• Al Muharraq, Bahrain
Recent publications
Congenital tufting enteropathy (CTE), also known as intestinal epithelial dysplasia (IED), is a rare autosomal recessive disorder due to EPCAM gene mutation. It is a rare congenital enteropathy that presents in early infancy as an intractable diarrhea that is independent of breast formula feeding that requires life-long total parental nutrition (TPN) to acquire adequate calories and fluid intake or small bowel transplantation in severe cases. Here, we report a case of intestinal failure due to congenital tufting enteropathy in a 3-year-old girl who presented with loose stools and failure to thrive. This study aims to review the literature about CTE and discuss the clinicopathological aspects and to be able to distinguish it from other causes of congenital diarrheal disorders (CDDs).
Introduction Trehalose is a naturally occurring disaccharide of two glucose molecules that has been suggested as a potential therapeutic agent to reduce blood glucose and ameliorate diabetes-related complications in type 2 diabetes (T2D). This study aimed to determine the efficacy of medium-term trehalose treatment in patients with T2D. Material and methods A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in 40 patients with T2D was undertaken; 20 ingested trehalose 3.3 g/day and 20 placebo (sucrose) for three months. Parameters of glycemic indices, high-sensitivity C reactive protein (CRP), mood status and quality of life were measured. Results CRP was significantly less with trehalose treatment (-0.62±0.3, p=0.02); however, no differences in glycemic indices of fasting blood glucose (FBG) (-7.1±10.7, p=0.15), HbA1c (-0.1±0.4, p=0.73), insulin (0.73±0.8, p=0.39) or insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (0.19±0.33, p=0.56) were seen between groups after 12 weeks. Depression and stress scores were lower with trehalose compared to placebo group (p=0.02 and p=0.05, respectively), whilst the quality-of-life score was higher with trehalose compared to placebo (p= 0.03) at the end of study. However, between-group differences in these indices did not reach statistical significance (-2.36±1.20, -2.21±1.39 and 3.00±1.76 for depression, stress and quality-of-life score, respectively) (p>0.05). The pro-oxidant antioxidant balance (PAB) did not differ between groups (-4.6 ±12.8, p=0.72). Conclusions 12 weeks of treatment with 3.3 g /day of oral trehalose significantly improves CRP as a marker of inflammation though overall glycemic control was unaltered over this time frame.
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect and safety of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) inhalation spray in the treatment of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: This randomized controlled clinical trial study was conducted on patients with COVID-19. Eligible patients (n=250) were randomly allocated into the intervention group (routine treatment + NAC inhaler spray one puff per 12 hours, for 7 days) or the control group who received routine treatment alone. Clinical features, hemodynamic, hematological, biochemical parameters and patient outcomes were assessed and compared before and after treatment. Results: The mortality rate was significantly higher in the control group than in the intervention group (39.2% vs 3.2%, P<0.001). Significant differences were found between the two groups (intervention and control, respectively) for white blood cell count (6.2 vs 7.8, P<0.001), hemoglobin (12.3 vs 13.3, P=0.002), C-reactive protein (CRP: 6 vs 11.5, P<0.0001) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST: 32 vs 25.5, P<0.0001). No differences were seen for hospital length of stay (11.98±3.61 vs 11.81±3.52, P=0.814) or the requirement for ICU admission (7.2% vs 11.2%, P=0.274). Conclusions: NAC was beneficial in reducing the mortality rate in patients with COVID-19 and inflammatory parameters, and a reduction in the development of severe respiratory failure; however, it did not affect the length of hospital stay or the need for ICU admission. Data on the effectiveness of NAC for SARS-CoV-2 is limited and further research is required. Clinical trial registration: This study Registered at Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT20080901001165N55) dated 23-05-2020. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Background: This study sought to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of plasmapheresis, Tocilizumab, and Tocilizumab with plasmapheresis treatment on the removal of inflammatory cytokines and improvement clinically of patients with severe COVID-19 in Intensive Care Units (ICU) due to the association between increased cytokine release and the severity of COVID-19. Methods: This clinical trial study was conducted in three treatment arms in Iran. All patients received standard care and randomization into one of three treatment groups; Tocilizumab (TCZ) alone, plasmapheresis alone, or a combination of Tocilizumab and plasmapheresis. Demographics, clinical evaluation, oxygenation status, laboratory tests and imaging data were evaluated in the three groups and re-checked 48 h after the end of treatment trials. Primary outcomes were oxygenation status, the need for mechanical ventilation and the rate of death. Results: Ninety-four patients were included in the trial after meeting the eligibility requirements. Twenty-eight patients received Tocilizumab alone, 33 had plasmapheresis alone, and 33 received both Tocilizumab and plasmapheresis. Baseline characteristics did not differ between three groups that included demographic, clinical and laboratory parameters. Following therapy, there was no difference between the three groups for CRP, ferritin, d-dimer, IL-6, pro-calcitonin and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (P > 0.05). While a significant reduction was found in CRP levels within each group (32.04 ± 42.43 to 17.40 ± 38.11, 51.28 ± 40.96 to 26.36 ± 33.07 and 41.20 ± 34.27 to 21.56 ± 24.96 in the tocilizumab, plasmapheresis, and combined group, respectively) (p < 0.05), procalcitonin levels were elevated significantly in the Tocilizumab group (0.28 ± 0.09 to 0.37 ± 0.11) (p < 0.05). Clinically there was no difference between the three groups following treatment for O2 saturation levels with supplementary oxygen at discharge, endotracheal intubation rate, use of NIVPP, mortality, mean hospital and ICU length of stay (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Study results showed that the reduction of serum inflammatory markers, the rate of intubation and therapeutic complications including death were no different between the three groups; however, CRP levels were significantly reduced in all three groups, indicating that the interventions reduced inflammation likely through a reduction in the cytokine storm, though clinical outcomes were unaffected.
Background: Renal transplant patients receive several drugs concomitantly. Objective: Limited literature exists evaluating the drug use in this population that is at high risk for drug-induced acute kidney injury and complications due to under-or over-dosage of immunosuppressant drugs due to drug-drug interactions. Methods: A retrospective observational study was carried out in 269 renal transplant patients in whom either oral or parenteral drugs were evaluated. World Health Organization (WHO) indicators of drug utilization such as the average number of drugs prescribed, daily defined dose, and proportion of drugs listed as WHO essential drugs were evaluated. Details on the drugs with nephrotoxic potential were obtained. Drug-drug interactions were assessed concerning the severity (major, moderate, and minor) as well as type (pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and toxicity). Results: One-hundred and ninety-eight drugs were administered to the study participants. The median (range) total number of drugs received by the study participants was 23 (6-55). The proportion of drugs listed in the WHO essential drug database was 57.1 (16.7-100)%. Forty-six drugs with potential nephrotoxicity and seven drugs that were contra-indicated in patients with chronic renal disease/end-stage renal disease were administered to the study participants. The mean (SD) numbers of drug interactions observed amongst the study participants were 18.4 (10.1). Age (β: 0.2, 95% CI: 0.1, 0.3) and duration of renal transplantation (β: -0.3, 95% CI: -0.5, -0.1) were the significant predictors of drug burden. A total of 645 drug interactions were identified amongst the study participants (major - 240; moderate - 270; and minor - 135) of which the majority were pharmacokinetic followed by toxicity risk. Age was significantly associated with the risk of potential drug interaction (OR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.8, 12.4; p = 0.001). Conclusion: Drug treatment in renal transplant patients poses a significant burden in terms of nephrotoxicity potential and drug-drug interactions. A dedicated ambulatory clinical pharmacy service monitoring the drug use coupled with drug deprescribing strategies are the need of the hour in this population.
