Riphah International University
Recent publications
Nanofluid consideration has been magnified due to their exceptional heat transfer characteristics and prospective applications in engineering and medical sciences after the pioneering work of Choi. Since, majority fluids are non-Newtonian in nature. Therefore, considering Jeffrey fluid as a base fluid in current study enhance its role in applications. Moreover, geometric configuration of the channel is taken as asymmetric with tapering effects. Since, majority of human physiological systems and industrial machinery have complex geometry and. Therefore, tapering channel consideration cannot be ignored. High molecular weight of non-Newtonian liquids make no-slip condition inapplicable. Thus, slip effects are incorporated in the current analysis. The consider analysis is performed for peristaltic flow of Jeffrey Nano fluid through a tapered asymmetric channel in the presence of magnetic field. Main motivation for performing this study is to analyze the heat transfer properties of nanofluid for the treatment of multiple diseases like cancer. The resulting nonlinear equations are coupled and simplified through lubrication approach. Poisson-Boltzmann equations are linearized through Debye-Huckle linearization. Built-in command of NDSolve in MATHEMATICS is applied to compute the results. The results for velocity, pressure gradient, streamlines, temperature and concentration are discussed for involved parameters. The results indicate that velocity shows parabolic behavior near the center while mixed behavior is observed near the boundaries. It can also be noticed that tapering parameter (m) influence the velocity greatly. As increasing the tapering effect causes the geometry to expand resulting in decreased velocity near the center of the channel. During digestion of food, multiple chemical reactions are performed by enzymes, therefore, studying the impact of (γ) on temperature and concentration cannot be ignored. The outcome of the study shows decrease in temperature and concentration as energy is utilized in performing the digestion. The size of trapped bolus is found to be increasing as the values of Hartman number (M) and fluid parameter (λ1) are increased. Therefore, we can say that this study can provide basics to study physiological system with electroosmotic phenomenon. It also finds promising applications in drug delivery and food diagnostic etc.
Background Stroke is a major cause of disability with mainly affecting trunk mobility and function. The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of core stabilization exercises versus conventional therapy on trunk mobility, function, ambulation, and quality of life of stroke patients. Design Assessor blinded randomized control trial. Setting Ibrahim polyclinic—Shadman, Ch Muhammad Akram teaching hospital-Raiwind, Rasheed hospital-Defence. Subjects Chronic ischemic stroke patients. Intervention Control group (n = 21) underwent conventional treatment for stroke for 40 min/ day, 5 times/ week for 8 weeks. Experimental group (n = 20) received core stability training for additional 15 min along with conventional treatment. Main measures Main outcome measures were Trunk impairment scale (TIS), functional ambulation category (FAC), stroke specific quality of life (SSQOL) and trunk range of motion (ROM). Results The differences between the control group and experimental group post-treatment were statistically significant for trunk impairment, functional ambulation, quality of life, and frontal plane trunk motion (p-value < 0.05) with higher mean values for core stabilization training. The frontal plane trunk mobility and rotation showed non-significant differences post-treatment (p-value > 0.05). Conclusion This study concluded that core stabilization training is better as compared to the conventional physical therapy treatment for improving trunk impairments, functional ambulation and quality of life among patients of stroke. The core stabilization training is also more effective in improving trunk mobility in sagittal plane. This study is registered in Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials IRCT20210614051578N1 and was approved by the local research ethics committee of Riphah International University.
High dynamic range (HDR) images contain more details of dark and bright regions, which cannot be captured by the standard cameras. Raw HDR data is represented with floating-point precision, and the commonly used lossless/near-lossless HDR image encoding formats produce files that require large storage and are not suitable for transmission. Methods have been proposed for lossy encoding using single- and dual-layer structures, but the codecs are generally more complex and often require additional metadata for decoding. We propose a dual-layer codec in which companding, which is a closed-form transformation and hence can be reversed without any additional data, is used to generate the first layer. The residual data stored in the second layer is quantized linearly and do not need metadata either for decoding. The proposed codec is computationally light, has higher accuracy, and produces smaller size files compared to the existing codecs. This has been validated through an extensive evaluation using different metrics, and the results are reported in the paper.
