Research Institute of Eye Diseases
Recent publications
Graves' disease (GD) is one of the urgent problems of modern endocrinology, characterized by a high frequency, polysystemic damage to the body, a steadily progressive course, diagnostic difficulties, a high degree of disability and often resistance to therapy. The manifestations of the disease include: thyrotoxicosis syndrome with impaired lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and activation of multiple organ pathology in the form of thyroid eye disease (TED), pretibial myxedema, cardiovascular insufficiency, acropathy, lesions of the nervous, osteoarticular system, and other lesions. The development of multiple organ pathology can have a different sequence, different time intervals and different degrees of severity. Any developments in the direction of clarifying the etiopathogenetic, clinical diagnostic and treatment-rehabilitation measures are of undoubted significance. We present a clinical case of GD, TED and pretibial myxedema, in which an integrated approach was tested in the tactics of treating pretibial myxedema (a combination of pulse therapy with prednisolone and FREMS-therapy), as a result of which positive results were obtained within a short time.
Background In experimental studies, intravitreally applied antibodies against epidermal growth factor (EGF), EGF family members (amphiregulin, neuregulin-1, betacellulin, epigen, epiregulin) and against the EGF receptor (EGFR) were associated with a reduction in lens-induced axial elongation and decrease in physiological eye elongation in guinea pigs and in non-human primates. Here, we investigated the intraocular tolerability and safety of a fully human monoclonal IgG2-antibody against EGFR, already in clinical use in oncology, as a potential future therapeutic approach for axial elongation in adult eyes with pathological myopia. Methods The clinical, monocentre, open-label, multiple-dose, phase-1 study included patients with myopic macular degeneration of stage 4, who received intravitreal injections of panitumumab in various doses and in intervals ranging between 2.1 months and 6.3 months. Results The study included 11 patients (age:66.8±6.3 years), receiving panitumumab injections in doses of 0.6 mg (4 eyes; 1×1 injection, 3×2 injections), 1.2 mg (4 eyes; 1×1 injection, 2×2 injections, 1×3 injections) and 1.8 mg (3 eyes; 1×1 injection, 2×2 injections), respectively. None of the participants showed treatment-emergent systemic adverse events or intraocular inflammatory reactions. Best-corrected visual acuity (1.62±0.47 logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (logMAR) vs 1.28±0.59 logMAR; p=0.08) and intraocular pressure (13.8±2.4 mm Hg vs 14.3±2.6 mm Hg; p=0.20) remained unchanged. In nine patients with a follow-up of >3 months (mean:6.7±2.7 months), axial length did not change significantly (30.73±1.03 mm vs 30.77±1.19 mm; p=0.56). Conclusions In this open-labelled, phase-1 study with a mean follow-up of 6.7 months, panitumumab repeatedly administered intravitreally up to a dose of 1.8 mg was not associated with intraocular or systemic adverse effects. During the study period, axial length remained unchanged. Trial registration number DRKS00027302.
A clinical case of viral conjunctivitis COVID-19, which was complicated by partial symblepharon and severe dry eye syndrome, is presented. The latter was treated for several days with eye drops containing solutions of glucocorticosteroid, a cytostatic and an antiseptic combined with tear replacement therapy, which however led to an extensive detachment of the corneal epithelium of the right eye, a superficial ulcer and an area of keratomalacia in the lower part of the cornea. In view of this, a further hospital treatment was required: the patient received anti-inflammatory and keratoprotective drugs. A subsequent medical consultation found out that the patient had periodically instilled oxybuprocaine hydrochloride 0.4% into the right eye for pain relief for a long time (4 months) without informing the attending physician. As a result of hospital treatment, the condition of the patient’s right eye improved: the corneal ulcer, was epithelialized, followed by the formation of a vascularized corneal leukoma. In our opinion, a deterioration of the tear film stability of the patient, who had had COVID-19 accompanied by ocular manifestations in the form of initially developed conjunctivitis, was due to the anesthetic effect of long-term instillations of oxybuprocaine hydrochloride. This led to a significant decrease in tear secretion, a decrease in the density of goblet cells of the conjunctiva and a violation of the sensory innervation of the cornea, which gradually brought about a severe dry eye syndrome. The above case clearly demonstrates the importance of increasing the patients’ awareness of the harm that could be caused by long-term use of local anesthetics without a doctor’s approval.
