Background Adequate nutritional intake plays a pivotal role in optimizing performance, recovery, and body composition goals. This study aimed to investigate the dietary intakes (DIs); nutritional knowledge (NK); and attitudes, perceptions, and challenges (APC) of semiprofessional rugby players in Scotland. Methods Dietary intakes and NK of 24 male semiprofessional rugby players of a Super6 club were evaluated using validated questionnaires. Players were categorized as having good or poor NK according to NK scores. Diet-related APCs were assessed using researcher-developed questionnaires and 1-1 semi-structured interviews. Results Mean ± SD total NK% was poor, 53.7 ± 11.9%. The ‘Good’ NK group scored significantly higher in the Weight Management (p = 0.014), Macronutrients (p < 0.001), Micronutrients (p = 0.001), and Sports Nutrition (p < 0.001) sections. Mean DIs from food sources were 26.3 ± 9.2 kcal/kg/day energy, 1.4 ± 0.4 g/kg/day protein, and 21.7 ± 10.1 g/day fibre. Median (25th,75th) carbohydrate intake was 3.0 (2.0, 3.0) g/kg/day, and 6.3 (2.3, 10.6) units/week alcohol. Mean ± SD fat and saturated fat (SFA) % total energy intake (EI) were 36.2 ± 3.7% and 12.8 ± 1.9%, respectively, and SFA %EI exceeded recommendations (p < 0.001). The ‘Good’ NK group had significantly higher intakes of all macronutrients (p < 0.05). Total NK% positively correlated with intakes of meat (r = 0.556, p = 0.011), cereals (r = 0.458, p = 0.042), dietary fat (r = 0.477, p = 0.034), vegetables (r = 0.487, p = 0.030), and alcoholic beverages (r = 0.541, p = 0.014). Supplement use was 68%. Players felt diet affected performance (94%) but 31% of them were unaware of any specific nutritional strategies. A healthy diet was perceived to be ‘balanced’ with ‘variety from all food groups. Lack of time for preparation was described as the main barrier to healthy eating. Conclusions Overall, players had poor NK, their fibre and carbohydrate intake was suboptimal, whereas saturated fat intake exceeded recommendations. Many lacked awareness of current sports nutrition guidelines. Further nutrition education may be needed to improve diet quality and aid performance goals.
Background Osteomyelitis of the foot is a major complication of diabetes that can be limb and life threatening. Systemic antibiotic pharmacotherapy is often used first line to eradicate infection and allow restoration of devitalised bone. The aim is to conduct a systematic review of the effectiveness of systemic antibiotics on osteomyelitis of the foot in adults with diabetes mellitus. Methods A systematic review of all interventional studies treating osteomyelitis with systemic antibiotics in participants with diabetes mellitus and an ulcer of the foot below the malleoli will be conducted. Studies not available in English and in people below the age of 18 will be excluded. Study selection will follow the Patient Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA-P guidelines). The quality of the studies will be assessed using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool (RoB 2) for all randomised controlled trials and the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale (NOS) will be used for non-randomised controlled trials. Electronic databases will be searched with no timeline restrictions. Data Extraction All identified references will be imported to the Rayyan Application. Studies for eligibility will be screened by two reviewers. One reviewer will perform the data extraction and quality appraisal will be conducted by two authors. If sufficient data is available, the quality will be analysed and a meta-analysis will be performed. Data synthesis will be conducted, and meta-analysis undertaken using RevMan 5.4.1 Meta-analysis software. Non-parametric data may be compared between selective intervention and outcomes. Discussion The results of this systematic review will identify the effectiveness of systemic antibiotic therapy on osteomyelitis of the foot in people with diabetes based on the set outcome measure criteria. The findings will establish if there are existing consistent standards or variation in practice when treating diabetic foot osteomyelitis (DFO). The study may establish if guidelines are required to standardise practice when treating DFO with systemic antibiotic therapy. This systematic review protocol will synthesise the existing evidence on the effectiveness of systemic antibiotic therapy for treating DFO. Trial registration International Prospective Register for Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) number CRD42021245424 .