deficiency. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the antioxidant enzymes influence the balance between antioxidant and oxidative stress molecules. Objectives: To ascertain the role of SNPs of antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress biomarkers in preterm neonates with RDS. Design: Observational, cross-sectional study. Methods: Preterm neonates diagnosed with RDS receiving external surfactant within 24 hours were considered as the cases and those without RDS were the control group. Umbilical cord blood and peripheral blood samples before administering surfactant (day 1), and on days 2 and 3 were collected. Plasma malondialdehyde, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxy guanosine (8-OH-dG), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), visfatin, reduced glutathione, and chaperonin 60 were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. SNPs in manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX1 and GPX3), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GSTP1) were evaluated using real-time polymerase-chain-reaction. The receiver-operating characteristics curve was used for predicting the accuracy of biomarkers using the area under the curve (AUC) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results: GSTP1, MnSOD, and eNOS (rs1799983) SNPs were observed to significantly influence the oxidative biomarker concentrations in the entire study population. SNPs in GSTP1, MnSOD, and eNOS (rs1799983) were significantly associated with differences in oxidative stress biomarkers. MnSOD (rs4880) significantly increased the risk of pulmonary complications in neonates with RDS. DNA damage product (8-OH-dG) concentrations before surfactant administration has the best predictive accuracy (AUC: 0.8; 95% CI: 0.7-1; P=.001) for pulmonary complications with a cut-off value of 5008.8pg/mL. TAC concentrations are significantly greater on day 2 and day 3 amongst neonates receiving surfactant compared to the control group. AOPP in the umbilical cord blood was observed to significantly predict the severity of RDS (AUC: 0.8; 95% CI: 0.6-1; P=.01) with an optimal cut-off value of 88.78 µmol/L. Conclusion: We observed that SNPs in eNOS and MnSOD significantly influence the production of oxidative stress biomarkers in preterm neonates. Baseline 8-OH-dG concentrations best predict the risk of pulmonary complications and AOPP concentrations in the umbilical cord blood predict the risk of RDS severity.
Introduction: Some but not all women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) develop metabolic syndrome (MS). The objective of this study was to determine if a subset of women with PCOS had higher androgen levels predisposing them to MS, and whether routinely measured hormonal parameters impacted on the Metabolic syndrome score (siMS). Methods: We included data from a discovery (PCOS clinic data) and a replication cohort (Hull PCOS Biobank) and utilized eight routinely measured hormonal parameters in our clinics (free androgen index [FAI], sex hormone-binding globulin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, luteinizing hormone [LH], follicular stimulating hormone, Anti-Müllerian Hormone and 17 hydroxy-progesterone[17-OHP]) to perform a K-means clustering (an unsupervised machine learning algorithm). We used NbClust Package in R to determine the best number of clusters. We estimated the siMS in each cluster and used regression analysis to evaluate the effect of hormonal parameters on SiMS. Results: The study consisted of 310 women with PCOS (discovery cohort: n=199, replication cohort: n=111). The cluster analysis identified two clusters in both the discovery and replication cohort. The discovery cohort identified a larger cluster (n=137) and a smaller cluster (n=62), with 31% of the study participants. Similarly, the replication cohort identified a larger cluster (n=74) and a smaller cluster (n=37) with 33% of the study participants. The smaller cluster in the discovery cohort