Purpose: To assess the prevalence of non-glaucomatous optic nerve atrophy (NGOA) and its associations in highly myopic individuals. Design: Population-based study. Participants: The Ural Eye and Medical Study included 5899 (80.5%) out of 7328 eligible individuals. Methods: The participants underwent an ophthalmological and general examination. NGOA, graded into five arbitrary stages, was characterized by decreased visibility of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) on fundus photographs and on red-free fundus photographs, neuroretinal rim pallor, abnormally thin retinal arteriole diameter, and abnormally thin peripapillary RNFL as measured by optical coherence tomography. Main outcome measures: NGOA prevalence and degree. Results: Out of 5709 (96.9%) participants with axial length measurements, 130 (2.3%) individuals were highly myopic, of which 116 (89.2%) participants (age:57.8±11.1 years; range:41.0-84.2 years; axial length:27.0±1.2mm; range:26.01-32.87mm) had available fundus photographs and OCT images and were included into the present study. NGOA prevalence was 34/116 (29.3%;95%CI:21.0,38.0), and mean NGOA degree in eyes with NGOA was 1.7±1.0 arbitrary units. Higher NGOA degree correlated (multivariable analysis; regression coefficient r2:0.59) with longer axial length (beta:0.22; B:0.18; 95%CI:0.05,0.31; P=0.007), wider temporal parapapillary gamma zone width (beta:0.50; B:0.45; 95%CI:0.30,0.59; P<0.001), higher prevalence of diabetes (beta:0.20; B:0.63; 95%CI:0.20,1.06; P=0.005), and higher systolic blood pressure (beta:0.15; B:0.01; 95%CI:0.001,0.02; P=0.03). Higher NGOA prevalence was associated with longer axial length (odds ratio (OR):7.45; 95%CI:2.15,25.7; P=0.002), wider temporal parapapillary gamma zone (OR:6.98; 95%CI:2.61,18.7; P<0.001), and higher systolic blood pressure (OR:1.05; 95%CI:1.01,1.10; P=0.02). Conclusions: In this ethnically mixed population from Russia with an age of 40+ years, high axial myopia showed a relatively high prevalence of NGOA, increasing with longer axial length and wider temporal parapapillary gamma zone. For each millimeter of axial elongation and widening of gamma zone, the odds for NGOA increased 7.45-fold and 6.98-fold, respectively. The axial elongation-associated and gamma zone-related increase in the distance between the retinal ganglion cells and the optic disc may lead to a lengthening and stretching of the retinal ganglion cell axons and may pathogenetically be of importance. In highly myopic eyes, NGOA may be a reason for visual field and central visual acuity loss, unexplainable by myopic macular pathologies.
Aim Comparative analysis of the effectiveness of a new approach, "SMART rehabilitation of patients after heart valve replacement", which includes, in addition to face-to-face training, Internet technologies in the form of video conferencing, the mobile application "Calculation of the warfarin dose", and a traditional program for educating patients after correction of valvular defects. Material and methods The study included 190 patients with prosthetic heart valves. The main group consisted of 98 patients who completed a distance learning course. The control group included 92 patients participating in face-to-face training. Clinical and instrumental examinations (electrocardiography, echocardiography, determination of international normalized ratio (INR)), and surveys to evaluate awareness, compliance with treatment, and quality of life (QoL) were performed. Results At baseline, the awareness, compliance and QoL did not differ between the compared groups. After 6-month follow-up, the mean score of awareness increased by 53.6 % (р=0.0001). The compliance with treatment increased 3.3 times in the main group and 1.7 times in the control group (p=0.0247). Patients of the main group were more prone to self-management (p=0.0001), had better medical and social awareness (p=0.0335), medical and social communicability (p=0.0392), confidence in the therapeutic strategy of the attending physician (p=0.0001), and treatment effectiveness (p=0.0057). Analysis of QoL showed increases in living activity 2.1 times (р=0.0001), social functioning 1.6 times (р=0.0001), and mental health 1.9 times (р=0.0001). Conclusion The novel approach of distance learning, "SMART rehabilitation of patients after heart valve replacement", provides improvements in awareness, compliance with treatment and QoL.