Background The consumption of lycopene-rich foods may lower cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Lycopene circulates in the blood bound to lipoproteins, including high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). Preliminary data from our group showed that increased consumption of tomato-based food or lycopene supplement in middle-aged subjects led to functional changes to HDL's sub-fractions, HDL 2 and HDL 3 . These changes were also associated with a decrease in serum amyloid A (SAA), potentially enhancing their anti-atherogenic properties. Objective We carried out a comprehensive randomized controlled intervention trial with healthy middle-aged volunteers to assess whether the consumption of tomato-based foods or lycopene supplements affects HDL functionality and associated inflammatory markers, and lipoprotein subfractions size and distribution. Design Volunteers (225, aged 40–65 years) were randomly assigned to one of three dietary intervention groups and asked to consume a control diet (low in tomato-based foods, <10 mg lycopene/week), a lycopene-rich diet (224–350 mg lycopene/week), or the control diet with a lycopene supplement (70 mg lycopene/week). HDL 2 and HDL 3 were isolated by ultracentrifugation. Compliance was monitored by assessing lycopene concentration in serum. Systemic and HDL-associated inflammation was assessed by measuring SAA concentrations. HDL functionality was determined by monitoring paraoxonase-1 (PON-1), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), and lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activities. The lipoprotein subfractions profile was assessed by NMR. Results Lycopene in serum and HDL significantly increased following consumption of both the high tomato diet and lycopene supplement ( p ≤ 0.001 for both). Lycopene, either as a tomato-rich food or a supplement, enhanced both serum- and HDL 3 -PON-1 activities ( p ≤ 0.001 and p = 0.036, respectively), while significantly reducing HDL 3 -SAA-related inflammation ( p = 0.001). Lycopene supplement also significantly increased HDL 3 -LCAT activity ( p = 0.05), and reduced the activity of both HDL 2 - and HDL 3 -CETP ( p = 0.005 and p = 0.002, respectively). These changes were not associated with changes in the subclasses distribution for all lipoprotein fractions or the size of lipoprotein subclasses. Conclusion Our results showed that dietary lycopene can significantly enhance HDL functionality, without associated changes in particle size and distribution, by modulating the activity of HDL-associated enzymes. Concomitantly, dietary lycopene significantly decreased serum- and HDL 3 -associated SAA, confirming that SAA may represent a sensitive inflammatory biomarker to dietary change. Clinical Trial Register ( https://www.isrctn.com ), ISRCTN34203810.
Purpose: Somatosensory function of the lower limbs is rarely assessed in children with upper motor neuron lesions despite its potential relevance for motor function. We explored consensus regarding somatosensory categories (exteroception, proprioception, interoception, and body awareness), modalities, and outcome measures relevant to lower limb motor function. Methods: Fifteen international experts with experience of somatosensory function assessment participated in this Delphi study. Surveys of four rounds, conducted online, included questions on the relevance of somatosensory categories and modalities for motor function and on the use of potential outcome measures in clinical practice. Results: The experts reached consensus on the relevance of six modalities of the categories exteroception, proprioception, and body awareness. Based on their feedback, we formulated three core criteria for somatosensory outcome measures, namely suitability for clinical practice, child-friendliness, and relevance for motor function. None of the nine available outcome measures fulfilled each criterion. The experts also highlighted the importance of using and interpreting the tests in relation to the child's activity and participation. Conclusion: There was expert consensus on three categories and six modalities of somatosensory function relevant for lower limb motor function. However, existing outcome measures will need to be adapted for use in paediatric clinical practice. IMPLICATION FOR REHABILITATIONConsensus was established for the categories and modalities of somatosensory function relevant for lower limb motor function of children with UMN lesion.Outcome measures should cover tactile function, joint movement and joint position and dynamic position sense, and spatial and structural body representation.None of the nine existing outcome measures fulfilled the core criteria: feasibility for clinical practice, child-friendliness, and relevance to motor function.
