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    ABSTRACT: New antifungal agents are required to compensate for the increase in resistance to standard antifungal agents of C. albicans, which is an important opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes minor infections in many individuals but very serious infections in those who are immune-compromised. In this study, combinations of the theaflavin and epicatechin are investigated as potential antifungal agents and also to establish whether antifungal synergy exists between these two readily accessible and cost-effective polyphenols isolated from black and green tea. The results of disc diffusion assays show stronger antibacterial activity of theaflavin:epicatechin combinations against C. albicans NCTC 3255 and NCTC 3179, than that of theaflavin alone. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of theaflavin and the theaflavin:epicatechin combinations of 1024 ㎍/mL with theaflavin and 128-256 ㎍/mL with theaflavin:epicatechin combinations are found. FICIs were calculated and synergy between theaflavin and epicatechin against both isolates of C. albicans confirmed. Theaflavin:epicatechin combinations show real potential for future use as a treatment for infections caused by C. albicans.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    ABSTRACT: The problem of antimicrobial resistance is exemplified by multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates of Gram-negative species. Of particular concern are expanded-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant isolates of Enterobacteriaceae, epidemic lineages of Acinetobacter baumannii producing OXA-type carbapenemases, and MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this study, the in vitro activity of the novel monosulfactam BAL30072 was investigated both alone and in combination with meropenem against a diverse collection of commonly encountered Gram-negative pathogens. Thirty-one isolates were studied, including type strains and clinical isolates with defined mechanisms conferring resistance to various antimicrobial agents including to carbapenems, colistin and tigecycline. BAL30072 minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined in the presence and absence of meropenem (1:1, w/w) by agar dilution. Potential synergy or antagonism between BAL30072 and meropenem was investigated using standard chequerboard assays. Versus MDR A. baumannii strains producing class D oxacillinases, BAL30072 MICs were all ≤4mg/L with the exception of the isolate belonging to the UK 'Burn' lineage. BAL30072 exhibited MIC values of 0.5mg/L to >64mg/L towards the five P. aeruginosa strains. Against three meropenem-susceptible Escherichia coli, including the CTX-M-15 extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producer, BAL30072 exhibited MICs of 0.25-2mg/L; higher MICs were recorded against some of the Enterobacteriaceae isolates tested. The in vitro data suggest that BAL30072 has a potential role in the treatment of infections due to Gram-negative pathogens, including those with important resistances to other agents. In addition, BAL30072 shows powerful synergistic activity in combination with meropenem, potentially expanding its coverage for the treatment of infections caused by problematic species.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · International journal of antimicrobial agents
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    ABSTRACT: The activity of colistin in combination with daptomycin was assessed using 30 Gram-negative type strains and multidrug-resistant isolates with defined mechanisms of resistance. Daptomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined with and without sub-inhibitory concentrations of colistin. The activity of daptomycin was not affected with respect to Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. For colistin-susceptible Acinetobacter baumannii, sensitisation factors ranged from 8 to 128 (median 32), with the daptomycin MIC being reduced to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) enterococci susceptibility breakpoint of 4 μg/ml for the ATCC 19606 type strain. A combination of daptomycin and colistin may be useful for the treatment of A. baumannii but not infections due to other Gram-negative species.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · European Journal of Clinical Microbiology
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