Purpose To investigate the topographic and anatomical features of secondary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction (SALDO) due to radioiodine therapy. Methods Dacryocystography-computed tomography (DCG-CT) scans of the nasolacrimal ducts in 64 cases with SALDO due to radioiodine therapy and in 69 cases with primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction (PANDO) were studied. The anatomical site of obstruction was located, and morphometric characteristics of the nasolacrimal ducts were calculated: volume, length, and average sectional area. The statistical analysis was performed using the t-criterion, ROC analysis, and the odds ratio (OR). Results The mean nasolacrimal section area was 10.7 ± 0.8 mm2 in patients with PANDO and 13.2 ± 0.9 mm2 in patients with SALDO due to radioiodine therapy (p = 0.039); the AUC value in ROC analysis for this parameter was 0.607 (p = 0.037). The development of "proximal" obstruction including lacrimal canaliculi obstruction and obstruction at the site of the lacrimal sac was 4.076 times more likely (CI: 1.967–8.443) in patients with PANDO than in patients with SALDO due to radioactive iodine exposure. Conclusions By comparing CT scans of the nasolacrimal ducts, we observed that in SALDO obstruction due to radioactive iodine therapy is predominantly "distal," while in PANDO it is more often "proximal." The development of obstruction within SALDO is followed by more pronounced suprastenotic ectasia.
Purpose: To assess relationships between ocular biometric parameters in dependence of age and sex in children and adolescents. Methods: In the Ural Children Eye Study, a school-based cohort study, 4933 children underwent an ophthalmological and general examination. Results: Complete biometric measurements were available for 4406 (89.3%) children. Cycloplegic refractive error (mean: -0.87 ± 1.73 diopters (D); median: -0.38 D; range: -19.75 D to +11.25 D) increased (multivariable analysis; r2 = 0.73) with shorter axial length (β: -0.99; non-standardized regression coefficient B: -1.64; 95% CI: -1.68, -1.59) and lower corneal refractive power (β: -0.55; B: -0.67; 95% CI: -0.70, -0.64), in addition to higher cylindrical refractive error (β: 0.10; B: 0.34; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.41), thinner lens (β: -0.11; -0.85; 95% CI: -1.02, -0.69) and male sex (β: 0.15; B: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.57). In univariate analysis, decrease in refractive error with older age was more significant (β: -0.38 vs. β: -0.25) and steeper (B: -0.22 (95% CI: -0.24, -0.20) vs. B: -0.13 (95% CI: -0.15, -0.11)) in girls than boys, particularly for an age of 11+ years. Axial length increased with older age (steeper for age <11 years) (B: 0.22 (95% CI: 0.18, 0.25) vs. 0.07 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.09)). In multivariable analysis, axial length increased with lower refractive error (β: -0.77; B: -0.42; 95% CI: -0.43, -0.40) and lower corneal refractive power (β: -0.54; B: -0.39; 95% CI: -0.41, -0.38), in addition to older age (β: 0.04; B: 0.02; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.03), male sex (β: 0.13; B: 0.23; 95% CI: 0.21, 0.32), higher cylindrical refractive error (β: 0.05; B: 0.09; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.14) and thinner lens (β: -0.14; B: -0.62; 95% CI: -0.72, -0.51). The axial length/corneal curvature (AL/CR) ratio increased until the age of 14 years (β: 0.34; B: 0.017; 95% CI: 0.016, 0.019; p < 0001), and then became independent of age. The AL/CR ratio increased (r2 = 0.78) mostly with higher corneal refractive power (β: 0.25; B: 0.02; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.02; p < 0.001), lower refractive error (β: -0.75; B: -0.05; 95% CI: -0.05, -0.05; p < 0.001), thinner lens thickness (β: -01.6; B: -0.09; 95% CI: -0.10, -0.08; p < 0.001) and older age (β: 0.16; B: 0.006; 95% CI: 0.005, 0.007; p < 0.001). Conclusions: In this multiethnic group of school children in Russia, the age-related increase in myopic refractive error was more significant and steeper in girls, particularly for the age group of 11+ years. Determinants of higher myopic refractive error were longer axial length, higher corneal refractive power, lower cylindrical refractive error, thicker lens and female sex.
