Quaid-i-Azam University
  • Islamabad, Pakistan
Recent publications
Standard theory of consumer behavior stands on the maxim of utility maximization. Optimizing behavior of consumer is achieved by maximization of utility subject to budget constraint. An increase in inflation that is not accompanied by proportionate increase in income can leave a consumer worse off. Therefore, it is imperative for consumers to have right assessment about inflation which in turn requires appropriate modelling of inflationary behavior. This study assesses efficacies of different versions of new Keynesian Phillips curve for capturing dynamics of CPI inflation. Estimation of different formulations of this curve is achieved by employing generalized method of moments. This choice of estimation technique is made to handle potential problem of endogeneity. Countries with different resource and market structures are included to evaluate and compare fitness of different formulations for different economies. Economies of Pakistan and Turkey represent developing economies, economy of South-Korea is incorporated for emerging market economy and economies of Canada, UK and US are included for developed economies. The results of this study reveal that internal as well as external factors are crucial for explaining inflationary behavior of developing economies. Whereas, dynamics of domestic inflation for advanced economies are mostly explained by internal factors.
Microbiota is an integral component of the intestinal tract and plays a significant role in health status of fish. However, diet and feeding habits are the key factors affecting the intestinal microbiota. Here, a 90-day feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of a plant-based β-mannanase supplemented diet on the growth, gut microbiome, and mRNA level of key digestion and immunity-related genes of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Fish were evenly distributed in 3 groups: control, A1 and A2, and fed 35% CP supplemented with β-mannanase at the rate of 0, 500, and 1000 units/kg diet respectively. At the end of the feeding trial, the intestinal microbiota was profiled by sequencing the v4 region of bacterial 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of fungal 18S rRNA. Results indicated improved growth performance, changes in richness and diversity of intestinal microbiota and up-regulation of intestinal digestion (Amy, Lip, Tryp, FAS, FABP), and immunity-related (SOD, NK-lys, Def, Lys, IL1-β) genes of A1 and A2 groups of fish as compared to control. This study first time demonstrates that β-mannanase in a plant-based diet could improve the intestinal health of C. carpio via modulation of gut microbiota and up-regulation of host digestion and immunity-related genes.
Soil contamination with toxic heavy metals [such as lead (Pb)] is becoming a serious global problem due to the rapid development of the social economy. However, accumulation of Pb in plant parts is very toxic for plant growth and decreases crop yield and productivity. In the present study, we have investigated the different concentrations of Pb in the soil i.e., [0 (no Pb), 50, and 100 mg kg–1] to study plant growth and biomass, photosynthetic pigments and gas exchange characteristics, oxidative stress indicators and the response of various antioxidants (enzymatic and non-enzymatic), nutritional status of the plant, organic acid exudation pattern and also Pb accumulation in the roots and shoots of the plants of two varieties of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) i.e., Roma and Cchuas, grown under different levels of synergic acid [no spray (NS), water spray (WS), 0.3-0.5°μM]. Results from the present study showed that the increasing levels of Pb in the soil decreased non-significantly (P < 0.05) shoot length, root length, shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, total chlorophyll, carotenoid content, net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, soluble sugar, reducing sugar, non-reducing sugar contents, calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), iron (Fe2+), and phosphorus (P) contents in the roots and shoots of the plants. However, Pb toxicity also induced oxidative stress in the roots and shoots of the plants by increasing malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and electrolyte leakage (EL) which also induced increased the compounds of various enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and also organic acids exudation pattern in the roots such as fumaric acid, acetic acid, citric acid, formic acid, malic acid, oxalic acid contents and increased the concentration of Pb in different parts of the plants. Results also show that the Cchuas showed better growth and development compared to Roma, under the same levels of Pb in the soil. The alleviation of Pb toxicity was induced by the application of synergic acid, and results showed that the application of synergic acid increased plant growth and biomass and also increased the gas exchange characteristics and antioxidant capacity in the roots and shoots of the plants. Research findings, therefore, suggested that synergic acid application can ameliorate Pb toxicity in S. lycopersicum varieties and result in improved plant growth and composition under metal stress as depicted by balanced exudation of organic acids.
