This study presents a computational framework that investigates the effect of localised surface-based corrosion on the mechanical performance of a magnesium-based alloy. A finite element-based phenomenological corrosion model was used to generate a wide range of corrosion profiles, with subsequent uniaxial tensile test simulations to predict the mechanical response to failure. The python-based detection framework PitScan provides detailed quantification of the spatial phenomenological features of corrosion, including a full geometric tracking of corroding surface. Through this approach, this study is the first to quantitatively demonstrate that a surface-based non-uniform corrosion model can capture both the geometrical and mechanical features of a magnesium alloy undergoing corrosion by comparing to experimental data. Using this verified corrosion modelling approach, a wide range of corrosion scenarios was evaluated and enabled quantitative relationships to be established between the mechanical integrity and key phenomenological corrosion features. In particular, we demonstrated that the minimal cross-sectional area parameter was the strongest predictor of the remaining mechanical strength (R² = 0.98), with this relationship being independent of the severity or spatial features of localised surface corrosion. Interestingly, our analysis demonstrated that parameters described in ASTM G46-94 showed weaker correlations to the mechanical integrity of corroding specimens, compared to parameters determined by Pitscan. This study establishes new mechanistic insight into the performance of the magnesium-based materials undergoing corrosion.
Currently, excessive CO2 emissions have become a global challenge due to their influence on the climate. According to the Paris Agreement, global warming should be limited to 1.5 °C by 2100. Carbon capture and utilisation (CCU) are attractive as they can both reduce CO2 content and utilise CO2 as a carbon resource. However, in conventional CCU processes, CO2 needs first to be extracted and purified for the following utilisation. In contrast, the recently reported Integrated Carbon Capture and Utilisation (ICCU) was designed to realise the overall process in one reactor, where CO2 is captured by adsorbents (e.g., CaO) and utilised in-situ with the introduction of a reducing agent (e.g., H2). This ICCU technology can promote CO2 conversion with fewer intermediate steps, leading to a reduction in overall cost. Energy and economic analysis of ICCU are thus urgently required. According to several recent research, the operational cost of ICCU has been reported to be cheaper than that of CCU. However, a comprehensive view of ICCU is still expected due to further application. This paper focuses on comparing ICCU and conventional CCU processes based on Aspen simulations covering mass balance (i.e., CaCO3 consumption, purge production, annual CO production), energy balance, the total annual cost and the CO cost, etc. Analysis shows that the ICCU process can produce more CO (1.20 Mt year⁻¹), less purge (0.21 Mt year⁻¹), and less consumption of CaCO3 (0.62 Mt year⁻¹) with higher energy efficiency (37.1 %) than the CCU process. The results also show that the total annual cost of ICCU is $867.07 million, corresponding to a total cost of CO of $720.25 per tonne. In contrast, CCU has higher costs, with a total annual cost of $1027.61 million and a total cost of CO of $1004.53 per tonne. The Cost of CO2 Avoided of ICCU (317.11$/ton) is much lower than that CCU (1230.27 $/ton). Therefore, ICCU was confirmed as a better choice for further industrial applications. In addition, H2 is shown to have a significant influence on economic performance, which remains a challenge for further application.
Plastic and biomass waste pose a serious environmental risk; thus, herein, we mixed biomass waste with plastic bottle waste (PET) to produce char composite materials for producing a magnetic char composite for better separation when used in water treatment applications. This study also calculated the life cycle environmental impacts of the preparation of adsorbent material for 11 different indicator categories. For 1 functional unit (1 kg of pomace leaves as feedstock), abiotic depletion of fossil fuels and global warming potential were quantified as 7.17 MJ and 0.63 kg CO2 equiv for production of magnetic char composite materials. The magnetic char composite material (MPBC) was then used to remove crystal violet dye from its aqueous solution under various operational parameters. The kinetics and isotherm statistical theories showed that the sorption of CV dye onto MPBC was governed by pseudo-second-order, and Langmuir models, respectively. The quantitative assessment of sorption capacity clarifies that the produced MPBC exhibited an admirable ability of 256.41 mg g-1. Meanwhile, the recyclability of 92.4% of MPBC was demonstrated after 5 adsorption/desorption cycles. Findings from this study will inspire more sustainable and cost-effective production of magnetic sorbents, including those derived from combined plastic and biomass waste streams.
Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple common breast cancer susceptibility variants. Many of these variants have differential associations by estrogen receptor (ER) status, but how these variants relate with other tumor features and intrinsic molecular subtypes is unclear. Methods Among 106,571 invasive breast cancer cases and 95,762 controls of European ancestry with data on 173 breast cancer variants identified in previous GWAS, we used novel two-stage polytomous logistic regression models to evaluate variants in relation to multiple tumor features (ER, progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and grade) adjusting for each other, and to intrinsic-like subtypes. Results Eighty-five of 173 variants were associated with at least one tumor feature (false discovery rate < 5%), most commonly ER and grade, followed by PR and HER2. Models for intrinsic-like subtypes found nearly all of these variants (83 of 85) associated at p < 0.05 with risk for at least one luminal-like subtype, and approximately half (41 of 85) of the variants were associated with risk of at least one non-luminal subtype, including 32 variants associated with triple-negative (TN) disease. Ten variants were associated with risk of all subtypes in different magnitude. Five variants were associated with risk of luminal A-like and TN subtypes in opposite directions. Conclusion This report demonstrates a high level of complexity in the etiology heterogeneity of breast cancer susceptibility variants and can inform investigations of subtype-specific risk prediction.
The discovery of two-dimensional (2D) magnetic van der Waals (vdW) materials has flourished an endeavor for fundamental problems as well as potential applications in computing, sensing and storage technologies. Of particular interest are antiferromagnets, which due to their intrinsic exchange coupling show several advantages in relation to ferromagnets such as robustness against external magnetic perturbations. Here we show that, despite of this cornerstone, the magnetic domains of recently discovered 2D vdW MnPS 3 antiferromagnet can be controlled via magnetic fields and electric currents. We achieve ultrafast domain-wall dynamics with velocities up to ~3000 m s ⁻¹ within a relativistic kinematic. Lorentz contraction and emission of spin-waves in the terahertz gap are observed with dependence on the edge termination of the layers. Our results indicate that the implementation of 2D antiferromagnets in real applications can be further controlled through edge engineering which sets functional characteristics for ultrathin device platforms with relativistic features.
Organic food fraud is a significant challenge in the food testing sector—high price premiums, ease of access to produce to be relabelled and difficulties in developing testing strategies that can detect such frauds make organic foods particularly attractive and thus highly vulnerable to fraud. Samples of conventional and organic cattle taken across meat plants in Ireland and the United Kingdom, consisting of the neck (supraspinatus), rump (gluteus), and shin (flexor carpi radialis) regions of the carcass were analysed using a high resolution time-of-flight based rapid evaporative ionisation mass spectrometry (REIMS) system. The resulting untargeted lipidomic data (m/z 600–1000) was used to generate PCA-LDA models for production system and for muscle type, for these models, it was found that the production system model could differentiate organic from conventional beef with an accuracy of 84%, whilst the muscle type model could identify the cut of meat with a 98% accuracy; additionally, samples can be assessed against multiple models simultaneously, reducing analysis time and sample numbers. The use of REIMS showed considerable promise in its ability to detect different forms of meat fraud; its accuracy in differentiating organic from conventional beef is superior to stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry, with the added advantages of substantially shorter analysis times and lower sample analysis costs. The ability to rapidly confirm the cut of meat also demonstrates the potential of REIMS to concurrently determine multiple aspects of beef authenticity in a close to real time analysis.
