Rio de Janeiro State University
  • Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
Recent publications
This study presents a four-year follow-up of an introduced population of Physa acuta Draparnaud, 1805, from initial stages to an established population. This introduction occurred on a small impacted stream of Vila do Abraão, the main village of Ilha Grande (Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). The population size increased during the study, and presented a relationship to environmental factors, especially with rainfall. On the initial stages of introduction prevailed the smaller specimens, but on the overall, predominated the intermediate size classes. After less than a year, P. acuta becomes established on this stream and was possibly affecting the other species found on the stream. The information presented here is useful to understand the invasion process of invasive snails, as well as directing conservation efforts.
Inadequate leadership capacity compounds the world's workforce lack of preparedness for outbreaks of all sizes, as illustrated by the COVID-19 pandemic. Traditional human resources for health (HRH) leadership has focused on determining the health workforce requirements, often failing to fully consider the unpredictability associated with issues such as public health emergencies (PHE). The current COVID-19 pandemic demonstrates that policy-making and relevant leadership have to be effective under conditions of ethical uncertainty and with inconclusive evidence. The forces at work in health labor markets (HLM) entail leadership that bridges across sectors and all levels of the health systems. Developing and applying leadership competencies must then be understood from a systemic as well as an individual perspective. To address the challenges described and to achieve universal health coverage (UHC) by 2030, countries need to develop effective HRH leaderships relevant to the complexity of HLM in the most diverse contexts, including acute surge events during PHE. In complex and rapidly changing contexts, such as PHE, leadership needs to be attentive, nimble, adaptive, action oriented, transformative, accountable and provided throughout the system, i.e., authentic, distributed and participatory. This type of leadership is particularly important, as it can contribute to complex organizational changes as required in surge events associated with PHE, even in in the absence of formal management plans, roles, and structures. To deal with the uncertainty it needs agile tools that may allow prompt human resources impact assessments. The complexity of PHE requires transformative, authentic, distributed and participatory leadership of HRH. The unpredictable aspects of the dynamics of the HLM during PHE require the need to rethink, adapt and operationalize appropriate tools, such as HRH impact assessment tools, to redirect workforce operations rapidly and with precision.
Background Metabolic syndrome (MS) is defined as a low-grade proinflammatory state in which abnormal metabolic and cardiovascular factors increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and neuroinflammation. Events, such as the accumulation of visceral adipose tissue, increased plasma concentrations of free fatty acids, tissue hypoxia, and sympathetic hyperactivity in MS may contribute to the direct or indirect activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), specifically TLR4, which is thought to be a major component of this syndrome. Activation of the innate immune response via TLR4 may contribute to this state of chronic inflammation and may be related to the neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration observed in MS. In this study, we investigated the role of TLR4 in the brain microcirculation and in the cognitive performance of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced MS mice. Methods Wild-type (C3H/He) and TLR4 mutant (C3H/HeJ) mice were maintained under a normal diet (ND) or a HFD for 24 weeks. Intravital video-microscopy was used to investigate the functional capillary density, endothelial function, and endothelial–leukocyte interactions in the brain microcirculation. Plasma concentrations of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), adipokines and metabolic hormones were measured with a multiplex immunoassay. Brain postsynaptic density protein-95 and synaptophysin were evaluated by western blotting; astrocytic coverage of the vessels, microglial activation and structural capillary density were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Results The HFD-induced MS model leads to metabolic, hemodynamic, and microcirculatory alterations, as evidenced by capillary rarefaction, increased rolling and leukocyte adhesion in postcapillary venules, endothelial dysfunction, and less coverage of astrocytes in the vessels, which are directly related to cognitive decline and neuroinflammation. The same model of MS reproduced in mice deficient for TLR4 because of a genetic mutation does not generate such changes. Furthermore, the comparison of wild-type mice fed a HFD and a normolipid diet revealed differences in inflammation in the cerebral microcirculation, possibly related to lower TLR4 activation. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that TLR4 is involved in the microvascular dysfunction and neuroinflammation associated with HFD-induced MS and possibly has a causal role in the development of cognitive decline.