The energy loss during the beating cilia phenomenon in the human stomach causing acidity in the blood flow under certain conditions has been a serious topic in the modern medical field. In the current study, authors have focused the entropy generation effects and irreversibility comparison on the flow of cilia generated metachronal waves of Cu-blood nanofluid through a curved channel by considering the effects of viscous dissipation and externally applied magnetic field. Due to the complex nature of the stream regime, curvilinear coordinates system is taken into consideration to present the constitutive expressions for bi-dimensional flow. Due to metachronal waves generated due to row wise beating cilia, authors have employed the constraints like large wave number so that the uniform pressure can be assumed over the cross section and the low Reynolds number to neglect the inertial forces. Unsteady flow of the problem producing partial differential equations is made steady by transforming it from a fixed frame to the wave frame of reference which finally provides the system of coupled ordinary differential equations along with cilia oriented non-homogeneous boundary conditions. This system has been solved analytically by incorporating a perturbation technique (HPM) to get the expressions for velocity, stream functions, pressure gradient and thermal profile. In the whole analysis, key findings are: The magnetic field reduces the flow speed in left side of the channel but increases the temperature of the system in the whole region. Entropy of the system can be reduced by diminishing the magnetic field effects and viscous dissipation, also the magnetic field is affecting the flow in the sense of contracting the bolus size. It is concluded that entropy due to thermal transfer is less than that of the whole system. More studies on the topic can be developed by considering the microorganism effects in three dimensional geometries with cilia at the boundaries.
Energy shortage and environmental concern urgently require establishing the feasible bio-refinery process from various feedstocks. The methylotrophic yeast Ogataea polymorpha is thermo-tolerant and can utilize various carbon sources, such as glucose, xylose and methanol, which makes it a promising host for bio-manufacturing. Here, we explored the capacity of O. polymorpha for overproduction of free fatty acids (FFAs) from multiple substrates. The engineered yeast produced 674 mg/L FFA from 20 g/L glucose in shake flask and could sequentially utilize the mixture of glucose and xylose. However, the FFA producing strain failed to survive in sole methanol and supplementing co-substrate xylose promoted methanol metabolism. A synergistic utilization of xylose and methanol was observed in the FFA producing strain. Finally, a mixture of glucose, xylose and methanol was evaluated for FFA production (1.2 g/L). This study showed that O. polymorpha is an ideal host for chemical production from various carbon sources. Graphical Abstract
The current work deals with comparative study of reservoirs potential of best exposed Cretaceous–Paleocene successions in Nizampur Basin, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Outcrop fractures data were collected, integrated and compared with the petrography, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) data of selected samples. These fractures data include orientation, attitude (Dip/Strike), fracture density (F.D), frequency and their distribution. The methodology adopted comprises of fracture data by scanline circle inventory method (CIM) and statistical calculations for porosity and permeability by Monte Carlo equation. The data were collected from three stations with 119 circles inventories. Moreover, the natural fracture reservoir system (NFR) was used to classify the reservoir potential based on calculated the results. The analyzed formations show intermediate to low porosity and permeability and classified as Type-2 or Types-3 established on the data from petrography/SEM/EDX and outcrop fractures data, respectively. The results further displays that, the fractures provide essential permeability only in case of Types-2 while in case of Type-3 the fractures provide a permeability assistance. The limestone interbeded with glauconitic sandstone in the lower most part of the Lumshiwal Formation may act as prolific reservoir intervals sealed by sandy carbonaceous shale within this unit. Overall, the depositional environment and digenetic processes mainly controlled the reservoir potential but in general, the Cretaceous–Paleocene successions may be considered as good reservoirs for holding and transmitting hydrocarbons.