had significantly higher levels of LH (7.26 vs 16.1 IU/L, P<0.001), FAI (5.21 vs 9.22, P<0.001), androstenedione (3.93 vs. 7.56 nmol/l, P<0.001) and 17-OHP (1.59 vs 3.12 nmol/l, P<0.001). These findings were replicated in the replication cohort. The mean (±SD) SiMS score was higher in the smaller cluster, 3.1 (±1.1) vs 2.8(±0.8); however, this was not statistically significant (P=0.20). In the regression analysis, higher FAI (Beta=0.05, P=0.003) and androstenedione (Beta=0.03, P=0.02) were independently associated with a higher risk of SiMS score, while higher DHEAS levels were associated with a lower SiMS score (Beta=-0.07, P=0.03) CONCLUSION: We identified a subset of women in our PCOS cohort with significantly higher LH, FAI and androstenedione levels. We show that higher levels of androstenedione and FAI are associated with a higher siMS, while higher DHEAS levels were associated with lower siMS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Targeted therapeutic options and prognostic biomarkers for hormone receptor- or Her2 receptor-negative breast cancers are severely limited. The sigma-1 receptor, a stress-activated chaperone, is frequently dysregulated in disease. However, its significance in breast cancer (BCa) has not been adequately explored. Here, we report that the sigma-1 receptor gene (SIGMAR1) is elevated in BCa, particularly in the aggressive triple-negative (TNBC) subtype. By examining several patient datasets, we found that high expression at both the gene (SIGMAR1) and protein (Sig1R) levels associated with poor survival outcomes, specifically in ER-Her2- groups. Our data further show that high SIGMAR1 was predictive of shorter survival times in patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy (ChT). Interestingly, in a separate cohort who received neoadjuvant taxane + anthracycline treatment, elevated SIGMAR1 associated with higher rates of pathologic complete response (pCR). Treatment with a Sig1R antagonist, 1-(4-iodophenyl)-3-(2-adamantyl)guanidine (IPAG), activated the unfolded protein response (UPR) in TNBC (high-Sig1R expressing) and ER + (low-Sig1R expressing) BCa cell lines. In tamoxifen-resistant LY2 cells, IPAG caused Sig1R to aggregate and co-localise with the stress marker BiP. These findings showcase the potential of Sig1R as a novel biomarker in TNBC as well as highlight its ligand-induced interference with the stress-coping mechanisms of BCa cells.
Background: Liver cirrhosis is a life-threatening seqsuel of many chronic liver disorders of varying etiologies. In this study, we investigated protein targets of curcumin in liver cirrhosis based on a bioinformatics approach. Methods: Gene/protein associations with curcumin and liver cirrhosis were probed in drug-gene and gene-diseases databases including STITCH/DGIdb/DisGeNET/OMIM/DISEASES/CTD/Pharos and SwissTargetPrediction. Critical clustering groups (MCODE), hub candidates and critical hub genes in liver cirrhosis were identified, and connections between curcumin and liver cirrhosis-related genes were analyzed via Venn diagram. Interaction of hub genes with curcumin by molecular docking using PyRx-virtual screening tools was performed. Results: MCODE analysis indicated three MCODEs; the cluster (MCODE 1) comprised 79 nodes and 881 edges (score: 22.59). Curcumin database interactions recognized 318 protein targets. Liver cirrhosis genes and curcumin protein targets analysis demonstrated 96 shared proteins, suggesting that curcumin may influence 20 candidate and 13 hub genes, covering 81% of liver cirrhosis critical genes and proteins. Thirteen shared proteins affected oxidative stress regulation, RNA, telomerase activity, cell proliferation, and cell death. Molecular docking analysis showed the affinity of curcumin binding hub genes (Binding affinity: ΔG < -4.9 kcal/mol). Conclusions: Curcumin impacted on several critical liver cirrhosis genes mainly involved in extracellular matrix communication, focal adhesion, and the response to oxidative stress.