Background Pig production has been highlighted as one of the highest users of antibiotics amongst livestock, with several studies suggesting a variety of approaches to antibiotic reduction. We aimed to investigate links between antibiotic use (defined as total amount of critically (CIA) and non-critically important antibiotics, and as mg per kg of pig on farm), production stages present on farm (Breeder–Finisher, Nursery–Finisher, and Finisher), and pig farm characteristics using farm data collected through national recording systems in Great Britain for 2017 & 2018. Providing enrichment within pig pens may reduce the need for antibiotics by enhancing both pig welfare and resilience to infection; this was one of the hypotheses addressed by this paper. Results The amount of antibiotic used, expressed as mg/kg, reduced between 2017 and 2018 for Breeder–Finisher farms, but not for Nursery–Finisher or Finisher farms. Breeder–Finisher farms were more likely to use CIA compared with other production stages. Larger farms were more likely to use CIA, but farm size had no effect on mg/kg of antibiotic used. As the proportion of pens containing straw increased, the total use of antibiotics decreased for Breeder–Finisher, but not for Nursery–Finisher or Finisher farms. As the proportion of pens containing straw increased, the probability of using CIAs also decreased. Farms with a higher proportion of finisher pens with an outdoor space had a lower use of non-critical antibiotics and lower probability of use of CIA. Farms with a higher proportion of pens with automatically controlled natural ventilation (ACNV) had lower total use of antibiotics, although ACNV had no effect on the probability of using CIA. Conclusions We quantified the influence of farm characteristics on the consumption of antibiotics in pig farms in England. Our findings support the hypothesis that farm characteristics have an influence on antibiotic use within a system and suggest that this reflects the balance of effects on both animal resilience and disease challenge. Consistent with our hypothesis, provision of straw was associated with reduced antibiotic use. We also demonstrate the value of using secondary databases, although further structural improvements are required to facilitate effective database combination and ensure maximum information benefits can be realised.
The analytical techniques applied to verify honey authenticity are multifaceted and often result in complex data rich certificates of analysis that are open to interpretation and may be opaque to stakeholders without specialist knowledge. In these cases, the drawing of an independent overarching opinion is challenging. Two questions arise: (Q1) Is it acceptable to report interpretation, particularly if it is adverse, without exhibiting the supporting data? (Q2) How may a valid overarching opinion on authenticity be derived from a large, partially conflicting, dataset? To Q1, it is demonstrated that full disclosure of the data used in interpretation is mandatory. To Q2 it is proposed, with worked examples, to adopt ‘evaluative reporting’; a formalised likelihood ratio thought process used in forensic science for evaluation of findings and their strength assessment. In the absence of consensus on techniques for honey authenticity adoption of reporting conventions will allow objective assessments of reports, with equity to all and provide a better basis to identify and address fraud.
The composition of honey, a complex natural product, challenges analytical methods attempting to determine its authenticity particularly in the face of sophisticated adulteration. Of the advanced analytical techniques available, only isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) is generally accepted for its reproducibility and ability to detect certain added sugars, with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) being subject to stakeholder differences of opinion. Herein, recent reviews of honey adulteration and the techniques to detect it are summarised in the light of which analytical reports are examined that underpinned a media article in late 2020 alleging foreign sugars in UK retailers’ own brand honeys. The requirement for multiple analytical techniques leads to complex reports from which it is difficult to draw an overarching and unequivocal authenticity opinion. Thus arose two questions. (1) Is it acceptable to report an adverse interpretation without exhibiting all the supporting data? (2) How may a valid overarching authenticity opinion be derived from a large partially conflicting dataset?
This study used desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) to analyse and detect and classify biomarkers in five different animal and plant sources of milk for the first time. A range of differences in terms of features was observed in the spectra of cow milk, goat milk, camel milk, soya milk, and oat milk. Chemometric modelling was then used to classify the mass spectra data, enabling unique or significant markers for each milk source to be identified. The classification of different milk sources was achieved with a cross-validation percentage rate of 100% through linear discriminate analysis (LDA) with high sensitivity to adulteration (0.1–5% v/v). The DESI-MS results from the milk samples analysed show the methodology to have high classification accuracy, and in the absence of complex sample clean-up which is often associated with authenticity testing, to be a rapid and efficient approach for milk fraud control.