Improved environmental quality and resource efficiency are essential policy plans for emerging economies. The vulnerability to climatic adversities initiates the need to construct and identify how to evaluate and ensure resource efficiency. Although many studies explore multiple deriving factors of resource consumption, very little is known regarding the integration of infrastructure, technical change, and trade-adjusted resource consumption. Hence, this study intends to examine the empirical links between disaggregated infrastructure development, technological efficiency change, and resource consumption using annual data of BRICS countries from 1990 to 2018. In doing so, we employ a cross-sectional augmented auto-regressive distributed Lag (CS-ARDL) estimator for short-term and long-term estimations that allows heterogeneity in the slope parameters and dependencies across countries. The results exhibit that cumulative and disaggregated (transport, energy, financial, and information and communication (ICT)) infrastructure development increase resources consumption across all model specifications; however, the magnitude of different infrastructure indices vary, such as transport and energy (financial and ICT) infrastructure producing the highest (lowest) impact. In contrast, technical efficiency changes and their interactive terms with each infrastructure development index decrease resource consumption, implying that the resource-depleting consequence of infrastructure development can be neutralized with higher technical efficiency, and the highest decoupling exists in energy and ICT infrastructure. Similar results are obtained using the Common Correlated Effect Mean Group (CCEMG) estimator. These results provide substantial policy implications.
The association between natural resources and environmental destruction has major ramifications for the ecosystem, and technological innovations are considered an imperative tool to address these challenges. Therefore, this study examines the dynamic association between natural resources, technological innovation, and environmental sustainability using annual data of newly industrialized countries (NICs) from 1990 to 2019. We applied advanced panel cointegration techniques and confirmed that natural resources and technological innovations have a stable long-term association with ecological sustainability. The long-run results from the Cross-Sectional ARDL estimator indicate that natural resource rent limits environmental sustainability while green technological advancements help reduce ecological deterioration. Similar findings are observed in the short run; however, the coefficients’ magnitudes are higher in the long run. Moreover, the validity of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis is also confirmed in NICs. These results are consistent with robust alternative estimators and emphasize the significance of suitable policies for efficient natural resources management through technology innovations and the accomplishment of sustainable development goals.
Next-generation fuels are produced via electrochemical water splitting technology, and energy conversion processes can be improved by fabricating high-performance oxygen evolution (OER) electrocatalysts. Among all types of electrocatalysts, alternative, cheap, and high-performance OER catalysts are the metal tellurides. Here in the present report, the novel ZrTe has directly grown on carbon cloth (CC) and outperforms OER due to its 3D shell-like structure, high conductivity, and porous nature. Hydrothermal conditions are employed to promote an anion-exchange process that leads to zirconium tellurium nanostructure from synthesized tellurium ions and hydroxide of the zirconium hexagonal nanosheets. The electrochemical measurements are performed using modified electrodes, and are tested in the alkaline environment using cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), and a constant potential chronoamperometry (CA). The ZrTe/CC resulted in a lower overpotential of 294 mV with a smaller Tafel slope of 71 mV dec⁻¹ and high stability of 45 h towards OER because of its unique shape resulting in large electrochemical active zones and more active sites without any binding agent. Additionally, the present study also validates that ZrTe/CC hybrid is more active towards OER via the density functional theory (DFT) and theoretical calculations, as our findings show that it is possible to produce multi-metal telluride-based materials that can be exceptionally efficient and stable electrocatalyst for OER, and also in future applications.
Background and objective Hybrid nanomaterials is a material which combines chemical and physical characteristics of various liquids instantaneously and gives these characteristics in a uniform phase. Nanotechnology are prominent in various fields of engineering, biomedicine, industrial, advanced nanotechnology, pharmaceuticals and biological engineering. In view of such applications the objective of current study is to discuss entropy analysis for hydromagnetic radiative flow of ternary (TiO2+Fe2O3+SiO2/WEG) nanofluid by an exponentially stretching surface. Ternary nanofluid consists of three nanoparticles in conventional liquids. Here titanium dioxide (TiO2) ferric oxide, (Fe2O3) and silicon dioxide (SiO2) are used as nanoparticles. Mixture of water (H2O) and ethylene glycol (C2H6O2) are used as base fluid. Radiation, dissipation and Ohmic heating in thermal expression are accounted. Methodology Nonlinear dimensionless systems are developed invoking useful transformations. Nonlinear systems are numerically solved by local similar method via Newton built in-shooting technique. Results Outcomes of fluid flow, temperature and entropy rate with variation in sundry parameter are emphasized. Computational outcomes of thermal transport rate and drag force for sundry parameters are emphasized. Velocity decreases with variation in magnetic parameter while reverse effect holds for entropy and thermal fields. Conclusions Higher estimation of porosity variable declines the fluid flow, while reverse impact holds for drag force. An improvement in radiation corresponds to rise in entropy rate and temperature. Decay in thermal field is noticed for Prandtl number. Entropy generation boosts up with variation of Brinkman number A similar trend holds for heat transport rate through radiation and Eckert number. Entropy rate against diffusion parameter is augmented. Comparative studies are also presented.