The spin-dependent magnetic, thermoelectric, and electronic characteristics of Mg-based spinels MgGd2X4 (X = S, Se) are investigated using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The modified Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof generalized gradient approximation (PBEsol-GGA) is utilized to compute the structural and elastic characteristics. In addition, the magnetic, thermoelectric, and electronic characteristics are explored employing the modified-Becke and Johnson (mBJ) potential. After the energy difference calculations among the ferromagnetic (FM) and nonmagnetic (NM) phases, the stability of the structures is confirmed in the FM phase. Further, thermodynamic stability is determined by calculating formation energies and phonon dispersion spectra. The Charpin method is used to analyze elastic characteristics in detail. The total magnetic moments are produced by 2p-states of chalcogenides and f-states of Gd atoms, which result in substantial hybridization at the Fermi level. Finally, electronic-thermal coefficients, such as the power factor, Seebeck coefficient, and thermal and electrical conductivity, are investigated, concluding that investigated spinels can be used in thermoelectric devices.
Production and management of clean energy in a sustainable manner is a global need. Several methods of energy production have been explored but some of them are accompanied with environmental hazards and toxic materials. One of those several means of sustainable energy production is a perovskite solar cell. Perovskite solar cells have received interest for photovoltaic applications attributed to their verified over 25% power conversion efficiency. Because of the high toxicity associated with lead, it seems a pressing need to clean and remove toxic lead from currently available and future inorganic Perovskite solar cells. Environmental-health hazards are posed by lead-based compounds and devices available for use. This review focuses on the development of lead-free non-toxic perovskite materials based solar cells and other devices. To solve the lead associated toxicity problem, lead can be substituted with nontoxic and environmentally friendly metals like Ti, Sn, Sb, Ge, Bi, and Ag. To further enhance the stability of lead-free perovskites, all-inorganic lead-free perovskites have recently gotten considerable attention. In numerical simulation, the CsSnI3 based perovskite solar cell has the highest power conversion efficiency of 28.97% among all the lead-free perovskite based devices. Extensive review of environmentally friendly and toxicity free perovskites and their applications has been performed. The advantages of lead substituted metals have been discussed. Lastly, critical analysis and discusses is reported on the progress to enhance the efficiency and stability of lead-free perovskite solar cells and devices by energy-band engineering and inorganic transport layers.
The electronic structures and optical properties of hexagonal (R3c), triclinic (P1), and monoclinic (R3) structures of the strongly correlated α-BiFeO3 (BFO) systems are presented by adopting a full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave method. For an accurate bandgap, the exchange–correlation functional called the corrected local density of Hubbard (LDA + U) method and modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) exchange potential are used. We performed several theoretical calculations to investigate the electronic and optical properties of BFO with the R3c space group only. Therefore, this study focuses on elucidating the physical properties of other space groups such as P1 and R3 of BFO. This study obtained indirect bandgaps of 2.24 and 2.55 eV for R3c, 2.3 and 2.5 eV for P1, and 2.15 and 2.45 eV for R3 obtained by LDA + U and mBJ methods, respectively. Only the direct bandgap (2.44 eV) for R3c, acquired by the LDA + U, perfectly matches the experimental absorption measurement of single-crystal BFO (2.4 eV). For the mBJ potential, for all BFO structure types, the direct bandgaps are slightly larger than the indirect bandgaps. The LDA + U spectrum features of the imaginary part of the dielectric function for the hexagonal and triclinic structure types are in better agreement with the experimental findings than those of the mBJ method. Although the BFO structures have indirect and direct bandgaps, the direct optical absorption of the LDA + U was not significant for the R3 structure. Although the mBJ method is highly efficient compared to the most accurate GW method, it is time-consuming compared to the LDA + U method. Therefore, LDA + U is considered inexpensive and more reliable than mBJ in better understanding optoelectronic properties. It is, therefore, preferable to use the LDA + U method for BFO electronic structural calculations to reduce the calculation time and obtain a better description of the bandgaps and some physical properties, particularly optical properties.
The peristaltic phenomenon has intended the researcher’s attention due to its extensive applications in bio-mechanics, industries and biological sciences. The applications of peristaltic transport problems are observed in the transportation of cilia, food mixing in digestive tract, small blood vessels vasomtion, urine transportation etc. Following to such motivating applications in minds, this theoretical analysis presents the peristaltic flow of magnetized Jeffery fluid through accounted by curved channel in presence of heat transfer. The assumed flow is confined by different wave frames. The heat transfer inspection has been performed by utilizing the non-linear thermal radiation and joule heating features. The curvilinear coordinate system is used to model the two dimensional, laminar and incompressible Jeffrey fluid with peristaltic phenomenon. The partial differential equations are transformed into ordinary differential equations in view of appropriate quantities. The implementation of wave length with long magnitude and the assumptions of smaller Reynolds assumptions, the governing system of ordinary system is solved numerically by using shooting technique. The dynamic of involved quantities and physical variables is observed carefully. A declining observation in the temperature in all forms of waves has been noticed for increasing the viscoelastic parameter. The heat transfer coefficient for all waves enhanced for the radius of curvature. Moreover, the velocity of the fluid declines in the lower half of the channel and rises near upper wall of the curved channel due to magnetic parameter.