To better understand and plan health systems featuring multiple levels and complex causal elements, there have been increasing attempts to incorporate tools arising from complexity science to inform decisions. The utilization of new planning approaches can have important implications for the types of, and mechanisms through which, evidence informs health policymaking. This paper presents an empirical analysis of the application of one such tool – System Dynamics Modelling (SDM) within a tuberculosis (TB) control program in South Africa in order to explore how SDM was utilized, and to reflect on the implications for evidence-informed health policymaking. We observed group model building (GMB) workshops that served to develop the SDM process and undertook 19 qualitative interviews with policymakers and practitioners who partook in these workshops. We analyzed the relationship between the SDM process and the use of evidence for policymaking through four conceptual perspectives: (1) a rationalist knowledge-translation view that considers how previously-generated research can be taken up into policy; (2) a programmatic approach that considers existing goals and tasks of decision makers, and how evidence might address them; (3) a social constructivist lens exploring how the process of using an evidentiary planning tool like SDM can shape the understanding of problems and their solutions; and (4) a normative perspective that recognizes that stakeholders may have different priorities, and thus considers which groups are included and represented in the process. Each perspective can provide useful insights into the SDM process and the political nature of evidence use. In particular, SDM can provide technical information to solve problems, potentially leave out other concerns, and influence how problems are conceptualized by formalizing the boundaries of the policy problem and delineating particular solution sets. Undertaking the process further involves choices on stakeholder inclusion affecting whose interests may be served as evidence to inform decisions.
Background Many people living with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are iron deficient, even though they may not be anaemic. The Iron and Muscle study aims to evaluate whether iron supplementation reduces symptoms of fatigue, improves muscle metabolism, and leads to enhanced exercise capacity and physical function. We report here the trial design and baseline characteristics. Methods This is a prospective, double-blind multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) including 75 non-dialysis stage 3–4 CKD patients with iron deficiency but without anaemia. Patients were randomly (1:1) assigned to either: i) intravenous iron therapy, or ii) placebo, with concurrent recruitment of eight CKD non-iron deficient participants and six healthy volunteers. The primary outcome of the study is the six-minute walk test (6MWT) distance between baseline and four-weeks. An additional exercise training programme for patients in both groups was initiated and completed between 4 and 12 weeks, to determine the effect of iron repletion compared to placebo treatment in the context of patients undertaking an exercise programme. Additional secondary outcomes include fatigue, physical function, muscle strength, muscle metabolism, quality of life, resting blood pressure, clinical chemistry, safety and harms associated with the iron therapy intervention and the exercise training intervention, and hospitalisations. All outcomes were conducted at baseline, 4, and 12 weeks, with a nested qualitative study, to investigate the experience of living with iron deficiency and intervention acceptability. The cohort have been recruited and baseline assessments undertaken. Results Seventy-five individuals were recruited. 44% of the randomised cohort were male, the mean (SD) age was 58 (14) years, and 56% were White. Body mass index was 31 (7) kg/m ² ; serum ferritin was 59 (45) μg/L, transferrin saturation was 22 (10) %, and haemoglobin was 125 (12) g/L at randomisation for the whole group. Estimated glomerular filtration rate was 35 (12) mL/min/1.73 m ² and the baseline 6MWT distance was 429 (174) m. Conclusion The results from this study will address a substantial knowledge gap in the effects of intravenous iron therapy, and offer potential clinical treatment options, to improve exercise capacity, physical function, fatigue, and muscle metabolism, for non-dialysis patients with CKD who are iron-deficient but not anaemic. It will also offer insight into the potential novel effects of an 8-week exercise training programme. Trial registration EudraCT: 2018–000,144-25 Registered 28/01/2019.