Purpose: To investigate the association of commonly used systemic medications with glaucoma and intraocular pressure (IOP) in the European population. Design: Meta-analysis of eleven population-based cohort studies of the European Eye Epidemiology (E3) consortium. Participants: A total of 143240 participants were included in the glaucoma analyses and 47177 participants in the IOP analyses. Methods: We examined associations of four categories of systemic medications (antihypertensive medications: beta-blockers, diuretics, calcium channel blockers [CCBs], alpha-agonists, angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers; lipid-lowering medications; antidepressants; antidiabetic medications) with glaucoma prevalence and IOP. Glaucoma ascertainment and IOP measurement method were according to individual study protocols. Multivariable regression analyses were carried out in each study and results were pooled using random effects meta-analyses. Associations with antidiabetic medications were examined in diabetic participants only. Main outcome measures: Glaucoma prevalence and IOP. Results: In the meta-analyses of our maximally-adjusted multivariable models, use of CCBs was associated with a higher prevalence of glaucoma (odds ratio [OR] with corresponding 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.23 [1.08 to 1.39]). This association was stronger for monotherapy of CCBs with direct cardiac effects (OR [95% CI]: 1.96 [1.23 to 3.12]). The use of other antihypertensive medications, lipid-lowering medications, antidepressants or antidiabetic medications were not clearly associated with glaucoma. Use of systemic beta-blockers was associated with a lower IOP (Beta [95% CI]: -0.33 [-0.57 to -0.08] mmHg). Monotherapy of both selective (Beta [95% CI]: -0.45 [-0.74 to -0.16] mmHg) and non-selective (Beta [95% CI]: -0.54 [-0.94 to -0.15] mmHg) systemic beta-blockers was associated with lower IOP. There was a suggestive association between use of high-ceiling diuretics and lower IOP (Beta [95% CI]: -0.30 [-0.47; -0.14] mmHg), but not when used as monotherapy. Use of other antihypertensive medications, lipid-lowering medications, antidepressants, or antidiabetic medications were not associated with IOP. Conclusions: We identified a potentially harmful association between use of CCBs and glaucoma prevalence. Additionally, we observed and quantified the association of lower IOP with systemic beta-blocker use. Both findings are potentially important given that glaucoma patients frequently use systemic antihypertensive medications. Determining whether the CCB association is causal should be a research priority.
Background: To assess the prevalence of myopia and the distribution of ocular axial length as surrogate for myopic refractive error in school children in a population in Russia. Methods: The Ural Children Eye Study, a school-based case-control study, was conducted in Ufa/Bashkortostan/Russia from 2019 to 2022 and included 4933 children (age: 9.7±2.6 years; range: 6.2-18.8 years). The parents underwent a detailed interview and the children an ophthalmological and general examination. Results: Prevalence of any myopia (≤-0.50 dioptres (D)), minor myopia (-0.50 D to -1.0 D), moderate myopia (-1.01 D to -5.99 D) and high myopia (≤-6.0D) was 2187/3737 (46.2%; 95% CI 44.8% to 48.6%), 693/4737 (14.6%; 95% CI 13.6% to 15.6%), 1430/4737 (30.2%; 95% CI 28.9% to 31.5%) and 64/4737 (1.4%; 95% CI 1.0% to 1.7%), respectively. In the children aged 17+ years, prevalence of any, minor, moderate and high myopia was 170/259 (65.6%; 95% CI 59.8% to 71.5%), 130/259 (50.2%; 95% CI 44.1% to 56.3%), 28/259 (10.8%; 95% CI 7.0% to 14.6%) and 12/259 (4.6%; 95% CI 2.1% to 7.2%), respectively. After adjusting for corneal refractive power (beta: 0.09) and lens thickness (beta: -0.08), larger myopic refractive error was associated (r2=0.19) with older age (beta: 0.33), female sex (beta: 0.04), higher prevalence of maternal (beta: 0.15) and paternal (beta: 0.12) myopia, more time spent in school, with reading books or playing with the cell phone (beta: 0.05) and less total time spent outdoors (beta: 0.05). Axial length and myopic refractive error increased by 0.12 mm (95% CI 0.11 to 0.13) and -0.18 D (95% CI 0.17 to 0.20), respectively, per year of age. Conclusions: In this ethnically mixed urban school children population from Russia, prevalence of any myopia (65.6%) and high myopia (4.6%) in children aged 17+ years was higher than in adult populations in the same region and it was lower than in East Asian school children, with similar associated factors.