Double perovskite halides are a potential candidate for the applications of the solar cell, photovoltaic and thermoelectric, due to their non-toxicity and environmental stability. The density functional theory (DFT) calculation investigates the details physical properties of halides Rb2ScAgX6(X = Cl, Br, I) that can be useful for applications like thermoelectric and solar cells. The structural and thermodynamics stability is endorsed by the formation energy, tolerance factor, and Born stability criteria. The calculated indirect band gaps of 1.95 eV, 1.85, and 1.60 eV for Rb2ScAgCl6, Rb2ScAgBr6, and Rb2ScAgI6 respectively, ensure the light absorption in the region of visible range. Therefore, all studied halides are widely used in optoelectronic devices like solar cells. In addition, thermoelectric properties are examined through thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, and the Seebeck coefficient. ZT values of 0.74, 0.71, and 0.72 for Rb2ScAgI6, Rb2ScAgBr6, and Rb2ScAgCl6 double perovskites are recorded, which spotlight their significance for the applications of thermoelectric.
This study examines a new approach for the approximate solution of hyperbolic telegraph equations emerging in magnetic fields and electrical impulse transmissions. We introduce a Laplace-Carson transform coupled with the homotopy perturbation method which is called the Laplace-Carson homotopy perturbation method ( L c -HPM). The most significant feature of this approach is that we do not require any restriction of variables and hypotheses to find the results of nonlinear problems. Further, HPM using He’s is applied to reduce the number of computations in nonlinear terms. We demonstrate some graphical results to show that L c -HPM is a simple and suitable approach for linear and nonlinear problems.
The goal of this study was to analyze the influence of corporate social responsibility on dividend pay-out while considering the role of corporate governance quality on mutual funds operating in Pakistan. This study used a two-step system generalized method of moments (GMM) to control not only endogeneity problems caused by inclusion of firm-specific variables, but also the endogeneity caused by dividend pay-out selection. The findings are that mutual funds that engage in higher levels of corporate social responsibility pay greater dividends. The quality of corporate governance not only has a strong positive impact on mutual fund’s dividend pay-outs, but also moderates the association between dividend pay-out and corporate social responsibility. Furthermore, differences exist between socially responsible Islamic and conventional mutual funds in terms of dividend pay-out policy. These findings imply that the quality of corporate governance performs a substantial role in dividend decisions. Policymakers and regulators should also encourage asset management firms to improve corporate governance quality and engage in more socially responsible activities, which can lead to improved fund performance and dividend pay-out.
Abnormal uric acid level result in the development of hyperuricemia and hallmark of various diseases, including renal injury, gout, cardiovascular disorders, and non‐alcoholic fatty liver. This study was designed to explore the anti‐inflammatory potential of stevia residue extract (STR) against hyperuricemia‐associated renal injury in mice. The results revealed that STR at dosages of 150 and 300 mg/kg bw and allopurinol markedly modulated serum uric acid, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine in hyperuricemic mice. Serum and renal cytokine levels (IL‐18, IL‐6, IL‐1Β, and TNF‐α) were also restored by STR treatments. Furthermore, mRNA and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis revealed that STR ameliorates UA (uric acid)‐associated renal inflammation, fibrosis, and EMT (epithelial‐mesenchymal transition) via MMPS (matrix metalloproteinases), inhibiting NF‐κB/NLRP3 activation by the AMPK/SIRT1 pathway and modulating the JAK2‐STAT3 and Nrf2 signaling pathways. In summary, the present study provided experimental evidence that STR is an ideal candidate for the treatment of hyperuricemia‐mediated renal inflammation. Practical applications The higher uric acid results in hyperuricemia and gout. The available options for the treatment of hyperuricemia and gout are the use of allopurinol, and colchicine drugs, etc. These drugs possess several undesirable side effect. The polyphenolic compounds are abundantly present in plants, for example, stevia residue extract (STR) exert a positive effect on human health. From this study results, we can recommend that polyphenolic compounds enrich STR could be applied to develop treatment options for the treatment of hyperuricemia and gout.