Abstract Context: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the commonest endocrine disorders affecting women of reproductive age, and metformin is a widely used medication in managing this condition. Aim: To review the available literature comprehensively on the therapeutic impact of metformin on the clinical and metabolic parameters of women with PCOS. Data source: We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus, Embase, Cochrane Library and the Web of Science and selected sources for grey literature from their inception to April 2020. An updated search in PubMed was performed in June 2022. Data synthesis: Two reviewers selected eligible studies and extracted data, and the review is reported following the 2020 Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta- Analyses (PRISMA). Results: In 24 eligible randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving 564 participants who received metformin therapy, metformin was associated with significant reduction in body weight by 3.13kg (95% CI: −5.33, −0.93), body mass index (BMI) by 0.82kg/m² (95% CI: −1.22, −0.41), fasting blood glucose [standardised mean difference (SMD): −0.23; 95% CI: −0.40, −0.06], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (SMD: −0.41; 95% CI: −0.85, 0.03), total testosterone (SMD: −0.33; 95% CI: −0.49, −0.17), androstenedione (SMD: −0.45; 95% CI: −0.70, −0.20), 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) (SMD: −0.58; 95% CI: −1.16, 0.00) and increase the likelihood of clinical pregnancy rate [odds ratio (OR): 3.00; 95% CI: 1.95, 4.59] compared with placebo. Conclusion: In women with PCOS, metformin use has shown a positive impact in reducing body weight, BMI, total testosterone, androstenedione, 17-OHP, LDL-C, fasting blood glucose and increasing the likelihood of pregnancy in women with PCOS. Keywords: DHEAS, FAI, FSH, LH, metformin, PCOS, pharmacological therapy, polycystic ovary syndrome
Background More than one million people each year become infected by parasites that cause the disease cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). This disease manifests as one or more skin lesions or ulcers that are slow to heal with variable response rates to drug treatments. Thus far, little attention has been paid to how the cultural effects of gender shape perceptions and experiences of CL. This review aims to bring together and analyse existing studies which use qualitative data to explore these differences. These studies offered insights into our specific research questions. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the literature pertaining to either CL or muco-cutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) through EBSCO, EMBASE, Medline, Scopus and Web of Science databases. To meet inclusion criteria, articles had to be either qualitative or mixed-method with a qualitative component. They also had to include a reflection on how the gender of participants impacted the findings and addressed the lived experiences of CL. We did not exclude articles based on the language they were published in or in which country the study took place. Results From a total of 1589 potential articles, we found that thirteen met the inclusion criteria. These articles were published in English, Spanish or Portuguese and reported on studies carried out in various countries in Africa, Asia and South America. After using the principles of a meta-ethnography to analyse these studies, we generated several key themes. We found that health-seeking behaviours, treatment choices, stigma and the impact of scarring are shaped by gender in a variety of contexts. Conclusions Gender impacts on an individual’s experience of CL. In particular, women are more constricted in their health-seeking behaviours and experience more stigma both from the active lesions and from scarring than men. In many contexts, however, men are more at risk of becoming infected by the parasite that causes CL and may turn to more harmful or aggressive self-treatments. We recommend that future research on CL should consider the impact of gender as this can create very different experiences for individuals.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the primary cause of death globally. Activation of oxidative stress and inflammatory pathways are contributory to the development of CVD. Pharmacological activities of vanillic acid have been investigated suggesting that they may have therapeutic utility clinically. Given its phenolic nature, the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of vanillic acid have been shown to exert potent inhibitory activity against Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK), Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB), the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT), Nod‐like receptor family protein (NLRP), Toll like receptors (TLRs), Mitogen-Activated Signaling Proteins (MAPK) and Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways. Vanillic acid has been shown to block pro-inflammatory cytokines and suppress inflammatory cascades. The inhibitory impact of vanillic acid on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxygen synthase (iNOS) expression has also been demonstrated. Vanillic acid reduces oxidative-related markers such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), Heme Oxygenase 1 (HO-1), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). Here, we review the cardioprotective effects and mechanisms of action of vanillic acid in CVD. Current potential applications of vanillic acid in CVD are discussed with respect to preclinical and clinical studies.
