Many languages assign nouns to grammatical gender categories (e.g., masculine and feminine), and inanimate objects often have different genders in different languages. In a seminal study, Phillips and Boroditsky (2003) provided evidence that such “quirks of grammar” influence how people conceptualize objects. Spanish and German speakers judged person-object picture pairs as more similar when their biological and grammatical genders matched than when they did not, and English speakers showed the same pattern of similarity judgments after learning gender-like categories. These widely cited findings were instrumental in vindicating the Whorfian hypothesis that language shapes thought, yet neither the original study nor any direct replications have appeared in a peer-reviewed journal. To examine the reliability of Phillips and Boroditsky’s findings, we conducted a high-powered replication of two of their key experiments (total N = 375). Our results only partially replicated the original findings: Spanish and German speakers’ similarity judgments exhibited no effect of grammatical gender when accounting for key sources of error variance, but English speakers trained on gender-like categories rated same-gender pairs more similar than different-gender pairs. These results provide insight into the contexts in which grammatical gender effects occur and the mechanisms driving them.
The jet colour ring is a novel colour tagger observable designed to separate the decay of a colour-singlet into two jets from a two-jet background in a different colour configuration. Simulation studies in the case of the production of a boosted Higgs boson decaying in two b-quarks and an associate electroweak boson, showed notable discriminator powers when comparing the jet colour ring performances with other observables. These results are opening a wide scenario for further studies.
For many years, U.S. moving van companies have released reports on interstate migration patterns based on company data. These reports typically come out within a few weeks of the year’s end, much sooner than more conventional, Census-based measures, and they tend to emphasize big changes, leading them to receive perhaps outsized attention from the media and policymakers. Yet, little is known about how closely this van data corresponds to or is a valid predictor of more conventional migration measures. To close this gap, this research gathers publicly available moving van data and combines it with Census migration measures constructed from the American Community Survey (ACS) to estimate migration models and forecast out of sample. The longest time frame is 2006–2019, when annual data from the ACS and two van companies (United and Atlas) are available, but shorter time frames (2011+) when data from more van companies become available are also examined. Results show a strong correspondence between van data and ACS migration, even in models that control for longtime migration patterns via state-level fixed effects and time trends. However, the additional value of van data in explaining or predicting migration is modest and has waned in recent years. Limiting our analyses to high income migrants does not improve its value either. Moreover, the big changes identified in either the raw van data or with our forecasts do not carry over to ACS migration. This research therefore cautions strongly against using van data to draw conclusions about changing US migration.
Green roofs are being incorporated into stormwater management programs around the world. While numerous studies have estimated the private benefits to the owners and residents of buildings with green roofs, the value of the multiple public benefits received by non-building residents are less well known. We use a choice experiment survey to estimate the public benefits for a proposed green roof program in Portland, Oregon, USA. These benefits include reduced combined sewer overflows, reduced urban heat island effects, and an increase in pollinators such as birds, bees and butterflies. Past investments in stormwater infrastructure have exposed some residents to poor water quality and urban flooding, so we also explore if respondents’ willingness to pay varies based on where new green roofs are located. Across models, the largest estimated benefit in our study area is from a reduction in combined sewer overflows. Model results also show that respondents prefer to not fully concentrate new green roofs in Portland’s Central City area, which is where most green roofs are currently located. Total willingness to pay estimates for the 1-year program range from around $202 to $442 per household, or $54.4 to $116.8 million for the city of Portland, Oregon, depending on program characteristics.
Introduction Poly-tobacco use (PTU), or the concomitant use of two or more nicotine/tobacco products, is a growing public health concern. Adults reporting increased psychological distress (PD) experience profound nicotine/tobacco health-related disparities. Sexual minority (SM) adults report more PTU and higher levels PD than heterosexuals, yet little is known about patterns of nicotine/tobacco use and its relationship to PD in SM populations. The purpose of this study was to investigate sexual identity differences in PD and PTU. Methods Data were drawn from the 2016-2018 National Health Interview Survey (N = 83,017), an annual cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. PD was assessed using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6). We fit sex-stratified, weighted, adjusted logistic models to compare PTU and PD by sexual identity. Results PTU was more prevalent in adults with higher K6 scores. Female adults and SM adults had significantly higher K6 scores and were significantly more likely to experience serious PD when compared to their male and heterosexual counterparts. Conclusions The current study provides a snapshot of trends in PTU in relation to PD, gender and sexual identity. Findings suggest higher rates of both PD and PTU in SM adults. Further research examining the mechanisms underlying this disparity is critical to the development of effective intervention and prevention strategies. Implications Little is known about sex and sexual identity differences in the relations between patterns of tobacco product use and psychological distress (PD). This study is the first to examine the effect of gender and sexual identity on both PD and poly-tobacco use (PTU). SMs reported higher rates of PD and were more likely to be poly-tobacco users. As new ways of engaging nicotine/tobacco continue to proliferate, health risks will endure especially for marginalized populations. An increased understanding of the psychological and social correlates of PTU in SMs is warranted.
