Until recently, the evaluation of bone health and fracture risk through imaging has been limited to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and plain radiographs, with a limited application in the athletic population. Several novel imaging technologies are now available for the clinical assessment of bone health, including bone injury risk and healing progression, with a potential for use in sports medicine. Among these imaging modalities is high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) which is a promising technology that has been developed to examine the bone microarchitecture in both cortical and trabecular bone at peripheral anatomical sites. Technologies that do not expose patients to ionizing radiation are optimal, particularly for athletes who may require frequent imaging. One such alternative is diagnostic ultrasound, which is preferable due to its low cost and lack of radiation exposure. Furthermore, ultrasound, which has not been a common imaging modality for monitoring fracture healing, has been shown to potentially demonstrate earlier signs of union compared to conventional radiographs, including callus mineralization and density at the healing site. Through the use of conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), finite element analysis (FEA) can be used to simulate the structural and mechanical properties of bone. On the other hand, the ultrashort echo time (UTE) MRI can evaluate cortical bone quality by detecting water bound to the organic bone matrix and free water, providing important information about bone porosity. Several novel bone imaging techniques originally developed for osteoporosis assessment have great potential to be utilized to improve the standard of care in bone fracture risk assessment and healing in sports medicine with much greater precision and less adverse radiation exposure.
Background Patients living with HIV are a vulnerable population, with high burden of chronic diseases and challenging social determinants of health. Many receive care in Ryan White grant funded multidisciplinary clinics in the community providing an opportunity to reimagine care delivery using innovative practices like shared medical appointments (SMAs). We designed and implemented lifestyle medicine (LM) interventions using interprofessional teams including one of the first described SMA programs for patients with HIV. Our pilot describes an iterative patient-centered model transferable and scalable to other HIV clinics or FQHCs for delivering lifestyle medicine to patients with HIV and other chronic infections. Learning objectives of oral presentation Learning objectives Shared medical appointments recruitment flyer Recruitment flyer Methods We piloted LM interventions both in individual patient care and via SMAs using interprofessional teams (physician, nutritionist, case managers). SMAs were 90 minutes long, designed to include 5-15 patients conducted monthly focusing on one pillar of LM at each event (nutrition,activity,sleep,stress,relationships,substance use). A whole health questionnaire was completed at the initial session, and American College of Lifestyle Medicine (ACLM) self-assessment on various pillars of lifestyle completed each session. Participants created a goal at the end of each session, and shared progress and key takeaways on return. Session guides were created for each session. Lifestyle assessment page 1 of 2 Lifestyle assessment page 2 of 2 Results Serial assessments at SMAs demonstrated tangible and sustained changes in various pillars of LM. Patient feedback indicated high patient and provider satisfaction; patients found group visits “grounding” in their lives. Disclosing HIV status to other patients was not considered a barrier by any attendees. Other key lessons learned include the benefit of social support for patients, ease of conducting repeated assessments of the six pillars of LM using ACLM form, benefit of creating session detailed guides for future iterations and scalability, and the importance of signing up an adequate number of patients for financial sustainability. Lifestyle medicine shared medical appointments outcomes graphic SMA Outcomes Pre vs post program assessment data details for consenting patients Pre vs Post program assessment data Conclusion Our pilot provides an iterative patient-centered model of SMAs easily transferable and scalable to other practices for delivering lifestyle medicine care to impact chronic diseases affecting patients with HIV and other vulnerable populations. Disclosures Rahul Anand, MD MBA MSCI, Paratek pharmaceuticals: Stocks/Bonds
Rumination predicts wellbeing and is a core construct in the cognitive vulnerabilities to depression literature. Traditional measures of depressive rumination (e.g., Ruminative Responses Subscale, RRS; Treynor et al., 2003) rarely include items capturing thoughts about problems or events, even though these thoughts are in measures of related constructs (e.g., co-rumination, post-event processing). We created the Rumination on Problems Questionnaire (RPQ) for use on its own and with the RRS to capture rumination about problems and to align with measures of other ruminative and repetitive thinking processes. Our cross-sectional study of 927 undergraduates revealed the RPQ had a single factor, good internal reliability, convergent and discriminant validity, and significantly predicted depression, anxiety, and stress controlling for the RRS and co-rumination. Researchers and clinicians interested in rumination or cognitive vulnerabilities may wish to include the RPQ in their assessments. Measuring and addressing problem-focused rumination may be an important transdiagnostic treatment and prevention goal.
