Rhode Island School of Design
Recent publications
Background: This study examined fidelity of implementation strategies used in an organizational process improvement intervention (OPII) designed to improve evidence-based practices related to assessments for drug-involved clients exiting incarceration. Leadership was studied as a moderating factor between fidelity and outcomes. Methods: A mixed-method cluster randomized design was used to randomize 21 sites to early- or delayed-start within 9 research centers. Parent study protocol was reviewed to develop fidelity constructs (i.e., responsiveness, dose, quality, adherence). Outcomes were site-level success in achieving goals and objectives completed during the OPII (e.g., percent goals achieved). Correlations, analyses of covariance, regressions and moderation analyses were performed. Qualitative interviews assessed facilitators/barriers to implementation. Results: Fidelity constructs related to outcomes. No differences were found in fidelity by early or delayed condition. At low levels of leadership, high staff responsiveness (i.e., engagement in the OPII) related to poorer outcome. Conclusions: It is important to consider contextual factors (e.g., leadership) that may influence implementation strategy fidelity when deploying evidence-based practices. Findings are relevant to researchers, clinicians, administrators and policy makers, and suggest that goal completion during implementation of evidence-based practices requires monitoring of leadership competence, fidelity to implementation strategies (i.e., staff responsiveness to strategies) and attendance to goal importance.
The advancement of smart textiles has led to significant interest in developing wearable textile sensors (WTS) and offering new modalities to sense vital signs and activity monitoring in daily life settings. For this, textile fabrication methods such as knitting, weaving, embroidery, and braiding offer promising pathways toward unobtrusive and seamless sensing for WTS applications. Specifically, the knitted sensor has a unique intermeshing loop structure which is currently used to monitor repetitive body movements such as breathing (microscale motion) and walking (macroscale motion). However, the practical sensing application of knit structure demands a comprehensive study of knit structures as a sensor. In this work, we present a detailed performance evaluation of six knitted sensors and sensing variation caused by design, sensor size, stretching percentages % (10, 15, 20, 25), cyclic stretching (1000), and external factors such as sweat (salt-fog test). We also present regulated respiration (inhale–exhale) testing data from 15 healthy human participants; the testing protocol includes three respiration rates; slow (10 breaths/min), normal (15 breaths/min), and fast (30 breaths/min). The test carried out with statistical analysis includes the breathing time and breathing rate variability. These testing results offer an empirically derived guideline for future WTS research, present aggregated information to understand the sensor behavior when it experiences a different range of motion, and highlight the constraints of the silver-based conductive yarn when exposed to the real environment.
This study investigates in archaeological context the prehistoric origins of Chinese writing in the Late Neolithic (3500–2000 BCE) and Early Bronze Age (2000–1250 BCE). It uses a novel and inclusive theoretical approach to the examination of archaeological evidence, grammatological data, and textual sources with the intent of demonstrating that Chinese writing emerged as a result of a long process that began in various parts of the territory of what is now China in the Late Neolithic and continued during the Early Bronze Age.
Aesthetic value cannot be discussed separately from aesthetic experience. According to Western aesthetics discourse, the paradigm of aesthetic experience is a spectator’s reactive response to an object, leading to a judgment of its aesthetic value. Despite Dewey’s (1934) account of aesthetic experience which integrates undergoing and doing, being receptive and creative, and Berleant’s (1991) notion of aesthetic engagement that also involves the experiencing agent’s creative and imaginative activity, a typical characterization of such an agent is a receiver of the effect the object produces. Aesthetic experience also tends to be regarded as out of the ordinary, disengaging us from the humdrum of daily life and transporting us to a different dimension. Commonly invoked aesthetic values, such as beauty and sublimity, are often stunning and rare, whether they are attributed to the inherent features of the object or our changed perception and attitude through distancing and disinterestedness. Furthermore, positive aesthetic values garner almost exclusive attention. In comparison, until recently, negative aesthetic qualities, such as bland, ugly, disgusting, dehumanizing, and depressing, unfortunately present in many corners of our lives and lived world, have not received due regard.