Blepharoptosis is an abnormally low position of the upper eyelid in relation to the eyeball due to its omission. The method of surgical treatment of blepharoptosis depends on the function of the levator. The aim . To analyze the results of surgical treatment of partial blepharoptosis of various etiology by the dosed muscle-conjunctival resection of the upper eyelid cartilage. Material and methods . We operated 78 patients (82 eyes) with blepharoptosis, among them with congenital blepharoptosis – 34 people (36 eyes), with acquired – 44 (46 eyes). The patients’ age was from 6 to 82 years. Inclusion criteria: the function of the upper eyelid levator – more than 5 mm, the width of the palpebral fissure – 3 mm or more. The patients underwent a dosed muscle-conjunctival resection of the upper eyelid cartilage in the period from 2018 to 2021. The follow-up period ranged from 2 months to 2 years. Results . Elimination of blepharoptosis was achieved in all patients. With congenital blepharoptosis, a good result was obtained in 33 people (91.7 %), satisfactory – in three patients (8.3 %), which was associated with the asymmetry of the palpebral fissure, for the correction of which these patients underwent additional intervention. In patients with acquired ptosis of the upper eyelid, a good result was achieved in 91.3 % of cases (42 eyes). One patient underwent repeated surgery due to hypocorrection and asymmetry of the palpebral fissure width after the first surgery. In all patients, the result remained stable throughout the observation period. Conclusion . The use of the method of dosed muscle-conjunctival resection of the upper eyelid cartilage in patients with partial ptosis of the upper eyelid and intact levator function made it possible to obtain a good cosmetic and functional result: with congenital blepharoptosis – in 91.7 % of cases, acquired ptosis of the upper eyelid – in 91.3 % patients.
βL-crystallin aggregation due to oxidative damage in the presence of H2O2 and ferric chloride was studied in-vitro under conditions close to physiological. It was shown that the protein aggregation characterized by the nucleation time and the aggregation rate significantly depended on the composition of the isoosmotic buffers used, and decreased in the series HEPES buffer > Tris buffer > PBS. Ferric chloride at neutral pH was converted into water-insoluble iron hydroxide III (≡FeIIIOH). According to the data of scanning electron microscopy the ≡FeIIIOH particles formed in HEPES buffer, Tris buffer, and PBS practically did not differ in structure. However, the sizes of ≡FeIIIOH floating particles measured by dynamic light scattering differed significantly and were 44 ± 28 nm, 93 ± 66 nm, 433 ± 316 nm (Zaver ± SD) for HEPES buffer, Tris buffer, and PBS, respectively. It was found by the spin trap method that the ability of ≡FeIIIOH to decompose H2O2 with the formation of a •OH decreases in the series HEPES buffer, Tris buffer, and PBS. The authors suggest that the ability to generate •OH during the decomposition of H2O2 is determined by the total surface area of ≡FeIIIOH particles, which significantly depends on the composition of the buffer in which these particles are formed.