Purpose To assess the diagnostic performance and reliability of 18 CT signs to diagnose cecal volvulus, a surgical emergency, versus a group of non-volvulus mimickers. Materials and methods Four radiologists retrospectively and independently assessed 18 CT signs in 191 patients with cecal volvulus (n = 63) or a non-volvulus control group ((n = 128), including cecal bascule (n = 19), mobile cecum (n = 95), and colonic pseudo-obstruction (n = 14)) at a single institution from 2013 to 2021. Fleiss’ kappa coefficient was used to assess inter-reader agreement. For diagnostic performance metrics, we assessed sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values. For predictive performance, all 18 signs were included in bivariate and stepwise lasso multivariate logistic regression models to diagnose cecal volvulus. Performance was assessed by ROC curves. Results 191 patients (mean age: 63 years +/− 15.5 [SD]; 135 women) were included in the study. Nine of the 18 CT signs of cecal volvulus demonstrated good or better (> 0.6) inter-reader agreement. Individual CT signs with sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values all above 70% for diagnosing cecal volvulus were transition point, bird beak, and X-marks-the-spot. A lasso regression model determined four CT features: transition point, bird beak, coffee bean, and whirl had excellent prediction (AUC = .979) for cecal volvulus if all present. Conclusion CT signs for cecal volvulus that have high sensitivity and specificity include: transition point, bird beak, and X-marks-the-spot and were reliable in distinguishing non-volvulus mimickers. If the following four features were present: transition point, bird beak, coffee bean, and whirl, there was excellent prediction (AUC = .979) for cecal volvulus.
Human T-lymphotropic virus-1 (HTLV-I) is an enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus of the Retroviridae family. The virus causes two well-recognized disease associations: adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (HAM), also known as tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP). We report a case of HTLV-1-induced adult T-cell lymphoma/leukemia in a 45-year-old female who presented with complaints of swelling on the right side of her neck and rash on her upper and lower extremities and abdomen. The patient also had a history of strongyloidiasis infection and Crohn's disease. She was found to have hypercalcemia and multiple lytic lesions of the bone found on the imaging. She also tested positive for HTLV-1 and T cell-positive for cluster of differentiation (CD) 2, CD3, partial CD5, and minimal CD56, later confirmed by the bone marrow (BM) and skin punch biopsies. ATL is characterized by the clonal proliferation of CD4+ T cells containing randomly integrated HTLV-I provirus, often associated with T-cell receptor gene rearrangements. ATL, in its aggressive forms, has one of the poorest prognoses of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It is essential to raise awareness of ATL, although further research and trials are needed to solidify the treatment options to prevent mortality.
College students report poor sleep quality that impacts class attendance, productivity, and overall success in college. Circadian lighting has helped to regulate sleep patterns and improve sleep quality in populations who traditionally experience poor sleep. A feasibility study was conducted to determine the practicality of conducting a study in which a circadian lighting intervention would be implemented in college students’ dorms to study the effect on sleep, mood, and productivity. This study examined the process, resources, data management, and preliminary efficacy of a 4-wk, daily, one-hour lightbox exposure. Results indicated the lightbox was well-received by students. Recommendations to facilitate the study include improved recruitment efforts, data management, use of a research-grade activity tracker, modification of data collection days, and utilization of research associates to assist in data collection. Preliminary outcomes showed improved sleep quality and productivity for schoolwork in this sample of college students.
