Public Health England
  • London, United Kingdom
Recent publications
Background Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are man-made fluorinated chemicals, widely used in various types of consumer products, resulting in their omnipresence in human populations. The aim of this study was to describe current PFAS levels in European teenagers and to investigate the determinants of serum/plasma concentrations in this specific age group. Methods PFAS concentrations were determined in serum or plasma samples from 1957 teenagers (12–18 years) from 9 European countries as part of the HBM4EU aligned studies (2014–2021). Questionnaire data were post-harmonized by each study and quality checked centrally. Only PFAS with an overall quantification frequency of at least 60% (PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS and PFNA) were included in the analyses. Sociodemographic and lifestyle factors were analysed together with food consumption frequencies to identify determinants of PFAS exposure. The variables study, sex and the highest educational level of household were included as fixed factors in the multivariable linear regression models for all PFAS and each dietary variable was added to the fixed model one by one and for each PFAS separately. Results The European exposure values for PFAS were reported as geometric means with 95% confidence intervals (CI): PFOS [2.13 μg/L (1.63–2.78)], PFOA ([0.97 μg/L (0.75–1.26)]), PFNA [0.30 μg/L (0.19–0.45)] and PFHxS [0.41 μg/L (0.33–0.52)]. The estimated geometric mean exposure levels were significantly higher in the North and West versus the South and East of Europe. Boys had significantly higher concentrations of the four PFAS compared to girls and significantly higher PFASs concentrations were found in teenagers from households with a higher education level. Consumption of seafood and fish at least 2 times per week was significantly associated with 21% (95% CI: 12–31%) increase in PFOS concentrations and 20% (95% CI: 10–31%) increase in PFNA concentrations as compared to less frequent consumption of seafood and fish. The same trend was observed for PFOA and PFHxS but not statistically significant. Consumption of eggs at least 2 times per week was associated with 11% (95% CI: 2–22%) and 14% (95% CI: 2–27%) increase in PFOS and PFNA concentrations, respectively, as compared to less frequent consumption of eggs. Significantly higher PFOS concentrations were observed for participants consuming offal (14% (95% CI: 3–26%)), the same trend was observed for the other PFAS but not statistically significant. Local food consumption at least 2 times per week was associated with 40% (95% CI: 19–64%) increase in PFOS levels as compared to those consuming local food less frequently. Conclusion This work provides information about current levels of PFAS in European teenagers and potential dietary sources of exposure to PFAS in European teenagers. These results can be of use for targeted monitoring of PFAS in food.
Background Tuberculosis (TB) in children is difficult to detect and often needs specialists to diagnose; the health system is supposed to refer to higher level of health care when diagnosis is not settled in a sick child. In Pakistan, the primary health care level can usually not diagnose childhood TB and will refer to a paediatricians working at a secondary or tertiary care hospital. We aimed to determine the health services access to child TB services in Pakistan. Objective We aimed to determine the geographical access to child TB services in Pakistan. Method We used geospatial analysis to calculate the distance from the nearest public health facility to settlements, using qGIS, as well as population living within the World Health Organization’s (WHO) recommended 5-km distance. Result At primary health care level, 14.1% of facilities report child TB cases to national tuberculosis program and 74% of the population had geographical access to general primary health care within 5-km radius. To secondary- and tertiary-level health care, 33.5% of the population had geographical access within 5-km radius. The average distance from a facility for diagnosis of childhood TB was 26.3 km from all settlement to the nearest child TB sites. The population of one province (Balochistan) had longer distances to health care services. Conclusion With fairly good coverage of primary health care but lower coverage of specialist care for childhood TB, the health system depends heavily on a good referral system from the communities.