Objective Exercise has been demonstrated to be beneficial for improving physical capacity and quality of life in people with scleroderma, although knowledge of its impact on the respiratory system is limited. This study evaluated the impact of therapist-oriented home rehabilitation (TOHR) on impulse oscillometry (IOS) and lung ultrasound (LUS) findings in patients with scleroderma-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD). Results Twelve women with scleroderma underwent spirometry, IOS, and LUS before and after performing TOHR. Regarding spirometry, a normal pattern and restrictive damage were observed in five (41.7%) and seven (58.3%) participants pre-TOHR and post-TOHR, respectively. For IOS, an abnormal result was detected in nine (75%) pre-TOHR participants and six (50%) post-TOHR participants. Heterogeneity of resistance between 4–20 Hz (R4-R20) > 20% of the predicted value was observed in eight (66.7%) pre-TOHR participants and three (25%) post-TOHR participants ( P = 0.031). An abnormal LUS result was observed in nine (75%) participants both pre-TOHR and post-TOHR. The main change observed was B-lines > 2, which was noted in nine (75%) participants both pre-TOHR and post-TOHR. Our findings suggest that TOHR for women with scleroderma-associated ILD improves the resistance and reactance measured by IOS, including small airway disease. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT05041868 Registered on: 13th September 2021.
Tubular profiles have become increasingly prominent in civil engineering due to their numerous benefits. They have a more economical geometry, a smaller surface area favouring protection against corrosion, and are light when compared to other profiles with the same resistance. Furthermore, they have high load carrying capacities under compression, torsion, bending and combined loads. They are commonly used as columns, trusses, and bracing elements for these reasons. When tubular profiles are used, it is necessary to assess the joint resistance, considering they have different failure modes. Several studies have been carried out on carbon steel tubular joints, but limited investigation satisfactorily addresses stainless steel tubular joints. The present work aims to develop a semi-analytical formulation to predict the strengths of axially loaded chord stainless steel tubular T-joints. Therefore, the contribution of chord side walls was determined, followed by using the Ritz energy principle in the analyses. Numerical models were developed and calibrated with experiments to validate the proposed formulae. The validated numerical models were also used in a parametric study that helped understand the joint's behaviour when subjected to chord axial forces. For cases where the chord is under compression, a reduction in the ultimate joint capacity was observed. On the other hand, in tensioned chord cases, a small increase in the joint resistance was observed up to a certain level, from which their resistance started to be reduced. A correction factor was developed based on the magnitude of chord load and sidewall slenderness. Finally, the predictions obtained from the proposed method were compared to the numerical, main current standards and literature results. These comparisons indicated that the proposed method and the NBR 16239 Brazilian design code rendered satisfactory results, while the other results were, in general, very conservative.
One of the main symptoms of eutrophication is the proliferation of phytoplankton biomass, including nuisance cyanobacteria. Reduction of the external nutrient load is essential to control eutrophication, and in-lake interventions are suggested for mitigating cyanobacterial blooms to accelerate ecosystem recovery. Floc & Sink (F&S) is one such intervention technique that consists of applying a low dose of coagulants in combination with ballasts for removing cyanobacteria biomass. It is especially suitable for deep lakes with an external nutrient load that is higher than the internal load and suffers from perennial cyanobacterial bloom events. Studies showing the efficacy of the F&S technique have been published, but those testing its variation in efficacy with changes in the environmental conditions are still scarce. Therefore, we evaluated the efficiency of the F&S technique to remove cyanobacteria from water samples collected monthly from two different sites in a deep tropical reservoir (Funil Reservoir, Brazil) in the laboratory. We tested the efficacy of two coagulants, chitosan (CHI) and poly-aluminum chloride (PAC), alone and in combination with lanthanum-modified bentonite (LMB) in settling phytoplankton biomass. We hypothesized that: ⅰ) the combined treatments are more effective in removing the algal biomass and ⅱ) the efficiency of F&S treatments varies spatially and monthly due to changes in environmental conditions. The combined treatments (PAC + LMB or CHI + LMB) removed up to seven times more biomass than single treatments (PAC, CHI, or LMB). Only the treatments CHI and LMB + CHI differed in efficiency between the sites, although all treatments showed significant variation in efficiency over the months at both the sampling sites. The combined treatments exhibited lower removal efficacy during the warm-rainy months (October–March) than during the mild-cold dry months (April–September). At high pH (pH > 10), the efficiency of the CHI and LMB + CHI treatments decreased. CHI had lower removal efficiency when single-cell cyanobacteria were abundant, while the combined treatments were equally efficient regardless of the morphology of the cyanobacteria. Hence, the combination of PAC as a coagulant with a ballast LMB is the most effective technique to precipitate cyanobacteria under the conditions that are encountered around the year in this tropical reservoir.