Enceladus is an icy world with potentially habitable conditions, as suggested by the coincident presence of a subsurface ocean, an active energy source due to water-rock interactions, and the basic chemical ingredients necessary for terrestrial life. Among all ocean worlds in our Solar System, Enceladus is the only active body that provides direct access to its ocean through the ongoing expulsion of subsurface material from erupting plumes. Here we present the Enceladus Touchdown aNalyzing Astrobiology (ETNA) mission, a concept designed during the 2019 Caltech Space Challenge. ETNA’s goals are to determine whether Enceladus provides habitable conditions and what (pre-) biotic signatures characterize Enceladus. ETNA would sample and analyze expelled plume materials at the South Polar Terrain (SPT) during plume fly-throughs and landed operations. An orbiter includes an ultraviolet imaging spectrometer, an optical camera, and radio science and a landed laboratory includes an ion microscope and mass spectrometer suite, temperature sensors, and an optical camera, plus three seismic geophones deployed during landing. The nominal mission timeline is 2 years in the Saturnian system and ∼1 year in Enceladus orbit with landed operations. The detailed exploration of Enceladus’ plumes and SPT would achieve broad and transformational Solar System science related to the building of habitable worlds and the presence of life elsewhere. The nature of such a mission is particularly timely and relevant given the recently released Origins, Worlds, and Life: A Decadal Strategy for Planetary Science and Astrobiology 2023–2032, which includes a priority recommendation for the dedicated exploration of Enceladus and its habitable potential.
This paper explores an interdisciplinary approach that researchers can use to understand how people feel about their movement in the cityscape and their risk-taking activities by visualizing it. Author 1, a visual artist, and Author 2, a criminologist, used a psychogeography method where participants hand-drew maps of their everyday operations in the sex marketplace. Researchers, artists, and activists have used mapmaking to elucidate how individuals conceptualize physical space and place or their subjective, emotional relationship to the city's geography. Psychogeographers Lynch and Debord have used it to understand how participants feel about moving, inhabiting, navigating risk, and subverting space in the metropolis. We use this method as a vehicle to show how sex market facilitators’ imagine the physical geographic space where they work in the nighttime economy, their embodiment in managing a business in the urban landscape, their emotions in this risk-taking activity, and how they feel rerouting city blocks and subverting formal capitalism. In addition, this technique enabled participants to feel and recall emotions of this lived experience, such as excitement, control, authenticity, shame, and freedom. Sixty participants who worked in New York City hand drew mental maps or visual depictions of where they worked within the city. This visual storytelling method provides an avenue for what O'Neill terms an ethno-mimetic process where images/performances make lived experiences palpable to viewers. In this case, we see a glimpse of the sensations of this high-risk activity in the sex marketplace, allowing us to understand participants' social relations, lived experiences, and motivations.
Conducting research on the spatial cognition of tourists in historical towns helps to balance cultural heritage protection and tourism development. However, the current tourist cognition research is not comprehensive enough in terms of data sources, time dimension, and spatial objects. This research takes Fengjing Ancient Town in Shanghai as an example, and through multi-source data analysis explores how tourists’ perception and cognition of the attractions changes, discusses the impacts of characteristic of spatial system and elements on perception, and then establishes a spatial cognition analysis framework involving time dimension, cognitive depth, and spatial type. On-site aerial photos, Sina Weibo check-in data, tourist memory maps, and photos from tourism websites were used to classify tourists’ spatial cognition through content analysis, theme classification, and GIS spatial analysis. This research finds that tourists have formed three cognitive levels in the travel process, from “initial spatial consciousness” to “place memory” then to “imagery perception”. Meanwhile, space is the most important object of tourists’ cognition, and it is also the carrier of other intangible cultures. In terms of spatial cognition and ancient town tourism, this research finds the tourists’ spatial cognition of Fengjing Ancient Town is related to the main river and main tourist routes that represent the image characteristics of the ancient town. This research shows that clear boundaries of tourism space, richer folk activities, and more sequential tourism routes could help tourists form a more systematic spatial cognition. Based on the findings, this research also establishes an analysis and application framework of tourists’ multilevel spatial cognition to provide optimization suggestions for development of tourism.
As a timely artist investigating the potential of coupling natural systems with silicon-based systems, Michael Sedbon's work suggests a unique perspective on the relationship of manmade information processing technologies to computing, intelligence, and consciousness found in nature. His hope for a better world through building systems based on biomimicry exploration piqued our interest as we interviewed him for this article.