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune progressive disease, associated with many pathophysiological consequences. Owing to the adverse effects and higher costs of pharmaceuticals, people are now looking for complementary and alternative remedies. In this milieu, the present study was designed to explore the therapeutic potential of walnuts against FCA‐induced arthritis in rat models. Purposely, 50 Sprague Dawley rats were housed in a well‐ventilated animal room and separated into 5 groups of 10 rats each. The rats were categorized as G0 (negative control), G1 (positive control, i.e., FCA induced untreated arthritic rats), G2 (arthritic rats treated with MTX), G3 (arthritic rats treated with walnut feed), and G4 (arthritic rats treated with walnut extract), with an efficacy trial lasting for 42 days. The physical analysis explicated that paw swelling was significantly improved by 10%–12.8% in treatment groups after the intervention when compared with positive control. Moreover, biochemical analyses revealed significantly lower levels of ESR, CRP, and RF in rats treated with walnut‐based interventions when compared to positive control. ESR values were decreased by 62.4% and 69.92% in G3 and G4, whereas CRP levels were improved by 56.20% and 77.78% in G3 and G4 when compared with G1. Likewise, RF values decreased in G2, G3, and G4 by 64.71%, 55.88%, and 69.24%, respectively when compared to G1. The histological examination demonstrated the potential role of walnut‐based interventions in reducing the severity of disease by decreasing cell infiltration, bone erosion, and paw inflammation. Meanwhile, the gene expression analysis revealed that walnut‐based interventions protected the paw joints from damage by downregulating the RANKL‐OPG pathway. Conclusively, walnut feed and extract may serve as potent anti‐arthritic interventions with no side effects. Practical applications Plant‐based therapeutics are effective in the prevention and management of various chronic diseases. The current research explored the anti‐arthritic potential of walnuts. Walnut feed and extract effectively reduced the serum arthritic biomarkers as well as downregulated the genes involved in bone destruction. Thus, the inclusion of dietary ingredients having therapeutic potential such as walnuts may be synchronized in clinical practices to ameliorate arthritis.
Background: Virtual reality (VR) is an advanced technique used in physical rehabilitation of neurological disorders, however the effects of VR on balance, gait, and motor function in people with Parkinson's (PD) are still debated. Therefore, the systematic review aimed to determine the role of VR on motor function, balance and gait in PD patients. Methods: A comprehensive search to identify similar randomised controlled trials was conducted targeting 5 databases including Web of Science, PubMed, CINHAL, Cochrane Library, and Physiotherapy Evidence Database. A total of 25 studies were found eligible for this systematic review, and the methodological assessment of the quality rating of the studies was accomplished using the physiotherapy evidence database scale by 2 authors. Results: Out of the 25 included studies, 14 studies reported on balance as the primary outcome, 9 studies were conducted to assess motor function, and 12 assessed gait as the primary outcome. Most studies used the Unified Parkinson disease rating scale UPDRS (part-III) for evaluating motor function and the Berg Balance Scale as primary outcome measure for assessing balance. A total of 24 trials were conducted in clinical settings, and only 1 study was home-based VR trainings. Out of 9 studies on motor function, 6 reported equal improvement of motor function as compared to other groups. In addition, VR groups also revealed superior results in improving static balance among patient with PD. Conclusion: This systemic review found that the use of VR resulted in substantial improvements in balance, gait, and motor skills in patients with PD when compared to traditional physical therapy exercises or in combination with treatments other than physical therapy. Moreover, VR can be used as a supportive method for physical rehabilitation in patients of PD. However, the majority of published studies were of fair and good quality, suggesting a demand for high quality research in this area.
Human survival is purely based on the environment. Through natural calamities or man-made depredation, the pleasant existence is disturbed. Trees provide not just foliage for the environment but also a pleasant atmosphere for the human population. One of the most serious threats to the forest and ecology is the pine wilt disease (PWD). It is a devastating disease that kills pine trees in a matter of weeks. The pine-wood nematode Bursaphelenchus Xylophilus causes PWD. This study emphasises on the infectious model of PWD engaging the [Formula: see text]-homotopy analysis transform method ([Formula: see text]-HATM) to a leading fractional operator Caputo–Fabrizio fractional time derivative to arrive for superior understanding. The denouements are presented in the forms of plots and tables. At last the paper supports to examine the real-world models and helps to forecast their behavior that communicate the instructions considered in the models.