The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most common agents of respiratory infections and has been associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. The ability of P. aeruginosa to cause severe respiratory infections results from the coordinated action of a variety of virulence factors that promote bacterial persistence in the lungs. Several of these P. aeruginosa virulence mechanisms are mediated by bacterial lipids, mainly lipopolysaccharide, rhamnolipid, and outer membrane vesicles. Other mechanisms arise from the activity of P. aeruginosa enzymes, particularly ExoU, phospholipase C, and lipoxygenase A, which modulate host lipid signaling pathways. Moreover, host phospholipases, such as cPLA2α and sPLA2, are also activated during the infectious process and play important roles in P. aeruginosa pathogenesis. These mechanisms affect key points of the P. aeruginosa-host interaction, such as: i) biofilm formation that contributes to bacterial colonization and survival, ii) invasion of tissue barriers that allows bacterial dissemination, iii) modulation of inflammatory responses, and iv) escape from host defenses. In this mini-review, we present the lipid-based mechanism that interferes with the establishment of P. aeruginosa in the lungs and discuss how bacterial and host lipids can impact the outcome of P. aeruginosa respiratory infections.
The novel HLA‐DRB1*03:196 allele, first described in a potential bone marrow donor from Brazil. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
We applied finite element analysis (FEA) in mandibles of nine sloths, including the two extant genera (Bradypus and Choloepus) and seven extinct genera (Eremotherium, Hapalops, Megatherium, Neocnus, Nothrotheriops, Nothrotherium, and Paramylodon). These groups do not present a clear association with feeding habits, but they do seem to indicate an association with ecological specialization: specialized (Group 1: Bradypus, Paramylodon, Hapalops, and Megatherium) or generalized (Group 2: Choloepus, Nothrotherium, Neocnus, Nothrotheriops, and Eremotherium). Thus, we suggest that FEA on 2-D models of sloth jaws could be a useful tool in ecomorphological comparative studies.
Purpose Binge eating disorder (BED), bulimia nervosa (BN) and recurrent binge eating (RBE) are binge eating spectrum conditions causing a significant impact in individual’s health and functioning. Information regarding those conditions came mostly from high-income countries. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of DSM-5 BED, BN and RBE and correlates in a representative sample from a metropolitan area of a middle-income country. Methods The data were obtained from a cross-sectional population-based household survey in two stages in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Noninstitutionalized residents aged 18–60 years were assessed by lay interviewers using the Questionnaire of Eating and Weight Patterns-5 (QEWP-5). Positive cases and a paired sample screen-negative cases were reassessed by phone with the Eating Disorders Section of SCID-I-P (adapted for DSM-5). The data were collected from September 2019 to February 2020. Results Overall, 2297 individuals were interviewed. Prevalence of BED was 1.4%, BN 0.7%, RBE 6.2%. Psychiatric comorbidities, such as depression, anxiety and ADHD were significantly more prevalent in people with BED, BN and RBE than in people without these eating problems. Several medical conditions, when controlling for body mass index, were significantly more prevalent in people with BED, BN and RBE. People with BED and BN had marked impairments in work/school, social and family life, reduced mental and physical HRQoL and under half had sought treatment. Conclusion As in high income countries, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, BED, BN and RBE are prevalent conditions and are associated with elevated BMI, functional impairment, psychiatric and medical comorbidity and poorer HRQoL.