This article outlines the experiences of a Scottish healthcare chaplain. After a student nurse expressed a dated view of chaplains, I realised it was my responsibility to refresh it. After reflection I planned, developed and implemented an interprofessional education session for nursing, midwifery and allied health professional (NMAHP) students on clinical placement. I had to develop awareness of learning theories, preferences and styles, and explore different methods of delivery. Since NMAHP students can be undergraduate, postgraduate, school leavers or career changers, the session is multi-generational and interprofessional. Attendee feedback was used to review the learning session. This package was developed and shared with my team but may be of value to other healthcare chaplains or spiritual care educators to introduce spiritual care to NMAHP students on clinical placement. It will also be a useful resource for nurses, midwives and allied health professionals to expand their understanding of the role.
We consider the Cauchy problem for the complex valued semi-linear heat equation ∂tu-Δu-um=0,u(0,x)=u0(x),where m≥2 is an integer and the initial data belong to super-critical spaces Eσs for which the norms are defined by ‖f‖Eσs=‖⟨ξ⟩σ2s|ξ|f^(ξ)‖L2,σ∈R,s<0.If s<0, then any Sobolev space Hr is a subspace of Eσs, i.e., ∪r∈RHr⊂Eσs. We obtain the global existence and uniqueness of the solutions if the initial data belong to Eσs (s<0,σ≥d/2-2/(m-1)) and their Fourier transforms are supported in the first octant, the smallness conditions on the initial data in Eσs are not required for the global solutions. Moreover, we show that the error between the solution u and the iteration solution u(j) is Cj/(j!)2. Similar results also hold if the nonlinearity um is replaced by an exponential function eu-1.
Background Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD) is primarily associated with dietary exposure to bovine-spongiform-encephalopathy. Cases may be missed in the elderly population where dementia is common with less frequent referral to specialist neurological services. This study’s twin aims were to determine the feasibility of a method to detect possible missed cases in the elderly population and to identify any such cases. Methods A multi-site study was set-up in Lothian in 2016, to determine the feasibility of enhanced CJD-surveillance in the 65 + population-group, and undertake a clinicopathological investigation of patients with features of ‘atypical’ dementia. Results Thirty patients are included; 63% male, 37% female. They were referred because of at least one neurological feature regarded as ‘atypical’ (for the common dementing illnesses): cerebellar ataxia, rapid progression, or somato-sensory features. Mean-age at symptom-onset (66 years, range 53–82 years), the time between onset-of-symptoms and referral to the study (7 years, range 1–13 years), and duration-of-illness from onset-of-symptoms until death or the censor-date (9.5 years, range 1.1–17.4 years) were determined. By the censor-date, 9 cases were alive and 21 had died. Neuropathological investigations were performed on 10 cases, confirming: Alzheimer’s disease only (2 cases), mixed Alzheimer’s disease with Lewy bodies (2 cases), mixed Alzheimer’s disease with amyloid angiopathy (1 case), moderate non-amyloid small vessel angiopathy (1 case), a non-specific neurodegenerative disorder (1 case), Parkinson's disease with Lewy body dementia (1 case), and Lewy body dementia (2 cases). No prion disease cases of any type were detected. Conclusion The surveillance approach used was well received by the local clinicians and patients, though there were challenges in recruiting sufficient cases; far fewer than expected were identified, referred, and recruited. Further research is required to determine how such difficulties might be overcome. No missed cases of vCJD were found. However, there remains uncertainty whether this is because missed cases are very uncommon or because the study had insufficient power to detect them.