Background Venous thromboembolism is a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalised patients. Clinical practice guidelines were developed to prevent venous thromboembolism events. This study adopted the Theoretical Domains Framework to explore the beliefs and perceptions of physicians adoption of clinical practice guidelines for the uptake of venous thromboembolism prevention guidelines. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a stratified purposive sample of internal medicine physicians in an acute hospital. The interview topic guide was developed using the Theoretical Domains Framework to identify the factors perceived to influence the practice. Two researchers coded the interview transcripts using thematic content analysis. Emerging relevant themes were mapped to TDF domains. Results A total of sixteen medical physicians were interviewed over a six-month period. Nine theoretical domains derived from thirty-three belief statements were identified as relevant to the target behaviour; knowledge (education about the importance of VTE guidelines); beliefs about capabilities (with practice VTE tool easier to implement); beliefs about consequences (positive consequences in reducing the development of VTE, length of stay, financial burden and support physician decision) and (negative consequence risk of bleeding); reinforcement (recognition and continuous reminders); goals (patient safety goal); environmental context and resources (workload and availability of medications were barriers, VTE coordinator and electronic medical record were enablers); social influences (senior physicians and patient/family influence the VTE practice); behavioural regulation (monitoring and mandatory hospital policy); and nature of the behaviour. Conclusions Using the Theoretical Domains Framework, factors thought to influence the implementation of VTE clinical practice guidelines were identified which can be used to design theoretically based interventions by targeting specific psychological constructs and linking them to behaviour change techniques to change the clinical practice of physicians.
Many disciplines are facing a “reproducibility crisis”, which has precipitated much discussion about how to improve research integrity, reproducibility, and transparency. A unified effort across all sectors, levels, and stages of the research ecosystem is needed to coordinate goals and reforms that focus on open and transparent research practices. Promoting a more positive incentive culture for all ecosystem members is also paramount. In this commentary, we—the Local Network Leads of the UK Reproducibility Network—outline our response to the UK House of Commons Science and Technology Committee’s inquiry on research integrity and reproducibility. We argue that coordinated change is needed to create (1) a positive research culture, (2) a unified stance on improving research quality, (3) common foundations for open and transparent research practice, and (4) the routinisation of this practice. For each of these areas, we outline the roles that individuals, institutions, funders, publishers, and Government can play in shaping the research ecosystem. Working together, these constituent members must also partner with sectoral and coordinating organisations to produce effective and long-lasting reforms that are fit-for-purpose and future-proof. These efforts will strengthen research quality and create research capable of generating far-reaching applications with a sustained impact on society.
Background One reason that asthma remains poorly controlled in children is poor inhaler technique. Guidelines recommend checking inhaler technique at each clinical visit. However, they do not specify how best to train children to mastery of correct inhaler technique. Many children are simply shown how to use inhalers which results in less than 50% with correct inhaler technique. The aim of this scoping review is to explore published literature on teaching methods used to train children to master correct inhaler technique. Methods We searched (from inception onwards): Medline, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL and the Cochrane library. We included quantitative studies, (e.g. randomised controlled trials, cohort studies and case-control studies), published from 1956 to present, on teaching inhaler technique to children with asthma. Data was extracted onto a data charting table to create a descriptive summary of the results. Data was then synthesised with descriptive statistics and visual mapping. Results Thirty-three papers were identified for full text analysis. Educational interventions were found to be taking place in a variety of clinical areas and by a range of healthcare professional disciplines. ‘Brief-Instruction’ and ‘Teach-Back’ were identified as two primary methods of providing inhaler technique training in the majority of papers. Secondary themes identified were; use of written instruction, physical demonstration, video demonstrations and/or use of inhaler devices to augment inhaler technique training. Conclusion There are a variety of means by which inhaler technique has been taught to children. These methods are likely applicable to all inhaler types and often involve some form of physical demonstration. Children of all ages can be trained to use their inhaler correctly and by a range of healthcare professionals. We have not analysed the effectiveness of these different interventions, but have described what has been trialled before in an attempt to focus our attentions on what may potentially work best. The majority of these methods can be dichotomised to either ‘Brief-Intervention’ or ‘Teach-Back’. Based on our analysis of this scoping review, we consider the following as areas for future research; how many times does a given intervention have to be done in order to have the desired effect? For what duration does the intervention need to continue to have a long-lasting effect? And, what is the best outcome measure for inhaler technique?. Trial registration Systematic review registration: Open Science Framework (osf.io/n7kcw).