Sporopollenin exine capsules (SpECs) are microcapsules derived from the outer shells (exines) of plant spore and pollen grains. This work reports the first clinical study on healthy volunteers to show enhanced bioavailability of vitamin D encapsulated in SpECs from Lycopodium clavatum L. spore grains vs vitamin D alone, and the first evidence (in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo) of mechanisms to account for the enhancement and release of the active in the small intestine. Evidence for mucoadhesion of the SpECs contributing to the mechanism of the enhancement is based on: (i) release profile over time of vitamin D in a double blind cross-over human study showing significant release in the small intestine; (ii) in vivo particle counting data in rat showing preferred retention of SpECs vs synthetic beads; (iii) ex vivo99mTc labelling and counting data using rat small intestine sections showing preferred retention of SpECs vs synthetic beads; (iv) in vitro mucoadhesion data. Triggered release by bile in the small intestine was shown in vitro using solid state NMR and HPLC.
Background: Diabetes is an increasingly prevalent global disease caused by the impairment in insulin production or insulin function. Diabetes in the long term causes both microvascular and macrovascular complications that may result in retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, peripheral arterial disease, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, and cerebrovascular disease. Considerable effort has been expended looking at the numerous genes and pathways to explain the mechanisms leading to diabetes-related complications. Curcumin is a traditional medicine with several properties such as being antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-microbial, which may have utility for treating diabetes complications. This study, based on the system biology approach, aimed to investigate the effect of curcumin on critical genes and pathways related to diabetes. Methods: We first searched interactions of curcumin in three different databases, including STITCH, TTD, and DGIdb. Subsequently, we investigated the critical curated protein targets for diabetes on the OMIM and DisGeNET databases. To find important clustering groups (MCODE) and critical hub genes in the network of diseases, we created a PPI network for all proteins obtained for diabetes with the aid of a string database and Cytoscape software. Next, we investigated the possible interactions of curcumin on diabetes-related genes using Venn diagrams. Furthermore, the impact of curcumin on the top scores of modular clusters was analysed. Finally, we conducted biological process and pathway enrichment analysis using Gene Ontology (GO) and KEGG based on the enrichR web server. Results: We acquired 417 genes associated with diabetes, and their constructed PPI network contained 298 nodes and 1651 edges. Next, the analysis of centralities in the PPI network indicated 15 genes with the highest centralities. Additionally, MCODE analysis identified three modular clusters, which highest score cluster (MCODE 1) comprises 19 nodes and 92 edges with 10.22 scores. Screening curcumin interactions in the databases identified 158 protein targets. A Venn diagram of genes related to diabetes and the protein targets of curcumin showed 35 shared proteins, which observed that curcumin could strongly interact with ten of the hub genes. Moreover, we demonstrated that curcumin has the highest interaction with MCODE1 among all MCODs. Several significant biological pathways in KEGG enrichment associated with 35 shared included the AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications, HIF-1 signaling pathway, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, TNF signaling, and JAK-STAT signaling pathway. The biological processes of GO analysis were involved with the cellular response to cytokine stimulus, the cytokine-mediated signaling pathway, positive regulation of intracellular signal transduction and cytokine production in the inflammatory response. Conclusion: Curcumin targeted several important genes involved in diabetes, supporting the previous research suggesting that it may have utility as a therapeutic agent in diabetes.