Background For outcome measures to be useful in health and care decision-making, they need to have certain psychometric properties. The ICECAP-Supportive Care Measure (ICECAP-SCM), a seven attribute measure (1. Choice , 2. Love and affection , 3. Physical suffering , 4. Emotional suffering , 5. Dignity , 6. Being supported , 7. Preparation ) developed for use in economic evaluation of end-of-life interventions, has face validity and is feasible to use. This study aimed to assess the construct validity and responsiveness of the ICECAP-SCM in hospice inpatient and outpatient settings. Methods A secondary analysis of data collated from two studies, one focusing on palliative care day services and the other on constipation management, undertaken in the same national hospice organisation across three UK hospices, was conducted. Other quality of life and wellbeing outcome measures used were the EQ-5D-5L, McGill Quality of Life Questionnaire – Expanded (MQOL-E), Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2) and Palliative Outcomes Scale Symptom list (POS-S). The construct validity of the ICECAP-SCM was assessed, following hypotheses generation, by calculating correlations between: (i) its domains and the domains of other outcome measures, (ii) its summary score and the other measures’ domains, (iii) its summary score and the summary scores of the other measures. The responsiveness of the ICECAP-SCM was assessed using anchor-based methods to understand change over time. Statistical analysis consisted of Spearman and Pearson correlations for construct validity and paired t-tests for the responsiveness analysis. Results Sixty-eight participants were included in the baseline analysis. Five strong correlations were found with ICECAP-SCM attributes and items on the other measures: four with the Emotional suffering attribute ( Anxiety/depression on EQ-5D-5L, Psychological and Burden on MQOL-E and Feeling down, depressed or hopeless on PHQ-2), and one with Physical suffering ( Weakness or lack of energy on POS-S). ICECAP-SCM attributes and scores were most strongly associated with the MQOL-E measure (0.73 correlation coefficient between summary scores). The responsiveness analysis ( n = 36) showed the ICECAP-SCM score was responsive to change when anchored to changes on the MQOL-E over time ( p < 0.05). Conclusions This study provides initial evidence of construct validity and responsiveness of the ICECAP-SCM in hospice settings and suggests its potential for use in end-of-life care research.
Background: Cholera continues to pose a problem for low-resource, fragile and humanitarian contexts. Evidence suggests that 2.86 million cholera cases and 95,000 deaths due to cholera are reported annually. Without quick and effective diagnosis and treatment, case-fatality may be 50%. In line with the priorities of the Global Task Force on Cholera Control, we undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy and other test characteristics of current tests for cholera detection in stool and water. Methods: We searched 11 bibliographic and grey literature databases. Data was extracted on test sensitivity, specificity and other product information. Meta-analyses of sensitivity and specificity were conducted for tests reported in three or more studies. Where fewer studies reported a test, estimates were summarised through narrative synthesis. Risk of Bias was assessed using QUADAS-2. Results: Searches identified 6,637 records; 41 studies reporting on 28 tests were included. Twenty-two tests had both sensitivities and specificities reported above 95% by at least one study, but there was, overall, wide variation in reported diagnostic accuracy across studies. For the three tests where meta-analyses were possible the highest sensitivity meta-estimate was found in the Cholera Screen test (98.6%, CI: 94.7%-99.7%) and the highest specificity meta-estimate in the Crystal VC on enriched samples (98.3%, CI: 92.8%-99.6%). There was a general lack of evidence regarding field use of tests, but where presented this indicated trends for lower diagnostic accuracy in field settings, with lesser-trained staff, and without the additional process of sample enrichment. Where reported, mean test turnaround times ranged from over 50% to 130% longer than manufacturer's specification. Most studies had a low to unclear risk of bias. Conclusions: Currently available Rapid Diagnostic Tests can potentially provide high diagnostic and detection capability for cholera. However, stronger evidence is required regarding the conditions required to secure these levels of accuracy in field use, particularly in low-resource settings. Registration: PROSPERO (CRD42016048428).
