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    ABSTRACT: Ferroelectric domain wall injection has been demonstrated by engineering of the local electric field, using focused ion beam milled defects in thin single crystal lamellae of KTiOPO4 (KTP). The electric field distribution (top) displays localized field hot-spots, which correlate with nucleation events (bottom). Designed local field variations can also dictate subsequent domain wall mobility, demonstrating a new paradigm in ferroelectric domain wall control.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Advanced Materials
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    ABSTRACT: Self-assembled electrodeposited nanorod materials have been shown to offer an exciting landscape for a wide array of research ranging from nanophotonics through to biosensing and magnetics. However, until now, the scope for site-specific preparation of the nanorods on wafers has been limited to local area definition. Further there is little or no lateral control of nanorod height. In this work we present a scalable method for controlling the growth of the nanorods in the vertical direction as well as their lateral position. A focused ion beam pre-patterns the Au cathode layer prior to the creation of the anodized aluminium oxide (AAO) template on top. When the pre-patterning is of the same dimension as the pore spacing of the AAO template, lines of single nanorods are successfully grown. Further, for sub-200 nm wide features, a relationship between the nanorod height and distance from the non-patterned cathode can be seen to follow a quadratic growth rate obeying Faraday's law of electrodeposition. This facilitates lateral control of nanorod height combined with localized growth of the nanorods.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Nanotechnology
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    ABSTRACT: As part of an ongoing programme to evaluate the extent to which external morphology alters domain wall mobility in ferroelectrics, the electrical switching characteristics of single-crystal BaTiO(3) nanorods and thin film plates have been measured and compared. It was found that ferroelectric nanorods were more readily switched than thin plates; increasing the shape constraint therefore appears to enhance switchability. This observation is broadly consistent with previous work, in which local notches patterned along the length of nanorods enhanced switching (McMillen et al 2010 Appl. Phys. Lett. 96 042904), while antinotches had the opposite effect (McQuaid et al 2010 Nano Lett. 10 3566). In this prior work, local enhancement and denudation of the electric field was expected at the notch and antinotch sites, respectively, and this was thought to be the reason for the differences in switching behaviour observed. However, for the simple nanorods and plates investigated here, no differences in the electric field distributions are expected. To rationalise the functional measurements, domain development during switching was imaged directly by piezoresponse force microscopy. A two-stage process was identified, in which narrow needle-like reverse domains initially form across the entire interelectrode gap and then subsequently coarsen through domain wall propagation perpendicular to the applied electric field. To be consistent with the electrical switching data, we suggest that the initial formation of needle domains occurs more readily in the nanorods than in the plates.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Journal of Physics Condensed Matter
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