In many animals, sperm competition and sexual conflict are thought to drive the rapid evolution of male‐specific genes, especially those expressed in the testes. A potential exception occurs in the male‐pregnant pipefishes, where females transfer eggs to the males, eliminating testes from participating in these processes. Here, we show that testis‐related genes differ dramatically in their rates of molecular evolution and expression patterns in pipefishes and seahorses (Syngnathidae) compared to other fish. Genes involved in testis or sperm function within syngnathids experience weaker selection in comparison to their orthologs in spawning and livebearing fishes. An assessment of gene turnover and expression in the testis transcriptome suggests that syngnathids have lost (or significantly reduced expression of) important classes of genes from their testis transcriptomes compared to other fish. Our results indicate that more than 50 million years of male pregnancy has removed syngnathid testes from the molecular arms race that drives the rapid evolution of male reproductive genes in other taxa. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
Contemporary transgender youth in the U.S. today face increasing stigmatization as extraordinary legislative attacks intensify discrimination and exclusion of these young people in healthcare, recreation, and school life. These attacks reflect broader political, religious, and cultural ideologies embedded in systems of power that regulate the provision of healthcare for American transgender youth. We apply Foucauldian discourse analysis and a theory-driven conceptual framework for structural analysis of transgender health inequities—Intersectionality Research for Transgender Health Justice—to identify discourses youth encounter within healthcare practice. We analyzed data from interviews conducted in Western Washington State with youth ages 13–17 ( n =11) and asked how transgender subjectivity was constructed in their accounts and in what ways youth made use of the discursive resources available to them when navigating systems of care. Three sets of discourses—discourses of normativity, discourses of temporality, and discourse of access—characterized participants’ narratives. We discuss how participants negotiated discursively situated systems of power in order to ensure their safety and access to care.
A matrix number is an alphanumeric code that is inscribed into the run-out area of commercially recorded gramophone discs. In this article, I argue that orienting our scholarly listening around matrix numbers—what I call “matrix listening”—can help us reframe our engagement with historical sound recordings as primary sources and thereby lend valuable insights into any number of scholarly questions. It can also help us revisit the issue of materiality in recorded sound specifically and music in general, approaching sound recordings not only as container technologies for “music” as a purified domain but as complexly agentive material things.
The nonrelativistic trajectory of a point charge q in the magnetic field of a steady line current I is characterized by the three components of its initial velocity. The motion is periodic in the cylindrical coordinates s, [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text], describing, in the generic case, a kind of “double helix,” with one helix serving as a guide while the other winds around it. A positive charge “drifts” in the direction of the current (a negative charge goes the other way). The inclusion of a uniform line charge λ (coinciding with the current) does not alter the motion qualitatively, but it does change the drift velocity, and can even reduce it to zero, collapsing the trajectory to the surface of a toroid. The relativistic treatment modifies and illuminates these results.
Plain Language Summary Isoprene is the most abundant non‐methane trace gas emitted from vegetation in the atmosphere. Isoprene reacts with different oxidants forming numerous multifunctional products that affect both ozone and particulate matter concentrations via secondary organic aerosol formation. Day and nighttime isoprene oxidation under polluted conditions with high levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx) produces nitrogen containing species. Here, we used state‐of‐the‐art instrumentation to measure the isoprene‐derived nitrogen‐containing species, both in laboratory experiments and at six field sites around the globe. To support our interpretation, we apply a recently developed model for nighttime isoprene chemistry. We have identified a dominant nitrated product(s) in our experiments and with a significant ambient contribution both during day and nighttime. Key features of this species are its secondary formation from primary products and its relatively long lifetime under ambient conditions, explaining its accumulation in the atmosphere. Thus, it can be an important marker for the influence of NOx on isoprene oxidation.