Transition to adulthood can be a challenging developmental task for adolescents with common mental health problems and is linked to adverse outcomes such as ‘not in education, employment or training’ (NEET). This study investigated longitudinal associations between adolescent psychosocial factors (e.g., self-esteem, aspirations, bullying, physical activity) and later NEET status among individuals with common mental health problems (i.e., depression and anxiety). A secondary data analysis of the Next Steps cohort study was completed using waves 2 and 8. Psychosocial factors, mental health, and background characteristics were captured when participants were aged 15–16 years (wave 2) while still in compulsory education. The 12-item General Health Questionnaire was used to identify adolescents with common mental health problems. The study population consisted of 2224 participants (females 66.8%) of which 1473 (66.2%) were aged 15 years and 751 (33.8%) were aged 16 years in wave 2. The outcome was NEET status at ages 25–26 years (wave 8). The results showed that after adjusting for background characteristics, adolescent self-esteem, locus of control, bullying, physical activity, job aspirations, and attitudes to school predicted NEET status. Educational aspirations, substance use, and behavioural problems were not significantly associated with NEET status. These findings provide new insights into the role of adolescent psychosocial factors in the context of education and employment outcomes for youth at risk and highlight the necessity of targeted mental health support to improve life chances.
This study investigated functional enhancement strategies for whole egg (WE), egg yolk (EY) and whey protein concentrate (WPC) with a view to reducing their required concentrations in formulations and the resulting environmental footprint. WE and EY underwent a combined phospholipase PLA2 and controlled heat treatment (WE2 and EY2) while WPC was partially-denatured via controlled heating (pdWPC). WE2 and EY2 samples were mixed with pdWPC and were also control-heated (h) with WPC. WE2-WPC(h) foams proved more stable than their untreated controls. WE2, EY2 and EY2-pdWPC showed higher emulsifying properties than their untreated controls. pdWPC, EY2 and EY2-WPC(h) hydrogels proved more viscoelastic than their untreated controls. EY2 and EY2-WPC(h) displayed an additional 45kDa protein band, which could correspond to surface-active apoproteins released from lipoproteins. This work highlighted the potential to enhance WE, EY and WPC functionality via combined partial denaturation treatments and via synergy between WPC and WE or EY when co-processed.
Current literature surrounding functional outcomes after total wrist arthrodesis is limited by short follow-up or limited use of validated patient reported outcome measures (PROMs). The primary aim of this study was to describe long-term functional outcomes following wrist arthrodesis. Secondary aims were to describe the incidence of complications and patient satisfaction. This was a retrospective single-center study. Patients with a minimum of 10-year follow-up completed a questionnaire including the Patient-Rated Wrist Evaluation (PRWE), the Quick version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (Quick-DASH) score, the EQ-5D-5 L score, and a question assessing satisfaction. Presence of a complication was also assessed. During the study period 66 patients underwent total arthrodesis. At a median follow-up of 15 years, complete patient reported outcomes were available for 34 patients. Thirty-two patients were lost to follow-up. Mean age at surgery was 49 and 16 patients were female. Mean PRWE and Quick-DASH scores were 44.8 (SD 27.7; range 0-96) and 41.9 (SD 23.6; range 2.3-97.7) respectively. Twenty-eight patients were satisfied. Nine patients reported complications. There were six cases of hardware removal and two cases of prominent metalwork. One patient underwent revision surgery for non-union. Presence of a complication did not affect the Quick-DASH or PRWE scores. Median EQ-5D-5 L score was 0.7. This long-term follow-up suggests high levels of patient satisfaction and health related quality of life, despite significant functional disability. The complication rates are not insignificant, although the presence of a complication did not affect functional outcomes.