Purpose: To describe anatomical peculiarities associated with axial elongation in the human myopic eye. Methods: Reviewing the results of previous histomorphometrical investigations of enucleated human globes, as well as reviewing findings obtained in population-based studies and hospital-based clinical investigations of myopic patients and non-myopic individuals. Results: Myopic axial elongation is associated with a change from a mostly spherical eye shape to a prolate ellipsoid form. It is combined with choroidal and scleral thinning, most pronounced at the posterior pole and less pronounced in the fundus midperiphery. In the fundus midperiphery, the retina and density of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and photoreceptors decrease with a longer axial length, while in the macular region, retinal thickness, RPE cell density, and choriocapillaris thickness are not related to axial length. With axial elongation, a parapapillary gamma zone develops, leading to an enlargement of the optic disc-fovea distance and a decrease in angle kappa. Axial elongation is also correlated with an increase in the surface and volume of Bruch's membrane (BM), while BM thickness remains unchanged. Axial elongation causes moderately myopic eyes to show a shift of BM opening to the foveal direction so that the horizontal disc diameter becomes shorter (with a consequent vertical ovalization of the optic disc shape), a temporal gamma zone develops, and the optic nerve exit takes an oblique course. Features of high myopia are an enlargement of the RPE opening (myopic parapapillary beta zone) and BM opening (secondary macrodisc), elongation and thinning of the lamina cribrosa, peripapillary scleral flange (parapapillary delta zone) and peripapillary choroidal border tissue, secondary BM defects in the macular region, myopic maculoschisis, macular neovascularization, and cobblestones in the fundus periphery. Conclusions: These features combined may be explained by a growth in BM in the fundus midperiphery leading to axial elongation.
Background To explore an influence of the COVID-19-related lockdown on ocular axial elongation in school children in Russia.Methods The participants of the school-based Ufa Children Myopia Study in Ufa/Russia underwent, at baseline in 2019/2020 before the COVID-19 outbreak and after a COVID-19-related lockdown, a detailed interview and ophthalmological examination including laser interferometric biometry for axial length measurement.ResultsThe study included 461 children (age:10.7±2.1 years;range:6.8-16.9 years). The mean follow-up was 1.41±0.33 years. Mean axial length at baseline was 23.96±0.95mm and 23.94±0.95mm in the right and left eyes, respectively. During the study period, annual axial elongation (right/left eyes) was 0.19±0.17mm/0.19±0.22mm. Before the COVID-19 lockdown, the age-dependent coefficient for axial length (ADCAL) for the right/left eyes was 0.21mm (95%CI:0.17,0.25)/0.20mm (95%CI:0.16,0.24). In children younger than 9.6 years (n = 157), annual axial elongation (right eyes) during the study period was larger than the ADCAL before the COVID-19 outbreak (0.29 mm (95%:0.00,0.66) versus 0.21 mm (95%CI:0.02,0.41)). In the groups aged 9.6 to 11.4 years (n = 148) and aged >11.4 years (n = 156), annual axial elongation during the study period was comparable to the ADCAL before the COVID-19 outbreak (0.18mm (95%CI:-0.07,0.46) versus 0.22mm (95%CI:-0.05,0.48), and (0.09mm (95%CI:-0.15,0.34) versus 0.14mm (95%CI:0.00,0.28), respectively). In children aged ≤9 years at study end, axial length at study end was 0.20 mm larger than axial length at baseline in the participants aged ≤9 years at baseline. Larger axial elongation during the study period was associated (multivariable analysis) with younger age (beta:-0.62;P
Demyelinating optic neuritis and hereditary optic neuropathy (HON) take a leading place among the diseases, the leading clinical syndrome of which is bilateral optic neuropathy with a simultaneous or sequential significant decrease in visual acuity. Optic neuritis can occur at the onset or be one of the syndromes within multiple sclerosis (MS), neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody disease (MOGAD). HON are a group of neurodegenerative diseases, among which the most common variants are Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), associated with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations, and autosomal recessive optic neuropathy (ARON), caused by nuclear DNA (nDNA) mutations in DNAJC30. There are phenotypes of LHON «plus», one of which is the association of HON and CNS demyelination in the same patient. In such cases, the diagnosis of each of these diseases causes significant difficulties, due to the fact that in some cases there are clinical and radiological coincidences between demyelinating and hereditary mitochondrial diseases.