In the current study, a low-cost and straightforward coprecipitation technique was adopted to synthesize CaO and La-doped CS/CaO NPs. Different weight ratios (2 and 4) of La were doped into fixed amounts of CS and CaO. Synthesized samples exhibited outstanding catalytic performance by degrading methylene blue (MB) in a highly efficient manner. The X-ray diffraction technique detected the presence of a cubic phase of CaO and a decrease in crystallite size of the samples with the addition of La. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the presence of the dopant and the base material with functional groups at 712 cm −1. A decrease in the absorption intensity of doped CaO was observed with an increasing amount of dopants La and CS accompanied by a blueshift leading to an increase in the band gap energy from 4.17 to 4.42 eV, as recorded with an ultraviolet−visible spectrophotometer. The presence of dopants (La and CS) and the evaluation of the elemental constitution of Ca and O were supported with the energy-dispersive spectroscopy technique. In an acidic medium, the catalytic activity against the MB dye was reduced (93.8%) for 4% La-doped CS/CaO. For La-doped CS/CaO, vast inhibition domains ranged within 4.15−4.70 and 5.82−8.05 mm against Escherichia coli while 4.15−5.20 and 6.65−13.10 mm against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) at the least and maximum concentrations, correspondingly. In silico molecular docking studies suggested these nanocomposites of chitosan as possible inhibitors against the enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (FabI) from S. aureus.
The presence of cationic dyes in water causes various ailments in humans and results in environmental pollution. Removing these pollutants from the environment has become an increasingly difficult challenge in recent years. In the current study, calcium oxide (CaO) and chitosan-grafted poly (acrylic acid) (CS-g-PAA) doped CaO nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized using co-precipitation technique for organic pollutants removal and bacterial applications. Various characterization techniques were used to study structural, functional, optical and morphological features of the prepared samples. The cubic phase formation and reduction in peak intensity upon doping were affirmed through XRD spectra. The FTIR was used to investigate the formation of the Ca-O bond as well as other molecular vibrations. The absorption and a decrease in the band gap energy (Eg) as a result of the doping were investigated with UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The charge carrier's transfer and trap sites of prepared NPs were studied with PL spectra. The formation of CaO NPs and presence of dopant was confirmed by using EDS analysis. Moreover, the TEM images of dopant-free CaO showed NPs with spherical morphology. CS-g-PAA doped CaO NPs displayed significant catalytic activity (CA) against methylene blue (MB) in basic medium. Significant antimicrobial potential was measured against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) pathogens. Tests with S. aureus bacteria revealed strong bactericidal activity, with a significant inhibition zone measured at 5.15 mm. In this study, dye degradation using catalytic activity (without sunlight) with binary-doped CaO NPs was examined.
The current study explored the effects of natural compounds, berbamine, bergapten, and carveol on paclitaxel-associated neuroinflammatory pain. Berbamine, an alkaloid obtained from BerberisamurensisRuprhas been previously researched for anticancer and anti-inflammatory potential. Bergapten is 5-methoxsalenpsoralen previously investigated in cancer, vitiligo, and psoriasis. Carveol obtained from caraway is a component of essential oil. The neuropathic pain model was induced by administering 2 mg/kg of paclitaxel (PTX) every other day for a week. After the final PTX injection, a behavioral analysis was conducted, and subsequently, tissue was collected for molecular analysis. Berbamine, bergapten, and carveol treatment attenuated thermal hypersensitivity, improved latency of falling, normalized the changes in body weight, and increased the threshold for pain sensation. The drugs increased the protective glutathione (GSH) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) levels in the sciatic nerve and spinal cord while lowering inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and lipid peroxidase (LPO). Hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) examinations confirmed that the medication reversed the abnormal alterations. The aforementioned natural substances inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κb) overexpression, as evidenced by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) and Western blot and hence provide neuroprotection in chronic constriction damage.
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1,636 members
Muhammad Farhan Sohail
  • Faculty Of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Muhammad Yousaf
  • Faculty of Computing
Professor Dr. G.Hussein Rassool
  • Riphah Insitute of Clinical and Professional Psychology/Centre for Islamic Psychology
Shahiq uz Zaman
  • M. Phil Program in Pharmaceutics
Fareeha Farooq
  • Department of BIochemistry
Islamabad, Pakistan