Gene expression evaluation in cells and biological tissues has been crucial for research in biology, medicine, biotechnology, and diagnostic. Messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels show relationship with gene expression, and they can be measured by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) for the quantification of steady-state mRNA levels in cells and biological tissues. Radiations emitted from low-power lasers induce photobiomodulation, which is the base of therapeutic protocols for disease treatment. Despite that the understanding on photobiomodulation has been improved by mRNA level evaluation, laser irradiation parameters and procedures are diversified among studies, harming the comparison of RT-qPCR data. In this systematic review, data from mRNA levels reported in photobiomodulation studies were summarized regarding the process, function, and gene. Literature search was conducted for the assessment of published reports on mRNA levels evaluated by RT-qPCR in cells and biological tissues exposed to low-power lasers. Data showed that mRNA levels have been evaluated by RT-qPCR for a variety of genes related to molecular, cellular, and systemic processes after low-power violet-orange, red, and infrared laser exposure. Results from gene expression have increased the understanding of the mechanisms involved in photobiomodulation, and they can be useful to increase the efficacy and safety of clinical applications based on low-power lasers.
Field, petrographic, geophysical, geochronological, elemental and isotopic data support the identification of distinct components of a Wilson cycle (rift-drift-subduction-collision-collapse) in the South Atlantic Brasiliano Orogenic System (Mantiqueira Province). The main lines of evidence are: 1) Tonian-Cryogenian ophiolite complexes; 2) Hundreds of Hf-Nd-Sr isotope determinations indicating a temporal trend of juvenile to mixed Tonian-Cryogenian-Ediacaran igneous rocks comprising expanded calc-alkaline, magnesian, metaluminous gabbro-tonalite-granodiorite-granite/basalt-dacite-andesite-rhyolite series, developed in island arcs and in continental-margin (Andean-type) arcs; 3) Cratonic-sourced conglomerate-diamictite-sandstone-pelite-carbonate successions deposited in Tonian-Cryogenian rift-passive margins fringing the paleocontinental borders, covered by orogenic basins with contrasting provenance from the arc systems; 4) Paired negative-positive Bouguer anomalies typical of suture zones with ophiolite-bearing accretionary prisms in the lower plate and arc systems in the upper plate; 5) Paired HP/HT metamorphic belts associated with Ediacaran suture zones and retro-eclogites associated with Tonian subduction. Proposed intracontinental models for this region, both original and revisited, are based on the visual interpretation of restricted space for an oceanic realm and rely on calculations using presumed spreading and subduction rates. However, those do not account for a number of pre-, syn- and post-collisional modifications of the original paleogeography and for plate configurations over a curved planetary surface, with asynchroneity of extensional, accretionary and collisional events over thousands-of-km long orogenic fronts. Scissor-shaped oceanic basins are the rule rather than the exception, with connection of (i) an aulacogen to (ii) a partially enclosed gulf that is, in turn, connected to (iii) an open ocean with complex subduction systems. This configuration leads, after closure of the oceanic realm, to the gradation found in the South Atlantic Brasiliano Orogenic System, with (i) an inverted rift (Paramirim) connected to (ii) a confined orogen with a pre-collisional continental-margin Andean-type arc (Araçuaí), connected, in turn, to (iii) complex accretionary-collisional orogens (Ribeira and Dom Feliciano) with accreted juvenile pre-collisional island arc terranes. This arrangement characterizes, thus, a prime example of a typical subduction-collision orogenic system. The various lines of evidence from distinct fields coherently indicate a full Wilson Cycle with generation and consumption of the Adamastor oceanic lithosphere, followed by continental collisions, ultimately giving birth to the Gondwana paleocontinent.
This work aims to present results of density (ρL), isobaric thermal expansivity coefficient (αP,L) and isothermal compressibility coefficient (kT,L) correlations for n-dodecane and n-nonane as a function of temperature and pressure, able to obtain these properties at any temperature and pressure in the range of 4 °C to 40 °C and 0.1 MPa to 15.0 MPa, with low uncertainties (in the case of n-dodecane: 0.00025 g⋅cm⁻³ for ρL; 0.00020 °C⁻¹ for αP,L and 0.00022 MPa⁻¹ for kT,L and in the case of n-nonane: 0.00026 g⋅cm⁻³ for ρL; 0.00006 °C⁻¹ for αP,L and 0.00032 MPa⁻¹ for kT,L). The density measurements were performed using a pycnometer that was calibrated which presents a volume uncertainty of 0.020 cm³.