Objectives: Flow mediated vasodilation (FMD) is a marker of endothelial function and its decline is related to increased cardiovascular risk. This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the impact of bariatric surgery on FMD. Materials and methods: A systematic literature search in PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science was performed to 1 May 2021. Meta-analysis was performed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (CMA) V2 software. All types of bariatric surgery were considered, with the inclusion that FMD had to have been tested before and after the surgical procedure. Meta-analysis was carried out using a random-effects model and the generic inverse variance approach. The leave-one-out approach was used for sensitivity analysis. To assess metabolic parameter confounders, a weighted random-effects meta-regression was used. Results: A meta-analysis and a systematic review of 23 studies (n = 891 individuals) demonstrated improvement in FMD following bariatric surgery (weighted mean difference (WMD): 5.867, 95% CI: 4.481, 7.252, p < 0.001; I2: 96.70). Iteratively removing each item in the meta-analysis did not result in a significant alteration in the pooled estimate of effect size. There was an improvement in FMD for up to 6 months following bariatric surgery in a meta-analysis from 7 trials that included 356 subjects (WMD: 5.248, 95% CI: 2.361, 8.135, p < 0.001; I2: 98.18). The meta-analysis from 9 trials (n = 414 subjects) showed an improvement in FMD 6 to 12 months after bariatric surgery (WMD: 5.451, 95% CI: 3.316, 7.587, p < 0.001; I2: 94.18). The meta-analysis from 10 trials (n = 414 subjects) demonstrated an improvement in FMD 12 months after bariatric surgery (WMD: 2.401, 95% CI: 0.944, 3.859, p = 0.001; I2: 88.35). Random-effects meta-regression did not show any association between the alteration in FMD and percent body mass index (BMI) change (slope: 0.0258; 95% CI: -0.323, 0.375; p = 0.884), or changes in blood pressure; however, there was an association between the changes in FMD and the duration of follow-up (slope: -0.106; 95% CI: -0.205, -0.008; p = 0.033) with greater changes in FMD after 12 months. Conclusions: Bariatric surgery significantly improved FMD that increased with time, and the resultant improvement in endothelial function was independent of weight loss or a reduction in blood pressure.
Aims: To identify the extent and associated factors for patients with prolonged prothrombin time, international normalized ratio (PT-INR) and the dosage modifications carried out with warfarin. Background: Studies evaluating patients on warfarin with supratherapeutic anticoagulation are limited. It is vital to understand the management strategies for patients receiving warfarin who are bleeding and those with only supratherapeutic PT-INR. Objective: To evaluate the factors associated with supratherapeutic anticoagulation without bleeding with warfarin. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on patients receiving long-term warfarin with at least one PT-INR value > 3.2. Percent time in therapeutic range (TTR) was calculated and National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines were adhered for defining anticoagulation control into good (> 65%) and poor (< 65%). Results: One-hundred and forty-four patients were recruited. Nearly half of the study population had PT-INR values between 3.2 and 3.9. On average, individuals had at least 4 times PT-INR values in the supratherapeutic range. Elderly patients were observed with a significant trend of supratherapeutic INR. Duration of therapy was significantly correlated with the risk of PT-INR > 4. Lower TTR was observed in patients with frequent PT-INR > 4 and these patients had significantly poor anticoagulation control. Duration of warfarin therapy and HASBLED scores were observed to be significant predictors of supratherapeutic INR. Large variations were observed in the modifications of warfarin dose carried out at various supratherapeutic INR values and consequently PT-INR values. Conclusion: We observed that the majority of the patients with supratherapeutic INR had their INR values between 3.2 and 3.9. Elderly patients, with higher HASBLED scores and prolonged duration of warfarin therapy were observed with increased risk of supratherapeutic anticoagulation. Careful dosage modifications are needed particularly in high-risk categories as mentioned above.