While of lesser prevalence than boron (B) deficient soils, B-rich soils are important to study as they can cause B toxicity in the field and subsequently decrease crop yields in different regions of the world. We have conducted the present study to examine the role of the individual or combined application of silicon (Si) and NPK fertilizer in B-stressed spinach plants (Spinacia oleracea L.). S. oleracea seedlings were subjected to different NPK fertilizers, namely, low NPK (30 kg ha −2) and normal NPK (60 kg ha −2)], which were also supplemented by Si (3 mmol L −1), for varying levels of B in the soil i.e., 0, 250, and 500 mg kg −1. Our results illustrated that the increasing levels of B in the soil caused a substantial decrease in the plant height, number of leaves, number of stems, leaf area, plant fresh weight, plant dry weight, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, carotenoid content, net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, magnesium content in the roots, magnesium contents in the shoots, phosphorus content in the roots, phosphorus content in the leaves in the shoots, iron content in the roots, iron content in the shoots, calcium content in the roots, and calcium content in the shoots. However, B toxicity Frontiers in Plant Science 01 frontiersin.org Ma et al. 10.3389/fpls.2022.983156 in the soil increased the concentration of malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide, and electrolyte leakage which were also manifested by the increasing activities of enzymatic [superoxidase dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX)], and non-enzymatic antioxidants (phenolic, flavonoid, ascorbic acid, and anthocyanin content). B toxicity in the soil further increased the concentration of organic acids in the roots such as oxalic acid, malic acid, formic acid, citric acid, acetic acid, and fumaric acid. The addition of Si and fertilizer levels in the soil significantly alleviated B toxicity effects on S. oleracea by improving photosynthetic capacity and ultimately plant growth. The increased activity of antioxidant enzymes in Si and NPK-treated plants seems to play a role in capturing stress-induced reactive oxygen species, as was evident from the lower levels of oxidative stress indicators, organic acid exudation, and B concentration in the roots and shoots of Si and NPK-treated plants. Research findings, therefore, suggested that the Si and NPK application can ameliorate B toxicity in S. oleracea seedlings and result in improved plant growth and composition under metal stress as depicted by the balanced exudation of organic acids.
Chromium (Cr) is a toxic heavy metal that contaminates soil and water resources after its discharge from different industries. A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of single and/or combined application of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) (250 μM) and sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS) (1 mM) on growth, photosynthetic pigments, gas exchange characteristics, oxidative stress biomarkers, antioxidant machinery (enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants), ion uptake, organic acid exudation, and Cr uptake of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) exposed to severe Cr stress [Cr: 0 (no Cr), 150, and 300 μM]. Our results depicted that Cr addition to the soil significantly (P < 0.05) decreased plant growth and biomass, gas exchange attributes, and mineral uptake by S. oleracea when compared to the plants grown without the addition of Cr. However, Cr toxicity boosted the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by increasing the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), which is the indication of oxidative stress in S. oleracea, and was also manifested by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content and electrolyte leakage to the membrane-bound organelles. The results showed that the activities of various antioxidative enzymes, such as superoxidase dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and the content of non-enzymatic antioxidants, such as phenolic, flavonoid, ascorbic acid, and anthocyanin, initially increased with an increase in the Cr concentration in the soil. The results also revealed that the levels of soluble sugar, reducing sugar, and non-reducing sugar were decreased in plants grown under elevating Cr levels, but the accumulation of the metal in the roots and shoots of S. oleracea, was found to be increased, and the values of bioaccumulation factor were <1 in all the Cr treatments. The negative impacts of Cr injury were reduced by the application of SNP and NaHS (individually or combined), which increased plant growth and biomass, improved photosynthetic apparatus, antioxidant enzymes, and mineral uptake, as well as diminished the exudation of organic acids and oxidative stress indicators in roots of S. oleracea by decreasing Cr toxicity. Here, we conclude that the application of SNP and NaHS under the exposure to Cr stress significantly improved plant growth and biomass, photosynthetic pigments, and gas exchange characteristics; regulated antioxidant defense system and essential nutrient uptake; and balanced organic acid exudation pattern in S. oleracea.