There has been a significant increase in stainless steel investigations related to steel construction in the last few years, contemplating numerical and experimental studies. This fact is associated with the excellent properties these materials can provide compared to carbon steel, such as corrosion resistance, durability, fire resistance, and added aesthetic value. On the other hand, the current standards and design codes are still mostly based on carbon steel analogies that do not consider stainless steel’s hardening response. The stainless steel has a distinct structural behaviour; its stress versus strain curve is nonlinear from low-stress levels and does not present a well-defined yield plateau. The present investigation was centred on developing experimental and numerical tests to clarify the response of splice connections. The experiments and numerical models involved stainless steel thin-plates connected by a single bolt (with two shear planes). Comparisons with current design codes and the new stainless steel design manual recommendations were also performed. The main aim of the performed studies was to investigate the influence of the curling effect over the bolted connections strength since this phenomenon can reduce the connection load-carrying capacity. The main investigated parameters were the end distance, e1, plate thickness, t and the adoption of stiffness plates. The results indicated that the curling effects were not significant for connections with e1/d ratios less than 3.5. A transition zone was also observed from this value up to 3.0, where the connections ultimate strength was only slightly influenced. Comparing thin-plate connections of the same geometry, with and without curling effects, led to 8% and 20% reductions of the ultimate capacity of austenitic and ferritic bolted connections. Alternatively, in thick-plate connections (5 mm), this effect could not be observed. The present investigation confirmed that a solution to minimize curling effects could be achieved using plate lips with heights equal to one-third of the plate width.
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, which does not have effective treatment options. However, olive oil has been suggested as an alternative to treat psoriasis, but no study has evaluated the mechanisms involved in the effects of olive oil on psoriasis. Thus, the current study investigated whether olive oil could ameliorate psoriasiform skin inflammation. To test this, mice received topical application of imiquimod to induce inflammation and were treated orally with olive oil. Human immortalized keratinocytes were also treated with imiquimod and olive oil. Epidermal thickness and keratinocyte proliferation were increased in imiquimod-induced lesions of olive-oil-treated animals. In both in vitro and in vivo studies, protein levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) were elevated following imiquimod and olive oil administration. Inhibition of Nrf2 abolished the increased proliferation of keratinocytes treated with imiquimod and olive oil, demonstrating the role of Nrf2 in olive oil-mediated exacerbation of psoriasiform skin inflammation. In addition, lower levels of linoleic acid and higher levels of oleic acid were observed in imiquimod- and olive-oil-treated animals, which may also contribute to the adverse effects of olive oil on psoriasis. In conclusion, dietary intake of olive oil aggravates the symptoms of psoriatic skin lesions through the overexpression of Nrf2 and an imbalance in oleic and linoleic acids levels, suggesting that a diet rich in olive oil may have significant negative effects on psoriasis.
Porous materials have a wide field of application in the biomedical, chemical, pharmaceutical, and automotive industries, among others. In many situations, these materials suffer efforts that can compromise their integrity. To prevent this from happening, a powerful tool, named limit analysis, can be used for the determination of a safe condition of operation for parts made of porous materials. However, there are few studies available that relate the design of parts made of porous material with limit analysis. In this paper, an approach for solving limit analysis problems applied to porous materials is presented. Statical and mixed variational principles are proposed for the limit analysis of porous materials, and a discrete mixed variational principle is presented. Two compaction functions, which relate the relative density to the hydrostatic pressure, are tested: the Helle’s and Heckel’s expressions. The finite element method is used for the numerical approximation of the discrete limit analysis formulation. Some numerical examples are presented, and the obtained results are close to the numerical and analytical solutions previously published. Among the tested compaction functions, Helle’s expression showed the highest compaction.