The BNT162b2 vaccine is highly effective against COVID-19 infection and was delivered with a 3-week time interval in registration studies ¹ . However, many countries extended this interval to accelerate population coverage with a single vaccine. It is not known how immune responses are influenced by delaying the second dose. We provide the assessment of immune responses in the first 14 weeks after standard or extended-interval BNT162b2 vaccination and show that delaying the second dose strongly boosts the peak antibody response by 3.5-fold in older people. This enhanced antibody response may offer a longer period of clinical protection and delay the need for booster vaccination. In contrast, peak cellular-specific responses were the strongest in those vaccinated on a standard 3-week vaccine interval. As such, the timing of the second dose has a marked influence on the kinetics and magnitude of the adaptive immune response after mRNA vaccination in older people.
Respiratory diseases remain a significant cause of global morbidity and mortality and primary care plays a central role in their prevention, diagnosis and management. An e-Delphi process was employed to identify and prioritise the current respiratory research needs of primary care health professionals worldwide. One hundred and twelve community-based physicians, nurses and other healthcare professionals from 27 high-, middle- and low-income countries suggested 608 initial research questions, reduced after evidence review by 27 academic experts to 176 questions covering diagnosis, management, monitoring, self-management and prognosis of asthma, COPD and other respiratory conditions (including infections, lung cancer, tobacco control, sleep apnoea). Forty-nine questions reached 80% consensus for importance. Cross-cutting themes identified were: a need for more effective training of primary care clinicians; evidence and guidelines specifically relevant to primary care, adaption for local and low-resource settings; empowerment of patients to improve self-management; and the role of the multidisciplinary healthcare team.
Background Within the current context of continued austerity and post-pandemic recovery, it remains important that Local Government services address the increasing needs of residents as cost-effectively as possible. Alliancing, whereby services work collaboratively focusing on the ‘whole-system’, has gained popularity as a tool with the potential to support collaborative whole systems approaches. This synthesis aims to identify how alliancing can be successfully operationalised in the commissioning of public health, wider National Health Service (NHS) and social care-related services. Methods A realist literature synthesis was undertaken in order to identify underlying generative mechanisms associated with alliancing, the contextual conditions surrounding the implementation and operationalisation of the alliancing approach mechanisms, and the outcomes produced as a result. An iterative approach was taken, using a recent systematic review of the effectiveness of Alliancing, online database searches, and grey literature searches. Results Three mechanistic components were identified within the data as being core to the successful implementation of alliances in public health and social care-related services within Local Government: (i) Achieving a system-level approach; (ii) placing local populations at the heart of the system; and (iii) creating a cultural shift. Programme theories were postulated within these components. Conclusions The alliancing approach offers an opportunity to achieve system-level change with the potential to benefit local populations. The realist synthesis approach taken within this study has provided insights into the necessary contextual and mechanistic factors of the Alliancing approach, above and beyond effectiveness outcomes typically collected through more conventional evaluation methodologies.
Introduction Diabetic retinopathy screening (DRS) attendance in young adults (YAs) is consistently below recommended levels. The aim of this study was to identify barriers and enablers of DRS attendance among YAs in the UK living with type 1 (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Research design and methods YAs (18–34 years) were invited to complete an anonymous online survey in June 2021 assessing agreement with 30 belief statements informed by the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) of behavior change describing potential barriers/enablers to DRS. Results In total, 102 responses were received. Most had T1D (65.7%) and were regular attenders for DRS (76.5%). The most salient TDF domains for DRS attendance were ‘ Goals ’, with 93% agreeing that DRS was a high priority, and ‘ Knowledge ’, with 98% being aware that screening can detect eye problems early. Overall, 67.4% indicated that they would like greater appointment flexibility (Environmental context/resources ) and 31.3% reported difficulties getting time off work/study to attend appointments (Environmental context/resources ). This was more commonly reported by occasional non-attenders versus regular attenders (59.1% vs 23.4%, p=0.002). Most YAs were worried about diabetic retinopathy (74.3%), anxious when receiving screening results (63%) ( Emotion ) and would like more support after getting their results (66%) ( Social influences ). Responses for T1D and T2D were broadly similar, although those with T2D were more likely have developed strategies to help them to remember their appointments (63.6% vs 37.9%, p=0.019) ( Behavioral regulation ). Conclusions Attendance for DRS in YAs is influenced by complex interacting behavioral factors. Identifying modifiable determinants of behavior will provide a basis for designing tailored interventions to improve DRS in YAs and prevent avoidable vision loss.
