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    ABSTRACT: Suppose that U = (U(1), … , U(d)) has a Uniform ([0, 1](d)) distribution, that Y = (Y(1), … , Y(d)) has the distribution G on [Formula: see text], and let X = (X(1), … , X(d)) = (U(1)Y(1), … , U(d)Y(d)). The resulting class of distributions of X (as G varies over all distributions on [Formula: see text]) is called the Scale Mixture of Uniforms class of distributions, and the corresponding class of densities on [Formula: see text] is denoted by [Formula: see text]. We study maximum likelihood estimation in the family [Formula: see text]. We prove existence of the MLE, establish Fenchel characterizations, and prove strong consistency of the almost surely unique maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) in [Formula: see text]. We also provide an asymptotic minimax lower bound for estimating the functional f ↦ f(x) under reasonable differentiability assumptions on f ∈ [Formula: see text] in a neighborhood of x. We conclude the paper with discussion, conjectures and open problems pertaining to global and local rates of convergence of the MLE.
    Preview · Article · May 2012 · Journal of Multivariate Analysis
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    ABSTRACT: Neuropeptide Y (NPY) coordinates inflammation and bone metabolism which are central to the pathogenesis of periodontitis. The present study was designed to determine whether NPY was quantifiable in human gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and to test the null hypothesis that GCF levels of NPY were the same in periodontal health and disease. A subsidiary aim was to determine the potential functionality of released NPY by detecting the presence of NPY Y1 receptors in gingival tissue. The periodontitis group consisted of 20 subjects (10 females and 10 males) mean age 41.4 (S.D. 9.6 years). The control group comprised 20 subjects (10 females and 10 males) mean age 37.4 (S.D. 11.7 years). NPY levels in GCF were measured in periodontal health and disease by radioimmunoassay. NPY Y1 receptor expression in gingival tissue was determined by Western blotting of membrane protein extracts from healthy and inflamed gum. Healthy sites from control subjects had significantly higher levels of NPY than diseased sites from periodontitis subjects. NPY Y1 receptor protein was detected in both healthy and inflamed gingival tissue by Western blotting. The significantly elevated levels of NPY in GCF from healthy compared with periodontitis sites suggests a tonic role for NPY, the functionality of which is indicated by the presence of NPY Y1 receptors in local gingival tissue.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2008 · Archives of oral biology
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the distribution of the NPY Y1 receptor in carious and noncarious human dental pulp tissue using immunohistochemistry. A subsidiary aim was to confirm the presence of the NPY Y1 protein product in membrane fractions of dental pulp tissue from carious and noncarious teeth using western blotting. Twenty two dental pulp samples were collected from carious and noncarious extracted teeth. Ten samples were processed for immunohistochemistry using a specific antibody to the NPY Y1 receptor. Twelve samples were used to obtain membrane extracts which were electrophoresed, blotted onto nitrocellulose and probed with NPY Y1 receptor antibody. Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance was employed to test for overall statistical differences between NPY Y1 levels in noncarious, moderately carious and grossly carious teeth. Neuropeptide Y Y1 receptor immunoreactivity was detected on the walls of blood vessels in pulp tissue from noncarious teeth. In carious teeth NPY Y1 immunoreactivity was observed on nerve fibres, blood vessels and inflammatory cells. Western blotting indicated the presence and confirmed the variability of NPY Y1 receptor protein expression in solubilised membrane preparations of human dental pulp tissue from carious and noncarious teeth. Neuropeptide Y Y1 is expressed in human dental pulp tissue with evidence of increased expression in carious compared with noncarious teeth, suggesting a role for NPY Y1 in modulation of caries induced pulpal inflammation.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2008 · International Endodontic Journal
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