In the last decade, carbon quantum dots (CQDs), as a novel class of carbon-based nanomaterials, have received increasing attention due to their distinct properties. CQDs are ultimately small nanoparticles with an average size below 10 nm, possessing high water solubility, alluring photoluminescence, photostability, excellent biocompatibility, low/none toxicity, environmental friendliness, and high sustainability, etc. In history, there are intermittent threats from viruses to humans, animals and plants worldwide, resulting in enormous crises and impacts on our life, environment, economy and society. Some recent studies have unveiled that certain types of CQDs exhibited high and potent antiviral activities against various viruses such as human coronavirus, arterivirus, norovirus and herpesvirus. Moreover, they have been successfully explored and developed for different virus detections including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This article exclusively overviews and discusses the recent progress of designing, synthesizing, modifying/functionalizing and developing CQDs towards effective virus detection as well as the inhibition and treatment of viral infection. Their mechanisms and applications against various pathogenic viruses are addressed. The latest outcomes for combating the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) utilizing CQDs are also highlighted. It can be envisaged that CQDs could further benefit the development of virus detectors and antiviral agents with added broad-spectrum activity and cost-effective production.
Prostate cancer is a complex disease affecting millions of men globally. Radiotherapy (RT) is a common treatment modality although treatment efficacy is dependent upon several features within the tumour microenvironment (TME), especially hypoxia. A hypoxic TME heightens radioresistance and thus disease recurrence and treatment failure continues to pose important challenges. However, the TME evolves under the influence of factors in systemic circulation and cellular crosstalk, underscoring its potential to be acutely and therapeutically modified. Early preclinical evidence suggests exercise may affect tumour growth and some of the benefits drawn, could act to radiosensitise tumours to treatment. Intracellular perturbations in skeletal muscle reactive oxygen species (ROS) stimulate the production of numerous factors that can exert autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine effects on the prostate. However, findings supporting this notion are limited and the associated mechanisms are poorly understood. In light of this preclinical evidence, we propose systemic changes in redox signalling with exercise activate redox-sensitive factors within the TME and improve tumour hypoxia and treatment outcomes, when combined with RT. To this end, we suggest a connection between exercise, ROS and tumour growth kinetics, highlighting the potential of exercise to sensitise tumour cells to RT, and improve treatment efficacy.
Introduction Health care professionals, including general practitioners, have an important role in the care of those affected by domestic abuse. Therefore, it is important that healthcare professionals are adequately trained in recognising features of domestic abuse and supporting victims in disclosure. Founded by Augusto Boal, Forum Theatre is a drama methodology that can permit an experiential and immersive learning experience; lending itself well to a subject matter of oppressed individuals. In this study we aimed to gain a deep understanding of medical students’ lived experiences of training in consulting with individuals who experienced domestic abuse using an online format of forum theatre. Methods A multidisciplinary team developed an online forum theatre training exercise, which involved a simulated consultation between a general practitioner and domestic abuse victim. Our qualitative approach used hermeneutic phenomenology to explore the participants’ lived experiences of this training. Following the online forum theatre experience, we analysed 11 participant interviews using template analysis to structure the phenomenological interpretation. Results We developed five themes through our analytical process: 1) ‘Almost being there…but not quite’: the realistic experience of forum theatre; 2) ‘Taken on an emotional journey’ 3) ‘Opening and controlling a privileged space’; 4) ‘Small things matter…’: cultivating and maintaining rapport and 5) Critically reflecting on future professional self. Discussion This study offers fine-grained insights into medical students’ experiences of an online immersive forum theatre training exercise in consulting with individuals who have been affected by domestic abuse. Online forum theatre has the potential to provide a simulated and meaningful approach to train medical students about domestic abuse. By providing students with a unique opportunity to step into a General Practitioner’s shoes in a domestic abuse consultation, students can practise how they manage a consultation with an impacted individual through a safe, guided, and experiential approach.