Statin-induced necrotizing myopathy (SINM) is an uncommon but severe complication associated with statin medication. SINM can develop at any point after a person starts taking steroids. It is now being acknowledged as a component of the broader category of "statin-induced myopathy." Like other immune-mediated necrotizing muscle diseases, statin-induced myositis is identified by weakness in proximal muscles, increased serum creatine kinase (CK) levels, and, in some cases, dysphagia and respiratory distress. In addition, there is evidence of muscle cell damage when examined under a microscope, occurring with minimal or no infiltration of inflammatory cells. Diagnosing SINM promptly is frequently challenging due to its unpredictable development over time, with symptoms sometimes emerging many years after the initial exposure to statins. One distinctive characteristic of SINM is the continued presence of muscle inflammation and elevated CK levels even after discontinuing statin treatment. Currently, no clinical trials are available to guide how to manage statin-induced immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM). Here, we present a case of a 42-year-old woman diagnosed with SINM and was found to have persistently elevated CPK despite discontinuation of statins. Our case also suggests that intravenous (IV) immunoglobins and steroids are an effective and well-tolerated alternative to immunosuppressants.
Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP) is a subtype of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) resulting in thrombocytopenia, anemia, fever, renal and neurological deficits. Although many drugs have been associated with drug-induced TTP, ceftriaxone has never been reported. Our case reports a patient who was started on ceftriaxone and developed TTP. Peripheral smear showed schistocytes and thrombocytopenia. Surprisingly, antibody formation against the metalloproteinase (ADAMTS13) levels were low-normal. The patient was treated with plasmapheresis and eczulimab, leading to platelet recovery and symptom resolution. TTP is a rare disorder and can be acquired or idiopathic. TTP can be diagnosed with normal ADAMTS13 as well. Further research is required to assess the mechanism by which ceftriaxone causes TTP. Physicians should consider the possibility of TTP in patients with similar presentations following ceftriaxone therapy and use it for timely diagnosis and treatment. Early diagnosis and treatment of ceftriaxone-induced TTP can prevent devastating consequences.
Purpose Vascular comorbidities are prevalent and can contribute to adverse health outcomes in persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). Understanding the association between vascular comorbidities and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among PwMS may be beneficial in improving outcomes and disease management. This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the relationship between vascular comorbidities and the different dimensions of HRQOL in PwMS. Methods Participants (n = 185) were PwMS recruited from a community-based comprehensive MS care center. Demographics, comorbid conditions, and disability level were collected via a self-report REDCap survey, with the 29-item Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life (MSQOL-29) as the outcome measure. Regression models were used to examine the association between vascular comorbidities and the MSQOL-29, controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, level of education, marital status, MS subtype, disease duration, and disability. Results Approximately 35% reported at least one vascular comorbidity, with the most common being hypertension (27.0%), followed by hyperlipidemia (24.9%) and diabetes (8.1%). After factoring in for demographics and disability, having a vascular comorbidity was associated with lower physical HRQOL (β = – 10.05, 95% CI: – 28.24, 23.50), but not mental HRQOL (β = – 2.61, 95% CI: – 10.54, 5.32). Hypertension was negatively associated with several dimensions of HRQOL, including Physical Function, Change in Health, Health Perceptions, Energy, and Health Distress. Conclusions Having at least one vascular comorbidity is associated with lower physical HRQOL, independent of demographics and level of physical disability. Focus should be directed to the physical burden and challenges vascular comorbidities may cause on the lives of PwMS.
Many environments present some degree of seasonal water limitations; organisms that live in such environments must be adapted to survive periods without permanent water access. Often this involves the ability to tolerate dehydration, which can have adverse physiological effects and is typically considered a physiological stressor. While having many functions, the hormone corticosterone (CORT) is often released in response to stressors, yet increasing plasma CORT while dehydrated could be considered maladaptive, especially for species that experience predictable bouts of dehydration and have related coping mechanisms. Elevating CORT could reduce immunocompetence and have other negative physiological effects. Thus, such species likely have CORT and immune responses adapted to experiencing seasonal droughts. We evaluated how dehydration affects CORT and immune function in eight squamate species that naturally experience varied water limitation. We tested whether hydric state affected plasma CORT concentrations and aspects of immunocompetence (lysis, agglutination, bacterial killing ability, and white blood cell counts) differently among species based on how seasonally water limited they are and whether this is constrained by phylogeny. The species represented four familial pairs, with one species of each pair inhabiting environments with frequent access to water and one naturally experiencing extended periods (>30 days) with no access to standing water. The effects of dehydration on CORT and immunity varied among species. Increases in CORT were generally not associated with reduced immunocompetence, indicating CORT and immunity might be decoupled in some species. Interspecies variations in responses to dehydration were more clearly grouped by phylogeny than habitat type.