Aim To evaluate cardiometabolic effects of empagliflozin in patients with ischemic heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) following elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Materials and methods Patients meeting the inclusion/non-inclusion criteria were randomized into two groups of equal number using simple randomization with successively assigned numbers. Group 1 included 37 patients (18 men and 19 women) who gave their consent for the treatment with empagliflozin 10 mg/day in addition to their previous hypoglycemic therapy. The drug administration started one month prior to the elective PCI and continued for the next 11 months (treatment duration, 12 months). Group 2 (comparison group) consisted of age- and DM duration-matched patients (37 patients; 18 men and 19 women) who continued on their hypoglycemic therapy previously prescribed by endocrinologists during the entire study period. Before the study, 36.11 % patients of the empagliflozin group and 27.03 % of the comparison group had unsatisfactory glycemic control as shown by the level of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Results At 6 and 12 months of the study, fasting glycemia and HbA1c were significantly lower in the empagliflozin treatment group. The groups were comparable by the incidence of adverse outcomes: 8 (22.24 %) patients in the empagliflozin group and 10 (27.04 %) patients in the comparison group (р=0.787). The 12-month empagliflozin treatment reduced total cholesterol (C) by 5.56 % (p<0.05), low density lipoprotein (LDL) C by 3.67 % (p<0.05), visceral adipose tissue area (VATA) by 5.83 % (p<0.05), and subcutaneous adipose tissue area (SATA) by 3.54 % (p<0.05). Conclusion The empagliflozin treatment for 30 days prior to and after elective PCI can enhance the effectiveness of myocardial revascularization due to the demonstrated beneficial cardiometabolic effects.
The human cornea – the anterior fibrous membrane of the eye, is a unique ordered optical-biological system that is avascular, saturated with nerve endings, includes tissue-specific cells, consists mainly of various types of collagen. An exceptional feature of the collagen layers of the cornea, including the collagen plates of the stroma, is transparency, which provides physiological refraction and light transmission due to the stable supporting properties of the cornea. The data on the morphological structure of the cornea, which is an important element of the optical system of the eye, are of considerable interest not only from theoretical, but also from practical positions. This is due to the fact that the identification of the first signs of deviation from normal physiological morphological and ultrastructural criteria in the cornea allows us to establish the nature of its pathological changes, which can be caused by both hereditary predisposition and local and general disorders. It has been shown that the thinning of the layers of the cornea, a decrease in the density of endotheliocytes or keratocytes signal the development of dystrophic processes in it. In addition to evaluating quantitative morphometric data, changes in qualitative ultrastructural indicators play an important role. In particular it was found that a decrease in the density of endothelial cells is accompanied by an increase in their size and a decrease in the cell nucleus. In addition, a number of degenerative pathological conditions are characterized by a decrease in the diameter of collagen fibrils and a change in the density of fibrillary packaging.This literature review presents basic information, features of morphology, ultrastructural organization and functional purpose of layers and cells of the human cornea.
