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    ABSTRACT: Background Controversy exists in the literature between the role of orthodontic treatment and gingival recession. Whilst movement of teeth outside the alveolar bone has been reported as a risk factor for gingival recession, others have found no such association. Findings The Angle Society of Europe devoted a study day to explore the evidence surrounding these controversies. The aim of the day was for a panel of experts to evaluate the current evidence base in relation to either the beneficial or detrimental effects of orthodontic treatment on the gingival tissue. Conclusions There remains a relatively weak evidence base for the role of orthodontic treatment and gingival recession and thus a need to undertake a risk assessment and appropriate consent prior to the commencement of treatment. In further prospective, well designed trials are needed.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013
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    ABSTRACT: The mechanistic action of fluoride on inhibition of enamel demineralization was investigated using (19)F magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR). The aim of this study was to monitor the fluoride-mineral phase formed on the enamel as a function of the concentration of fluoride ions [F(-)] in the demineralizing medium. The secondary aim was to investigate fluorapatite formation on enamel in the mechanism of fluoride anti-caries efficacy. Enamel blocks were immersed into demineralization solutions of 0.1 M acetic acid (pH 4) with increasing concentrations of fluoride up to 2,262 ppm. At and below 45 ppm [F(-)] in the solution, (19)F MAS-NMR showed fluoride-substituted apatite formation, and above 45 ppm, calcium fluoride (CaF2) formed in increasing proportions. Further increases in [F(-)] caused no further reduction in demineralization, but increased the proportion of CaF2 formed. Additionally, the combined effect of strontium and fluoride on enamel demineralization was also investigated using (19)F MAS-NMR. The presence of 43 ppm [Sr(2+)] in addition to 45 ppm [F(-)] increases the fraction of fluoride-substituted apatite, but delays formation of CaF2 when compared to the demineralization of enamel in fluoride-only solution.
    No preview · Article · May 2013 · Caries Research
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Recently, several genes have been reported with mutations or variants that underlie a number of syndromic and non-syndromic forms of oligodontia including MSX1, PAX9, AXIN2, EDA and WNT10A. This study aimed to identify the causal mutations in a consanguineous Pakistan family with oligodontia and microdontia. Design: Exome sequencing was performed in two of affected members of the Pakistan family. Results: The exome sequencing data revealed that the affected individuals were homozygous with a novel mutation in exon 8 of the SMOC2 gene, c.681T>A (p.C227X). Conclusions: This is the second report describing SMOC2 mutations with oligodontia and microdontia underlining the key role for this signalling molecule in tooth development.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Archives of oral biology
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