  • Muhammad HassanMuhammad Hassan
  • Amir Jan BalochAmir Jan Baloch
Baloch resistance in Pakistan has been a political struggle and ideological movement which was meant to pressurize the successive governments of Pakistan to ensure the due rights of the inhabitants of the province. The issue of Balochistan is no doubt political in nature which could have been settled via political dialogues and negotiations, however, trust deficit and rigid attitudes from both sides have taken deep roots that never allowed them to be on a single page for larger interest of Balochistan. The paper investigates the fact that the persistence unjust policies and rigid attitudes of the successive federal governments towards Balochistan gave birth to sense of deprivation and sense of alienation among Baloch ethnic group. As a result, Baloch ethnic group has justified and linked their resistance with the matters of their ethnic and ideological survival in the country. The paper further finds that the resistance movement of Baloch is the result of the long-term unjust approaches of the successive federal governments of Pakistan. The paper aims to find out severe implications of the resistance on province-center -nexus on long-run.
Cancer remains the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the world, with 19.3 million new diagnoses and 10.1 million deaths in 2020. Cancer is caused due to mutations in proto-oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes. Genetic analyses found that Ras (Rat sarcoma) is one of the most deregulated oncogenes in human cancers. The Ras oncogene family members including NRas (Neuroblastoma ras viral oncogene homolog), HRas (Harvey rat sarcoma) and KRas are involved in different types of human cancers. The mutant KRas is considered as the most frequent oncogene implicated in the development of lung, pancreatic and colon cancers. However, there is no efficient clinical drug even though it has been identified as an oncogene for 30 years. Therefore there is an emerging need to develop potent, new anticancer drugs. In this study, computer-aided drug designing approaches as well as experimental methods were employed to find new and potential anti-cancer drugs. The pharmacophore model was developed from an already known FDA approved anti-cancer drug Bortezomib using the software MOE. The validated pharmacophore model was then used to screen the in-house and commercially available databases. The pharmacophore-based virtual screening resulted in 26 and 86 hits from in-house and commercial databases respectively. Finally, 6/13 (in-house database) and 24/64 hits (commercial databases) were selected with different scaffolds having good interactions with the significant active residues of KRasG12D protein that were predicted as potent lead compounds. Finally, the results of pharmacophore-based virtual screening were further validated by molecular dynamics simulation analysis. The 6 hits of the in-house database were further evaluated experimentally. The experimental results showed that these compounds have good anti-cancer activity which validate the protocol of our in silico studies. KRasG12D protein is a very important anti-cancer target and potent inhibitors for this target are still not available, so small lead compound inhibitors were identified to inhibit the activity of this protein by blocking the GTP-binding pocket. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma
The Karakoram Mountain Range (KMR) is one of the largest mountain ranges in the world, with 37% of its area glaciated. Glaciers harbor various microbes, including bacteria exposed to various extreme conditions. To thrive under these conditions, bacteria adopt various strategies, one of the most important being the production of pigments. Here, we present the geochemistry of ice, sediment and meltwaters sampled from Ghulmet, Ghulkin and Hopar glaciers of the Karakoram Range, Pakistan. In addition, we report the first information on the diversity of pigmented bacteria evaluated using a culture-dependent method and determined pigment production response of selected bacterial species to different temperatures. Geochemical analyses revealed Ca2þ and SO42– to be the most abundant cation and anion species across all glacial samples. Total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (T.N.) and total phosphorus (T.P.) were found in the sediments of all glaciers studied in current research. Bacterial species were capable of producing a variety of different pigments, including alloxanthin, astaxanthin, bacterioruberin, b-carotene, 19’-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin, peridinin, violacein and zeaxanthin. Culturable bacterial diversity based on two molecular biomarkers, 16S rRNA and rpoB gene, revealed total of 82 bacterial strains representing 25 genera across all glacial samples. This study provides the first characterization of glacier-associated, pigment-producing bacterial communities from the KMR. Findings are important for consideration of alternative sources of conventional pigment production in industrial fields.