Objectives This prospective cohort study tested for associations between baseline cognitive performance in individuals early within their first episode and antipsychotic treatment of psychosis. We hypothesised that poorer cognitive functioning at the initial assessment would be associated with poorer antipsychotic response following the subsequent 6 weeks. Design Prospective cohort . Setting National Health Service users with a first-episode schizophrenia diagnosis, recently starting antipsychotic medication, recruited from two UK sites (King’s College London, UK and University of Manchester, UK). Participants attended three study visits following screening. Participants Eighty-nine participants were recruited, with 46 included in the main analysis. Participants required to be within the first 2 years of illness onset, had received minimal antipsychotic treatment, have the capacity to provide consent, and be able to read and write in English. Participants were excluded if they met remission criteria or showed mild to no symptoms. Primary and secondary outcome measures Antipsychotic response was determined at 6 weeks using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), with cognitive performance assessed at each visit using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS). The groups identified (responders and non-responders) from trajectory analyses, as well as from >20% PANSS criteria, were compared on baseline BACS performance. Results Trajectory analyses identified 84.78% of the sample as treatment responsive, and the remaining 15.22% as treatment non-responsive. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regressions observed no significant relationship between baseline BACS on subscale and total performance (BACS t-score: OR=0.98, p=0.620, Cohen’s d=0.218) and antipsychotic response at 6 weeks. Conclusions This investigation identified two clear trajectories of treatment response in the first 6 weeks of antipsychotic treatment. Responder and non-responder groups did not significantly differ on performance on the BACS, suggesting that larger samples may be required or that an association between cognitive performance and antipsychotic response is not observable in the first 2 years of illness onset. Trial registration number REC: 17/NI/0209.
Objective: Investigate medical morbidity and risk of general hospital admission for patients with concurrent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and anorexia nervosa (AN) who have not received severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccination. Methods: United Kingdom eating disorders clinicians contributed to a database of patients with an eating disorder and COVID-19. We used this to investigate demography, symptoms, hospitalization, treatment, and outcomes for those with AN. Results: We describe data for 49 patients (median age 21.5 years [interquartile range 17.0-33.5], 46 female) including 36 adults and 13 under-18-year-olds. Three (6.1% [95% confidence interval 1.3%-17.9]) were admitted to a general hospital. For this sample, the expected age-standardized hospital admission rate per COVID-19 case (based on the general population of England) was 2.6% and therefore not significantly different to the hospitalization rate we observed. Three (including two of those admitted to hospital) contracted pneumonia. One had severe pneumonia and was admitted to an intensive care unit. No deaths or use of mechanical ventilation were recorded. Discussion: To our knowledge, this represents the first study investigating medical morbidity or frequency of hospitalization for patients with COVID-19 and AN. We did not find evidence that patients with AN are at increased risk of severe COVID-19. Public significance: Medical morbidity and risk of hospitalization associated with concurrent COVID-19 and anorexia nervosa (AN) had not, to our knowledge, been studied before. We used a database of patients with eating disorders and COVID-19 (to which United Kingdom clinicians had contributed) to investigate presentation, treatment, outcomes, and COVID-19 severity for those with AN and COVID-19. We did not find evidence that patients with AN are at increased risk of severe COVID-19.