Purpose: To explore associations between the hand grip strength (HGS) and ocular parameters and diseases. Methods: Participants of the population-based Ural Eye and Medical Study, including 5899 (80.5%) out of 7328 eligible individuals aged 40+ years, underwent systemic and ophthalmological examinations including dynamometric HGS measurement. Results: The study included 5381 (90.4%) individuals (age: 58.6 ± 10.6 years; range: 40–94 years) with HGS measurements. Higher HGS (mean: 30.6 ± 11.7 dekaNewton) correlated (multivariable analysis) with better visual acuity (beta: 0.02; p = 0.02), longer ocular axial length (beta: 0.03; p = 0.003), higher intraocular pressure (beta: 0.03; p = 0.001), thicker peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (beta: 0.03; p = 0.001), and lower prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (beta: −0.03; p = 0.007), after adjusting for younger age, male sex, Russian ethnicity, higher body height and waist-hip ratio, higher educational level, higher physical total score, lower smoking package years, higher serum concentration of haemoglobin, higher prothrombin index, lower leucocyte cell count, lower prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, lower depression score, and lower arthritis prevalence. In that model, HGS was not correlated with the prevalence of nuclear cataract (p = 0.38), cortical cataract (p = 0.67), subcapsular posterior cataract (p = 0.50), open-angle glaucoma (p = 0.22), or angle-closure glaucoma (p = 0.27). Conclusions: In addition to parameters such as lower physical activity, higher depression score and worse general health status, a reduced HGS is associated with visual impairment, shorter axial length, lower intraocular pressure, thicker peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer, and higher prevalence of diabetic retinopathy. HGS dynamometry or a handshake may give additional clinical information for the ophthalmologist about the general health and ocular parameters of the patient.
Background — An increase in the frequency of manifestations of dry eye syndrome (DES), against the background of hypotensive therapy, leads to a decrease in treatment adherence. After reformulation in the composition of a preservative-free preparation of a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (CAI) (sodium benzoate was added), patient complaints of burning sensation during instillation became more frequent, which was the reason for our study. Objective — To evaluate the effect of sodium benzoate on the course of DES during local hypotensive therapy of glaucoma. Methods and Results — Group 1 consisted of 21 eyes with glaucoma receiving hypotensive therapy, Group 2 (20 eyes) included patients with suspected glaucoma not receiving therapy. Patients underwent standard diagnostic methods and examination of the ocular surface condition: tear break-up time test sensu Norn, Schirmer test, vital staining with lissamine green, and a survey based on the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire. When a preservative-free CAI in combination therapy was replaced with the CAI containing sodium benzoate, no statistically significant change in IOP occurred after four weeks of treatment (p> 0.05). In both groups, the indicators characterizing the ocular surface condition did not change statistically significantly over the observation period. Conclusion — Replacement of preservative-free CAI in combination therapy of glaucoma with CAI with sodium benzoate does not lead to statistically significant changes in intraocular pressure. The ocular surface condition does not change statistically significantly over a month of observation. Instillation discomfort is not related to the pH of the preparation.
One of the approaches to restoring the structure of damaged cartilage tissue is an intra‐articular injection of tissue‐engineered medical products (TEMPs) consisting of biocompatible matrices loaded with cells. The most interesting are the absorbable matrices from decellularized tissues, provided that the cellular material is completely removed from them with the maximum possible preservation of the structure and composition of the natural extracellular matrix. The present study investigated the mechanical, biochemical, and biological properties of decellularized porcine cartilage microparticles (DCMps) obtained by techniques, differing only in physical treatments, such as freeze–thaw cycling (Protocol 1), supercritical carbon dioxide fluid (Protocol 2) and ultrasound (Protocol 3). Full tissue decellularization was achieved, as confirmed by the histological analysis and DNA quantification, though all the resultant DCMps had reduced glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and collagen. The elastic modulus of all DCMp samples was also significantly reduced. Most notably, DCMps prepared with Protocol 3 significantly outperformed other samples in viability and the chondroinduction of the human adipose‐derived stem cells (hADSCs), with a higher GAG production per DNA content. A positive ECM staining for type II collagen was also detected only in cartilage‐like structures based on ultrasound‐treated DCMps. The biocompatibility of a xenogenic DCMps obtained with Protocol 3 has been confirmed for a 6‐month implantation in the thigh muscle tissue of mature rats (n = 18). Overall, the results showed that the porcine cartilage microparticles decellularized by a combination of detergents, ultrasound and DNase could be a promising source of scaffolds for TEMPs for cartilage reconstruction.
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29 members
Sergey Petrov
  • Glaucoma Department
Natalia Sheremet
  • Department of clinical investigation in ophthalmology
Denis Petrachkov
  • Retina and optic disk pathology department
Anastasia Subbot
  • laboratory of fundamental research in ophtalmology
Moscow, Russia