An experimental and numerical study into the behaviour of concrete-filled double skin tubular (CFDST) stub columns is presented. A total of eight axial compression tests were carried out, four utilising conventional concrete and four with recycled aggregate concrete. The stub columns were circular in cross-section and each comprised an austenitic stainless steel outer tube and a carbon steel inner tube, of varying dimensions. Accordingly, hollow ratios of 0.67 and 0.55 were considered. The recycled coarse aggregate was made by crushing test specimens from a previous research project, and a replacement ratio of 50% was adopted. During the experiments, similar structural behaviour and failure modes were observed between the specimens with conventional and recycled aggregate concrete. To investigate the behaviour further, a finite element model was developed in ABAQUS; validation of the model against the experimental results from the current work as well as data available in the literature is described. The finite element model was employed to conduct a parametric study to examine the load-bearing contributions of the constituent components of CFDST sections and to assess the influence of the hollow ratio on the structural behaviour. The experimental and numerical ultimate loads are compared with the capacity predictions determined using available design procedures. Overall, the results show that CFDST stub columns with recycled aggregate concrete can achieve similar capacities to their conventional concrete counterparts, demonstrating the potential for the wider use of recycled aggregate concrete, towards more sustainable structural solutions.
Resumo Avaliar possíveis diferenças nas trajetórias alimentares de estudantes segundo assiduidade ao Restaurante Universitário (RU) e forma de ingresso na universidade. Experimento natural com graduandos (n=1.131) de uma universidade pública brasileira. Em 2011 e 2013 foram aplicados questionários identificados e autopreenchidos presencialmente sobre consumo regular de alimentos marcadores de alimentação saudável ou não saudável, realização do almoço, jantar e substituição de almoço e/ou jantar por lanche. A variação das práticas alimentares regulares foi avaliada pela trajetória individual de cada estudante obtida pela combinação das respostas nos dois questionários. A análise da associação entre a assiduidade ao RU e a trajetória (positiva ou negativa) foi feita por meio de modelos de regressão logística múltipla. Observou-se associação (IC95% não sobrepostos) entre maior assiduidade ao RU e maior chance de trajetória positiva para realização de jantar e de almoço e para consumo de feijão, hortaliças, hortaliças cruas, frutas, biscoito de pacote, hambúrguer/embutidos e guloseimas e menor chance de trajetória negativa para feijão, hortaliças cruas e salgados fritos. A implementação do RU promoveu significativa melhoria da alimentação dos estudantes assíduos a ele, tanto cotistas quanto não cotistas.
Resumo O objetivo do estudo foi estimar a prevalência de iniciação sexual entre 10 e 14 anos, em estudantes do segundo ano do ensino médio da rede pública e privada da IX RA do município de Rio de Janeiro-RJ, e identificar subgrupos mais vulneráveis à situação. A amostra foi composta por 694 estudantes, selecionados através de uma amostragem por conglomerados e estratificada por turno de aula e características administrativa da escola. As informações foram coletadas através de questionário estruturado de autopreenchimento. Intervalos de confiança a 95% e o teste Qui-Quadrado (χ2) foram usados para avaliar a heterogeneidade das proporções entre subgrupos. A prevalência do evento foi 18,4%, sendo maior: em meninos; em subgrupos de maior vulnerabilidade social; entre os que ficaram/namoraram até 14 anos; os que foram vítimas de violência sexual em relacionamentos afetivo-sexuais; e os que apresentaram comportamentos de riscos à saúde. A alta frequência de iniciação sexual na adolescência precoce, especialmente em grupos mais vulneráveis, evidencia que a situação deve ser compreendida e enfrentada com políticas públicas intersetoriais que leve em consideração um contexto social de múltiplas carências e não apenas à saúde reprodutiva.
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4,276 members
Roberto Souto
  • Dermatologia
Julio César Delgado Correal
  • Departamento de Especialidades Médicas (DEM)
Gustavo Casimiro
  • Departamento de Ginástica (DEGIN)
Marcia Marques
  • Departamento de Engenharia Sanitária e do Meio Ambiente (DESMA)
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