more reactive hydroxyl groups under a suitable catalyst and in an appropriate ratio. Rigid polyurethane foam (RPUF) is a foam-like material with a large contact area with oxygen when burning, resulting in rapid combustion. At the same time, RPUF produces a lot of toxic gases when burning and endangers human health. Improving the flame-retardant properties of RPUF is an important theme in flame-retardant science and technology. This review discusses the development of flame-retardant RPUF through the lens of bibliometrics. A total of 194 articles are analyzed, spanning from 1963 to 2021. We describe the development and focus of this theme at different stages. The various directions of this theme are discussed through keyword co-occurrence and clustering analysis. Finally, we provide reasonable perspectives about the future research direction of this theme based on the bibliometric results.
Background Circulating biomarkers are often used to investigate the bone response to an acute bout of exercise, but heterogeneity in factors such as study design, quality, selected biomarkers, and exercise and participant characteristics render it difficult to synthesize and evaluate available evidence. Objective The aim of this study was to quantify the effects of an acute exercise bout on bone biomarkers, along with the influence of potential moderators such as participant, exercise, and design characteristics, using a systematic review and meta-analytic approach. Methods The protocol was designed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols (PRISMA-P) guidelines and prospectively published. Seven databases were systematically searched in accordance with predefined eligibility criteria. Bayesian three-level hierarchical meta-analysis models were used to explore the main effects of acute exercise on bone biomarkers, as well as potential moderating factors. Modelled effect sizes were interpreted according to three metrics, namely (1) evidence of an effect (defined by whether, or how much of, the credible interval [CrI] included zero); (b) the size of that effect (threshold values of 0.01, 0.2, 0.5 and 0.8 were used to describe effect sizes as very small, small, medium and large, respectively); and (c) the level of certainty in the estimated effect (defined using the GRADE framework). Results Pooling of outcomes across all designs and categories indicated that an acute bout of exercise increased bone resorption (ES0.5 0.10, 95% CrI 0.00–0.20) and formation (ES0.5 0.05, 95% CrI 0.01–0.08) markers but the effects were very small and highly variable. Furthermore, moderator analyses revealed the source of some of this variability and indicated that exercise type and impact loading influenced the bone resorptive response. A moderate increase in C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX-1) was observed in response to cycling (ES0.5 0.65, 95% CrI 0.20–0.99), with greater durations and more work leading to larger CTX-1 increases. CTX-1 response peaked within 15 min and 2 h after the exercise bout. Other exercise types did not influence CTX-1. Changes to all bone formation markers were very small and transient, with the very small increases returning to baseline within 15 min of exercise cessation. No major trends for bone formation markers were identified across any of the moderating categories investigated. Certainty of evidence in most outcomes was deemed to be low or very low. Conclusion The large influence of an acute bout of prolonged cycling on the bone resorption marker CTX-1, alongside the lack of a response of any biomarker to resistance or high-impact exercise types, indicate that these biomarkers may be more useful at investigating potentially osteolytic aspects of exercise, and raises questions about their suitability to investigate the osteogenic potential of different exercise types, at least in the short term and in response to a single exercise bout. Certainty in all outcomes was low or very low, due to factors including risk of bias, lack of non-exercise controls, inconsistency, imprecision and small-study effects. Protocol Registration and Publication This investigation was prospectively registered on the Open Science Framework Registry ( and the full protocol underwent peer review prior to conducting the investigation.
The law of contract is changing. “Good faith” and “relational contracts” are used by parties more than ever before in commercial disputes. Yet, their definition and what it really means to act in good faith are still unsettled in the UK and Australia, reducing the (judicial and doctrinal) utility and impact of such conceptual tools. In contrast, the construction industry is trying to move forward in policy terms. Over the last 30 years, industry-led initiatives have been working to improve collaboration. In the UK and Australia, new collaborative frameworks contain express provisions asking parties to act with mutual trust and cooperation among other collaborative schemes. Examination of the judicial approach and industry initiatives demonstrates that there is – underpinning both – a project-centric approach (even if that is yet to be fully recognised or articulated). It is the aim of this paper to further articulate this understanding by examining at the judicial and industry positions in the UK and Australia.
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Lesley Diack
  • School of Pharmacy and Life Sciences
Andrei Petrovski
  • School of Computing Science and Digital Media
Donald Cairns
  • School of Pharmacy and Life Sciences
Nadimul Haque Faisal
  • School of Engineering
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