The reproduction number R$$ R $$ has been a central metric of the COVID‐19 pandemic response, published weekly by the UK government and regularly reported in the media. Here, we provide a formal definition and discuss the advantages and most common misconceptions around this quantity. We consider the intuition behind different formulations of R$$ R $$, the complexities in its estimation (including the unavoidable lags involved), and its value compared to other indicators (e.g. the growth rate) that can be directly observed from aggregate surveillance data and react more promptly to changes in epidemic trend. As models become more sophisticated, with age and/or spatial structure, formulating R$$ R $$ becomes increasingly complicated and inevitably model‐dependent. We present some models currently used in the UK pandemic response as examples. Ultimately, limitations in the available data streams, data quality and time constraints force pragmatic choices to be made on a quantity that is an average across time, space, social structure and settings. Effectively communicating these challenges is important but often difficult in an emergency.
Background Mobile messaging is an increasingly important health-care communication tool. Screening programmes pose unique challenges because of the large, diverse populations invited, who might have not interacted with services previously. This study aimed to provide guidance on how screening programmes in England can effectively implement mobile messaging services. Methods Experts based in England, from public health, policy, screening provision, communications, and academia were recruited to this Delphi study. Recommendations were derived from an evidence synthesis involving a literature review, expert scoping questionnaire, public consultation, and discussion with relevant national organisations. Experts voted upon the importance and feasibility of recommendations across two consensus rounds, using a five-point Likert scale. Items reaching consensus, defined a priori at 70%, on importance and feasibility formed core recommendations. Those reaching this threshold on importance only, were labelled desirable. All items were discussed at an expert meeting to determine suitability. Ethical approval was obtained (20IC6088), and participants provided informed consent. Findings 33 experts representing all 11 screening programmes were enrolled, with 100% retention across rounds. Of the initial 101 items, 23 (23%) reached consensus. These core recommendations were divided across six domains: message content, timing, delivery, evaluation, security, and research. They included the use of general practitioner endorsement and limiting message length to 320 characters. A further 17 items were considered desirable; for example, introducing greater functionality such as bidirectional and tailored messaging. Interpretation Findings will facilitate the effective use of mobile messaging across screening and will form national guidance for services. This guidance will enable programmes to overcome implementation challenges and facilitate uptake of screening invitations. As representation of experts was skewed toward cancer versus non-cancer screening programmes, the generalisability of these findings must be carefully considered. However, the list of desirable items provides areas for future consideration for all programmes, as technological innovation in messaging grows. Funding National Institute for Health and Care Research Imperial Patient Safety Translational Research Centre.
There are known risk factors that are associated with the onset and exacerbation of musculoskeletal (MSK) conditions and pain. Physiotherapists are uniquely placed to deliver brief interventions with their patients. Healthy Conversation Skills is the main training component of the Wessex approach to Making Every Contact Count. Despite its potential for promoting MSK health and wellbeing, there is no evidence to support its acceptability within MSK services. This is the first known study to explore the use and perceptions of the Wessex model of MECC HCS within MSK services. A mixed method design was used. Phase one employed an online questionnaire, open to all professionals trained in MECC HCS, consisting of items relating to implementation outcomes. Barriers and facilitators to delivery were explored and mapped to the Theoretical Domains Framework. Phase two invited physiotherapists for a follow-up interview and qualitatively explored their acceptability of delivering MECC HCS to patients with MSK conditions. MECC HCS was found to be highly acceptable, appropriate, and feasible. Physiotherapists reported using their skills at least daily but missed opportunities for delivering MECC HCS were evident. Barriers mapped mostly to ‘Environmental Context and Resources’ on the Theoretical Domains Framework. Qualitative themes developed during phase two were: ‘Recognising the patient as the expert supports change', ‘MECC HCS improves physiotherapy practice', ‘MECC HCS shared problem solving reduces workload', ‘time as a perceived barrier to MECC HCS’ and ‘system-level support needed to sustain MECC HCS'. MECC HCS is a promising brief intervention for supporting people with MSK conditions. Further rollout of this intervention may be beneficial for meeting the goals of the NHS and Public Health England in prevention of MSK conditions and promotion of MSK health. Barriers associated with sustainability must, however, be addressed. Key messages • Making Every Contact Count Healthy Conversation Skills is considered a highly acceptable brief intervention for supporting behaviour change in people with musculoskeletal conditions. • Organisational, system-level barriers to implementation must be addressed in order to increase sustainability and enhance future roll out of the brief intervention.