Introduction The overnight change in hospital practice and service delivery during the COVID-19 pandemic raises the question whether undergraduate radiography students received an adequate clinical experience. Many students had their clinical placements cancelled, deferred or replaced with simulated learning. As a way of dealing with the pandemic some hospitals were dedicated to COVID-19 patients only resulting in many elective procedures being cancelled. Many patients also chose to stay away from the hospital out of fear of infection or the desire to reduce the burden on staff. This resulted in a limited range of examinations and clinical experience for those students who were able to complete their clinical placement. Aim This study aims to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on the education and training of radiography students internationally in the United Kingdom Devolved Nations (UKDN) and the United Arab Emirates (UAE), to determine any possible impact on their future careers. Method Ethical permission was sought and granted from the Research Ethics Committees (ID: 21-04-12-02 and ID:21/0032). An online survey was developed using Google Forms and link was shared with students via email. Results 262 students participated in the study [UAE (n=60, 23%) and UKDN (n=202, 77%)]. 72% stated that their clinical skills have improved and 82% were confident in the choice of radiography as a career. Participants from UAE displayed a higher tendency towards anxiety (p=0.009). Students who were on clinical placements during the COVID-19 pandemic and worked with COVID-19 positive patients displayed less ongoing concern relating to COVID-19 (p=0.004). 78% of the participants did not require wellbeing advice or request any type of wellbeing support from the higher education institutions (HEIs). Nevertheless, the study found that wellbeing of students was found to be negatively affected during the pandemic. Conclusion Completing clinical placement during the COVID-19 pandemic allowed the continuation of education as students were allowed to improve their skills, confidence and resilience in coping with uncertainties and challenges. Undergraduate students should not be excluded from the clinical department during subsequent waves of COVID-19 or future pandemics to ensure continued workforce planning is possible.
This study provides the first mapping of mycoprotein functionality, composition and structure throughout the Quorn fermentation process. The fermentation broth, RNA-reduced broth (RNA-broth), centrate and their centrifugation deposits and supernatants were characterised. The broth, RNA-broth and their deposits displayed high concentrations of fungal filaments, which contributed to their high gelling properties (with a 5,320 Pa elastic modulus reported for RNA-broth deposits gels). Foams prepared with RNA-broth and centrate supernatants via frothing exhibited high stability (380 minutes), with high concentrations of a foam-positive cerato-platanin reported in these samples. Emulsions prepared with the broth and broth supernatant showed high emulsifying activity and stability indexes (12.80 m²/g and 15.84 mins for the broth supernatant) and low oil droplet sizes (18.09 µm for the broth). This study identified previously unreported gelling, foaming and/or emulsifying properties for the different Quorn streams, highlighting opportunities to develop novel sustainable alternatives to animal-derived functional ingredients using mycoprotein material.
IntroductionThe management of NCDs is a growing challenge in low- and middle-income settings with the increasing prevalence and the associated demands that such conditions make on health systems. Fragile settings both exacerbate the risk of NCDs and undermine systems capacity. Lebanon is a setting where strategies to address rising NCDs burden have faced particularly acute contextual challenges.Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey with patients accessing non-communicable disease across 11 primary care centers within the Greater Beirut and Beqaa areas. Response were received from 1,700 patients. We generated a Clinical Management Index Score as a measure of quality of care, and scores related to a range of socio-demographic characteristics and other context specific variables.ResultsSignificantly higher clinical management index scores (better quality of care) were associated with patients living in the semi-urban/rural context of Beqaa (compared to Greater Beirut), having health insurance coverage, aged above 60, having high levels of educational attainment, and making partial or full payment for their treatment. Relatively lower index scores (poorer quality of care) were associated with Syrian nationality (compared to Lebanese) and with patients suffering from diabetes or hypertension (compared to comorbid patients).Conclusion The study identified a wide margin for improving quality of NCDs care in fragile contexts with particular gaps identified in referral to ophthalmology, accessing all prescribed medication and receiving counseling for smoking cessation. Additionally, findings indicate a number of predictors of comparatively poor quality of care that warrant attention, notably with regard to Syrian nationality/legal status, lack of health coverage, seeking free health provision and lower educational attachment. Although these are all relevant risk factors, the findings call on donor agencies, NGOs and provider institutions to design targeted programs and activities that especially ensure equitable delivery of services to diabetic and hypertensive patients with compounded vulnerability as a result of a number of these factors.
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