Through a case study of the Classic period (A.D. 350–900) kingdom of Piedras Negras, this paper addresses a number of debates in the archaeology of war among the ancient Maya. These findings have broader comparative use in ongoing attempts to understand war in the precolonial Americas, including the frequency of war, its role in processes of polity formation and collapse, the involvement of non-elites in combat, and the cause and effect of captive-taking. This paper provides the first synthesis of a number of datasets pertaining to war and violence in the region of Piedras Negras while presenting new settlement data gleaned from recent lidar survey of the area. Focus is especially on tracing the material, iconographic, and epigraphic evidence for war in diachronic perspective. Material evidence includes the spatial distribution of settlement, presence of fortifications, weaponry, and human skeletal remains demonstrating evidence of traumatic injury. Additional data are drawn from epigraphy and iconography. As with all archaeological contexts, there are crucial gaps in the record. Nevertheless, by combining these datasets it is possible to reconstruct a history of warfare within this precolonial indigenous polity of the first millennium.
Transfer systems are combinatorial objects which classify N∞ operads up to homotopy. By results of A. Blumberg and M. Hill [BH15], every transfer system associated to a linear isometries operad is also saturated (closed under a particular two-out-of-three property). We investigate saturated and linear isometric transfer systems with equivariance group Cpmqn, the cyclic group of order pmqn for p,q distinct primes and m,n≥0. We give a complete enumeration of saturated transfer systems for Cpmqn. We also prove J. Rubin's saturation conjecture for Cpqn; this says that every saturated transfer system is realized by a linear isometries operad for p,q sufficiently large (greater than 3 in this case).
Emerging technologies are changing how scientists and the public see and interact with cetacean specimens. As staff at a small, rural, marine science center, we employed LIDAR (light detection and ranging), x-ray, computational tomography, and structured light scanning along with three-dimensional (3D) printing to study and exhibit the remains of a 7.9-m transient male killer whale (Orcinus orca) and a 22.4-m female blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus). In collaboration with larger institutions, we applied these technologies to bone replication, skeletal articulation, soft-tissue anatomical studies, and digital modeling to create high-quality specimen replicas. These techniques surpass traditional modeling and restoration methods, and advance specimen-associated research and documentation. In addition, 3D technology supports education and public awareness through in-person and online exhibits and demonstrations. The decreasing cost and increasing appeal of advanced imaging can be used to enhance community engagement and the accessibility of science.
It has become increasingly clear that the microbiome plays a critical role in shaping the host organism’s response to disease. There also exists mounting evidence that an organism’s ploidy level is important in their response to pathogens and parasites. However, no study has determined whether or how these two factors influence one another. We investigate the effect of whole-genome duplication in Arabidopsis thaliana on the above-ground (phyllosphere) microbiome and determine the interacting impacts of ploidy and microbiome on disease outcome. Using seven independently derived synthetic autotetraploid Arabidopsis accessions and a synthetic leaf-associated bacterial community, we confirm that polyploids are generally more resistant to the model pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. Tomato DC3000. Polyploids fare better against the pathogen than diploids do, regardless of microbial inoculation, whereas diploids harboring an intact microbiome have lower pathogen densities than those without. In addition, diploids have elevated numbers of defense-related genes that are differentially expressed in the presence of their phyllosphere microbiota, whereas polyploids exhibit some constitutively activated defenses, regardless of colonization by the synthetic community. These results imply that whole-genome duplication can enhance immunity, resulting in a decreased dependence on the microbiome for protection against pathogens.
The global utilization of single-use, non-biodegradable plastics, such as bottles made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), has contributed to catastrophic levels of plastic pollution. Fortunately, microbial communities are adapting to assimilate plastic waste. Previously, our work showed a full consortium of five bacteria capable of synergistically degrading PET. Using omics approaches, we identified the key genes implicated in PET degradation within the consortium’s pangenome and transcriptome. This analysis led to the discovery of a novel PETase, EstB, which has been observed to hydrolyze the oligomer BHET and the polymer PET. Besides the genes implicated in PET degradation, many other biodegradation genes were discovered. Over 200 plastic and plasticizer degradation-related genes were discovered through the Plastic Microbial Biodegradation Database (PMBD). Diverse carbon source utilization was observed by a microbial community-based assay, which, paired with an abundant number of plastic- and plasticizer-degrading enzymes, indicates a promising possibility for mixed plastic degradation. Using RNAseq differential analysis, several genes were predicted to be involved in PET degradation, including aldehyde dehydrogenases and several classes of hydrolases. Active transcription of PET monomer metabolism was also observed, including the generation of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)/polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) biopolymers. These results present an exciting opportunity for the bio-recycling of mixed plastic waste with upcycling potential.
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