COVID-19 has caused unprecedented levels of worldwide disruption to the education of children and young people, who have been among the worst affected by the socio-economic impacts of the global pandemic. However, it is crucial to acknowledge that children and young people are not passive victims. Conversely, during lockdown it has been impossible to ignore the ways in which so many children and young people have emerged as powerful educators. Our youngest citizens have been at the forefront of protests regarding Black Lives Matter and systemic racism, climate change and, in the UK, class-based bias in examination results during COVID-19. The lessons they have taught us have resulted in policy change at local and national levels and created conversations across the generations about desirable futures and the importance of making change happen. This chapter uses examples from a Social Justice Makerspace in a New York City school and a Student-led Education for Disaster Risk Reduction in Naarm (Melbourne), Australia, to explore how more relational, creative and democratic approaches to education can continue to recognise and support children and young people’s power to initiate, develop and lead change and create more inclusive, socially just futures for us all.
We examine the spread and persistence of corporate social responsibility (CSR) to mitigate oil conflict, despite its failures. Our work challenges the ideas versus interests debate, arguing for a third way in which reinforcing feedbacks between ideas (problem narratives) and interests (power disconnects) interact to shape the persistence of failed CSR. Using Ogoniland, Nigeria, as a case study, we present novel findings showing that Shell and the Nigerian government developed problem narratives for CSR that reinforces rather than narrows existing power disconnects. In contrast, as those most negatively affected by oil extraction, the Ogoni people have a more complex understanding of the problems associated with extraction and the necessary solutions. Therefore, they are disappointed with failed CSR applications practiced by Shell since 1997 and continue to protest ongoing impacts of oil extraction. Oil companies need to change their problem narratives and concede more power to communities, and governments should cease enabling failed CSR strategies. Additionally, governments should reflect on and address the role they play in enabling CSR as a failed strategy, whether they are oil-producing host countries such as Nigeria or oil-consuming home countries such as Holland. Last, we discuss the generalizability of our theoretical framework and propose that the international community could play a role in narrowing domestic power disconnects.
The class of self-shaping woven textiles are those that undergo a transformation in shape exhibiting three-dimensional behaviors due to the interplay between weave structure and active yarns that shrink, twist or otherwise move during finishing processes such as steaming. When weaving with active yarns to produce dimensional fabrics the unpredictability of the complex interactions involved typically necessitates arduous physical sampling for intentional design and use. Current weaving software, overwhelmingly reliant on 2D graphic depiction of woven fabric, is wholly unable to provide the predictive dimensional appearance of such fabrics that might lead to practical decision making and innovative design solutions. This paper describes an iterative workflow to design self-shaping woven fabrics, from simulation-assisted drafting to the creation of a library of woven behaviors categorized by attributes for seating design. This workflow is then used to inform the design of a new yarn-based simulator as well as to design and fabricate a textile-centric furniture piece in which these woven fabric behaviors and ornamentation are intentionally zoned to the form according to structural, ergonomic and aesthetic considerations.
The world is witnessing a rising number of preterm infants who are at significant risk of medical conditions. These infants require continuous care in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU). Medical parameters are continuously monitored in premature infants in the NICU using a set of wired, sticky electrodes attached to the body. Medical adhesives used on the electrodes can be harmful to the baby, causing skin injuries, discomfort, and irritation. In addition, respiration rate (RR) monitoring in the NICU faces challenges of accuracy and clinical quality because RR is extracted from electrocardiogram (ECG). This research paper presents a design and validation of a smart textile pressure sensor system that addresses the existing challenges of medical monitoring in NICU. We designed two e-textile, piezoresistive pressure sensors made of Velostat for noninvasive RR monitoring; one was hand-stitched on a mattress topper material, and the other was embroidered on a denim fabric using an industrial embroidery machine. We developed a data acquisition system for validation experiments conducted on a high-fidelity, programmable NICU baby mannequin. We designed a signal processing pipeline to convert raw time-series signals into parameters including RR, rise and fall time, and comparison metrics. The results of the experiments showed that the relative accuracies of hand-stitched sensors were 98.68 (top sensor) and 98.07 (bottom sensor), while the accuracies of embroidered sensors were 99.37 (left sensor) and 99.39 (right sensor) for the 60 BrPM test case. The presented prototype system shows promising results and demands more research on textile design, human factors, and human experimentation.
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Lucy H Spelman
  • History, Philosophy, Social Sciences
Bruce D Campbell
  • Web Design + Interactivity
Joy Ko
  • Department of Textiles and ID
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