Context Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine disease that affects women of reproductive age and is characterised by biochemical and clinical androgen excess. Aim To evaluate the efficacy of pharmacological interventions used to decrease androgen hormones in women with PCOS. Data source We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus, Embase, Cochrane library and the Web of Science from inception up to March 2021. Data synthesis Two reviewers selected eligible studies and extracted data, and the review is reported according to the 2020 Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Results Of the 814 randomised clinical trials (RCTs) located in the search, 92 met the eligibility criteria. There were significant reductions in total testosterone level with metformin versus (vs) placebo (SMD: − 0.33; 95% CI − 0.49 to − 0.17, p < 0.0001, moderate grade evidence) and dexamethasone vs placebo (MD:-0.86 nmol/L; 95% CI − 1.34 to − 0.39, p = 0.0004, very low-grade evidence). Significant reductions in the free testosterone with sitagliptin vs placebo (SMD: − 0.47; 95% CI − 0.97 to 0.04, p = 0.07, very low-grade evidence), in dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) with flutamide vs finasteride (MD: − 0.37 µg/dL; 95% CI − 0.05 to − 0.58, p = 0.02, very low-grade evidence), a significant reduction in androstenedione (A4) with rosiglitazone vs placebo (SMD: − 1.67; 95% CI − 2.27 to − 1.06; 59 participants, p < 0.00001, very low-grade evidence), and a significant increase in sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) with oral contraceptive pill (OCP) (35 µg Ethinyl Estradiol (EE)/2 mg cyproterone acetate (CPA)) vs placebo (MD: 103.30 nmol/L; 95% CI 55.54–151.05, p < 0.0001, very low-grade evidence) were observed. Conclusion Metformin, OCP, dexamethasone, flutamide, and rosiglitazone use were associated with a significant reduction in biochemical hyperandrogenemia in women with PCOS, though their individual use may be limited due to their side effects. PROSPERO registration No CRD42020178783.
Although medical mistrust (MM) may be an impediment to public health interventions, no MM scale has been validated across countries and the assessment of MM has not been explored using item response theory, which allows generalisation beyond the sampled data. We aimed to determine the dimensionality of a brief MM measure across four countries through Mokken analysis and Graded Response Modelling. Analysis of 1468 participants from UK ( n = 1179), Ireland ( n = 191), India ( n = 49) and Malaysia (n = 49) demonstrated that MM items formed a hierarchical, unidimensional measure, which is very informative about high levels of MM. Possible item reduction and scoring changes were also demonstrated. This study demonstrates that this brief MM measure is suitable for international studies as it is unidimensional across countries, cross cultural, and shows that minor adjustments will not impact on the assessment of MM when using these items.
Context Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous condition affecting women of reproductive age and is associated with increased body weight. Objective To review the literature on the effect of different pharmacological interventions on the anthropometric indices in women with PCOS. Data sources We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus, Embase, Cochrane library and the Web of Science in April 2020 with an update in PubMed in March 2021. Study selection The study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA)2020. Data extraction Reviewers extracted data and assessed the risk of bias using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Results 80 RCTs were included in the meta-analysis. Metformin vs placebo showed significant reduction in the mean body weight (MD: -3.13 kgs; 95% CI:- 5.33,-0.93, I²= 5%) and the mean body mass index (BMI) (MD: -0.75 kg/m²; 95% CI: -1.15, -0.36, I²= 0%). There was a significant reduction in the mean BMI with orlistat vs placebo (MD: -1.33 kg/m²; 95% CI: -2.16 -0.66, I²= 0.0%), acarbose vs metformin (MD: -1.26 kg/m²; 95% CI: -2.13, -0.38, I²= 0%), and metformin vs pioglitazone (MD: -0.91 kg/m²; 95% CI: -1.62, -0.19, I²= 0%). A significant increase in the mean BMI was also observed in pioglitazone vs placebo (MD: +2.59 kg/m²; 95% CI: 1.78, 3.38, I²= 0%) and in rosiglitazone vs metformin (MD: +0.80 kg/m²; 95% CI: 0.32, 1.27, I²= 3%). There was a significant reduction in the mean waist circumference (WC) with metformin vs placebo (MD: -1.21 cm; 95% CI: -3.71-1.29, I²= 0%) while a significant increase in the mean WC with pioglitazone vs placebo (MD: +5.45 cm; 95% CI: 2.18, 8.71, I²= 0%). Conclusion Pharmacological interventions including metformin, sitagliptin, pioglitazone, rosiglitazone orlistat and acarbose have significant effects on the anthropometric indices in women with PCOS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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592 members
Ghufran Jassim
  • Family and community medicine, School of Medicine
Manaf Alqahtani
  • School of Medicine
Fryad Henari
  • Basic Medical Sciences
Michael B Keogh
  • School of Medicine
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