Myzus persicae causes considerable losses to crops as a major pest. The damage is direct by feeding and also partly indirect because it vectors plant viruses. The currently available control strategies rely on unsafe and nonecofriendly chemical pesticide applications. Plant-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as a powerful tool in crop protection from insect pests. Aphid salivary proteins are essential for phloem feeding and act as mediators of the complex interactions between aphids and their host plants. We documented the efficacy of dsRNA directed against macrophage inhibitory factor (MIF1) of M. persicae to induce aphid mortality and gene silencing through the generation of transgenic potato lines. A binary construct harbouring dsMIF1 driven by the CaMV35S promoter was introduced into the local potato variety ‘AGB-white’ by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. PCR and Southern blotting validated the transgene presence and genomic integration in seven transgenic potato lines. An in vitro detached leaf assay revealed a significantly high aphid mortality of 65% in the transgenic potato line sDW-2, while the aphid mortality was 77% in the sDW-2 transgenic line during the in planta bioassay in comparison with 19% aphid mortality in the control nontransgenic potato line. A significantly high silencing effect was observed in the mRNA expression of MIF1, which was reduced to 21% in aphids fed on the transgenic potato line sDW-2. However, variable knockdown effects were found among six other transgenic potato lines, ranging from 30 to 62%. The study concluded that plant-mediated silencing of aphid RNA induces significant RNAi in M. persicae, along with enhanced aphid mortality.
In this work, Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of Chitosan samples (natural polymer). For qualitative analysis, plasma parameters are determined, while for quantitative analysis, the initial concentration of chitosan samples is calculated. It developed a plasma plume using a second harmonic (532 nm) laser pulses, which makes the Q-Switched Nd: YAG laser compatible with delay generators and computing electronics. The component elements and their corresponding concentrations are calculated based on the strongest emission lines of the element using the line intensity ratio method and the calibration-free LIBS approach. The results obtained by both methods are compared for the effectiveness of the algorithm. In the chitosan monomer (C6H11NO4)n, four major elements (hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen) were detected and their quantities were calculated. In addition to investigating the physical behavior of plasma in the interaction of laser beams with materials, the plasma parameters (electron number density and plasma temperature) are determined by stark-broadening profile fitting and Boltzmann plot method, respectively. The results obtained show that the LIBS can be exploited for quantitative and standard analysis of industrial grade materials for better results in applications.
We present a novel high-performance liquid chromatographic method (HPLC-UV) for quantifying ciprofloxacin after ex vivo administration. The procedure was developed and validated in accordance with ICH and FDA guidelines, and it was successfully used to determine the concentration of ciprofloxacin. Analytical quality by design (AQbD) was used to develop extraction techniques and optimize HPLC conditions. Ciprofloxacin was efficiently extracted through a single-step protein precipitation and extraction procedure, with a 94.32 ± 0.61% recovery rate. All analytes were separated using isocratic elution and a mobile phase acetonitrile and disodium hydrogen phosphate over a 10-min run period. The validated method was discovered to be selective, precise, and accurate. Finally, using the method developed in this study, the drug's ocular kinetic profiles were determined following ex vivo administration of eye drops and ointment. This validated HPLC-UV approach has potential applications in ocularcokinetics research.
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3,610 members
Jamil Ahmad Malik
  • National Institute of Psychology
Q. A. Naqvi
  • Department of Electronics
Mazhar Hamid
  • Department of Chemistry
Hizb Ullah
  • Department of Animal Science
Naveeda Qureshi
  • Department of Animal Science
Islamabad, Pakistan
Head of institution
Dr Muhammad Ali