After emergent assessment of potentially limb-threatening injuries in knee dislocation or multi-ligament knee injury patients, magnetic resonance imaging is necessary to visualize ligamentous structures and plan for soft tissue repair. However, the application of a knee-spanning external fixator may introduce artifact and reduce overall image quality, which can limit the evaluation of soft tissue injury. As a result, the utility of MRI in the context of a knee-spanning external fixator has been called into question. Signal-to-noise ratio, contrast-to-noise ratio, and qualitative scales have been used to assess image quality of MRI in the context of a knee-spanning external fixator. Despite the potential for artifact, studies have demonstrated that useful diagnostic information may be obtained from MRI in the presence of an external fixator. This review examines the general principles of anatomical assessment, magnetic field strength, device composition and design, radiofrequency coil use, and MRI sequences and artifact reduction as they pertain to MRI in the presence of a knee-spanning external fixator.
Prior analyses have examined various elements of punk rock as an aggressive anti‐establishment cultural and social movement that arose in post‐WWII America and flourished in the 1970s. The unique gender dynamic of punk, however, has been less of a focus of historical investigation. This essay examines the lives and music of three women involved in the early years of the emergence of punk, an era overwhelmingly dominated by men. By focusing on the creative expression and Penelope Houston of Avengers, Debbie Harry of Blondie, and Wendy O. Williams of Plasmatics, this paper seeks to analyze how certain women in the punk movement explicitly sought to challenge the conventional narratives of women's social, political, and sexual roles in the late 1970s and in so doing helped to carve out new paths for women's expression and ways of being in American society.
Photorespiration can limit gross primary productivity in terrestrial plants. The rate of photorespiration relative to carbon fixation increases with temperature and decreases with atmospheric [CO 2 ]. However, the extent to which this rate varies in the environment is unclear. Here, we introduce a proxy for relative photorespiration rate based on the clumped isotopic composition of methoxyl groups ( R –O–CH 3 ) in wood. Most methoxyl C–H bonds are formed either during photorespiration or the Calvin cycle and thus their isotopic composition may be sensitive to the mixing ratio of these pathways. In water-replete growing conditions, we find that the abundance of the clumped isotopologue ¹³ CH 2 D correlates with temperature (18–28 °C) and atmospheric [CO 2 ] (280–1000 ppm), consistent with a common dependence on relative photorespiration rate. When applied to a global dataset of wood, we observe global trends of isotopic clumping with climate and water availability. Clumped isotopic compositions are similar across environments with temperatures below ~18 °C. Above ~18 °C, clumped isotopic compositions in water-limited and water-replete trees increasingly diverge. We propose that trees from hotter climates photorespire substantially more than trees from cooler climates. How increased photorespiration is managed depends on water availability: water-replete trees export more photorespiratory metabolites to lignin whereas water-limited trees either export fewer overall or direct more to other sinks that mitigate water stress. These disparate trends indicate contrasting responses of photorespiration rate (and thus gross primary productivity) to a future high-[CO 2 ] world. This work enables reconstructing photorespiration rates in the geologic past using fossil wood.
We present a case report of a 20-year-old male who suffered a stab injury to the left supraclavicular region, resulting in the formation of a pseudoaneurysm of the left subclavian artery. Initial endovascular management with a self-expandable covered stent graft showed promising results, but recurrence with proximal and distal end leaks necessitated further intervention. The patient's financial constraints delayed subsequent treatment, leading to worsening symptoms, including left upper limb paraparesis. Facing technical challenges due to the large size of the aneurysm and proximity to the vertebral artery, a vertebral artery confluence was performed, followed by a longer stent-graft placement to address the pseudoaneurysm successfully. This case highlights the potential advantages of endovascular approaches in complex subclavian artery injuries and emphasizes the importance of timely intervention to avoid complications and improve patient outcomes.
Institution pages aggregate content on ResearchGate related to an institution. The members listed on this page have self-identified as being affiliated with this institution. Publications listed on this page were identified by our algorithms as relating to this institution. This page was not created or approved by the institution. If you represent an institution and have questions about these pages or wish to report inaccurate content, you can contact us here.