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    ABSTRACT: Methane is oversaturated relative to the atmosphere in many rivers, yet its cycling and fate is poorly understood. While photosynthesis is the dominant source of autotrophic carbon to rivers, chemosynthesis and particularly methane oxidation could provide alternative sources of primary production where the riverbed is heavily shaded or at depth beneath the sediment surface. Here, we highlight geographically widespread methanotrophic carbon fixation within the gravel riverbeds of over 30 chalk rivers. In 15 of these, the potential for methane oxidation (methanotrophy) was also compared with photosynthesis. In addition, we performed detailed concurrent measurements of photosynthesis and methanotrophy in one large chalk river over a complete annual cycle, where we found methanotrophy to be active to at least 15 cm into the riverbed and to be strongly substrate limited. The seasonal trend in methanotrophic activity reflected that of the riverine methane concentrations, and thus the highest rates were measured in mid-summer. At the sediment surface, photosynthesis was limited by light for most of the year with heavy shading induced by dense beds of aquatic macrophytes. Across 15 rivers, in late summer, we conservatively calculated that net methanotrophy was equivalent to between 1% and 46% of benthic net photosynthetic production within the gravel riverbed, with a median value of 4%. Hence, riverbed chemosynthesis, coupled to the oxidation of methane, is widespread and significant in English chalk rivers.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Remote control: The title reaction is effective for the sulfonation and alkylation of arenes bearing directing groups. Initial ortho metalation of the substrate forms an intermediate which does not evolve towards functionalization at the CM bond. Instead, the ruthenium catalyst acts as a strong electron-donating group, thus directing a remote electrophilic attack.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Angewandte Chemie International Edition
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    ABSTRACT: Cyanobacteria possess multiple mechanisms for regulating the pathways of photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport. Electron transport may be regulated indirectly by controlling the transfer of excitation energy from the light-harvesting complexes, or it may be more directly regulated by controlling the stoichiometry, localization, and interactions of photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport complexes. Regulation of the extent of linear vs. cyclic electron transport is particularly important for controlling the redox balance of the cell. This review discusses what is known of the regulatory mechanisms and the timescales on which they occur, with particular regard to the structural reorganization needed and the constraints imposed by the limited mobility of membrane-integral proteins in the crowded thylakoid membrane. Switching mechanisms requiring substantial movement of integral thylakoid membrane proteins occur on slower timescales than those that require the movement only of cytoplasmic or extrinsic membrane proteins. This difference is probably due to the restricted diffusion of membrane-integral proteins. Multiple switching mechanisms may be needed to regulate electron transport on different timescales.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Frontiers in Plant Science
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