A novel singly fed Dielectric Resonator Antenna (DRA) is proposed here for milli meter wave 5G (Fifth Generation) frequency band applications. The DRA has achieved wide dual bandwidth with circular polarization at the defined 5G frequency bands. The resonances of this dual band antenna occur at 22.06 GHz, 24.5 GHz and 29.84 GHz. The percentage bandwidth |S11| < −10 dB of 26.3% is achieved at the first band (19.52–26.36 GHz) and 7.69% at the second band |S11| < −10 dB (28.26–30.26 GHz). Both the achieved bands here are covered under the Band 30 GHz category of 5G frequency spectrum. Compared to the conventional rectangular DRA, a novel trapezoidal shaped DRA is designed here which is fed by a microstrip line with characteristics impedance of 50 Ohm. The defined electrical dimensions of the DRA are 0.25λ0 × 0.29λ0 × 0.22λ0 considering 26 GHz as its resonating frequency. The DRA is placed over a Rogers substrate with dimensions 0.5λ0 × 0.5λ0 × 0.1λ0 and permittivity of 2.2. The DRA is circularly polarized and has a 3-dB axial ratio bandwidth of 5.23%. The DRA has achieved a gain value of 3.28 dB. Milli meter wave communications require wideband antennas with circular polarization features to support high throughput communication channels. This singly fed DRA has achieved wide dual bandwidth with circular polarization and is more suitable for indoor 5G small cell applications.
The selection of appropriate outcome measures is fundamental to the design of any successful clinical trial. Although dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is one of the most common neurodegenerative conditions, assessment of therapeutic benefit in clinical trials often relies on tools developed for other conditions, such as Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s disease. These may not be sufficiently valid or sensitive to treatment changes in DLB, decreasing their utility. In this review, we discuss the limitations and strengths of selected available tools used to measure DLB-associated outcomes in clinical trials and highlight the potential roles for more specific objective measures. We emphasize that the existing outcome measures require validation in the DLB population and that DLB-specific outcomes need to be developed. Finally, we highlight how the selection of outcome measures may vary between symptomatic and disease-modifying therapy trials.
Background The rising temperature of the oceans has been identified as the primary driver of mass coral reef declines via coral bleaching (expulsion of photosynthetic endosymbionts). Marine protected areas (MPAs) have been implemented throughout the oceans with the aim of mitigating the impact of local stressors, enhancing fish biomass, and sustaining biodiversity overall. In coral reef regions specifically, protection from local stressors and the enhanced ecosystem function contributed by MPAs are expected to increase coral resistance to global-scale stressors such as marine heatwaves. However, MPAs still suffer from limitations in design, or fail to be adequately enforced, potentially reducing their intended efficacy. Here, we address the hypothesis that the local-scale benefits resulting from MPAs moderate coral bleaching under global warming related stress. Results Bayesian analyses reveal that bleaching is expected to occur in both larger and older MPAs when corals are under thermal stress from marine heatwaves (quantified as Degree Heating Weeks, DHW), but this is partially moderated in comparison to the effects of DHW alone. Further analyses failed to identify differences in bleaching prevalence in MPAs relative to non-MPAs for coral reefs experiencing different levels of thermal stress. Finally, no difference in temperatures where bleaching occurs between MPA and non-MPA sites was found. Conclusions Our findings suggest that bleaching is likely to occur under global warming regardless of protected status. Thus, while protected areas have key roles for maintaining ecosystem function and local livelihoods, combatting the source of global warming remains the best way to prevent the decline of coral reefs via coral bleaching.
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