The COVID-19 pandemic has had high mortality rates in the elderly and frail worldwide, particularly in care homes. This is driven by the difficulty of isolating care homes from the wider community, the large population sizes within care facilities (relative to typical households), and the age/frailty of the residents. To quantify the mortality risk posed by disease, the case fatality risk (CFR) is an important tool. This quantifies the proportion of cases that result in death. Throughout the pandemic, CFR amongst care home residents in England has been monitored closely. To estimate CFR, we apply both novel and existing methods to data on deaths in care homes, collected by Public Health England and the Care Quality Commission. We compare these different methods, evaluating their relative strengths and weaknesses. Using these methods, we estimate temporal trends in the instantaneous CFR (at both daily and weekly resolutions) and the overall CFR across the whole of England, and dis-aggregated at regional level. We also investigate how the CFR varies based on age and on the type of care required, dis-aggregating by whether care homes include nursing staff and by age of residents. This work has contributed to the summary of measures used for monitoring the UK epidemic.
This cohort study investigates the risk of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection among young children with and without spike-specific T-cell responses.
Objective To identify factors related to women’s delay in presenting with breast cancer symptoms to improve diagnosis in the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt). Design Cross-sectional. Setting Two government cancer hospitals. Participants A consecutive sample of 130 Palestinian women living in Gaza with newly diagnosed breast cancer were approached in the waiting rooms of cancer hospitals in Gaza between 1 January 2017 and 31 December 2017. 120 women took part and returned the completed questionnaire. Primary and secondary outcome measures Clinical information about breast cancer was collected from hospital cancer records. An interval of 3 months or more between women’s self-discovery of symptoms and their first presentation to a medical provider was considered as a delay. Results 94% (122/130) of women attending cancer hospitals in Gaza agreed to take part in the study. Their mean age was 51 years (range: 23–72), 33.6% (31/122) had a family history of breast cancer and 74.5% (41/55) of those whose cancer stage was known had been diagnosed at stage III or IV. Around one-half (62/122) said they had not recognised the seriousness of their breast changes but only 20% (24/122) of women delayed seeking healthcare by 3 months and more. The two only factors associated to late presentation were that the woman considered their symptoms not serious (p<0.001) and lack of pain (p=0.012). Lower socioeconomic status, older age, lower education and negative family history of breast cancer were not statistically associated with women’s delay. Conclusions Women’s awareness about the seriousness of breast changes and the critical importance of seeking prompt diagnosis needs to be improved using context-relevant and evidence-based awareness campaigns. This should be accompanied with training of female nurses on promoting early detection and improvement in diagnostic facilities to ensure timely diagnosis of cancer in the oPt.
Background: Existing evidence suggests that while the COVID-19 pandemic triggered quit attempts among many smokers, it led some to smoke more and others to relapse back to smoking. These diverse effects have the potential to have a long-term impact on individuals' smoking and vaping behaviours. This study explored the effect of COVID-19 on smokers and vapers, vape shops and stop smoking services. Methods: 39 semi-structured interviews were conducted with stop smoking practitioners, tobacco control leads, smokers and/or vapers, and vape shop owners. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Results: Four themes were identified: Lockdown as a barrier to becoming/remaining smoke free; COVID as a catalyst for quitting and remaining smoke free; changes in vaping and challenges for vapers and vape shops; and changes and challenges for stop smoking support. Fear of COVID resulting in severe health implications for smokers facilitated behaviour change; however the boredom and monotony of lockdown and associated stress created difficulties in remaining a smoke-free. Results showed that the enforced switch from face-to-face to remote provision of stop smoking services was beneficial for improving engagement, particularly for vulnerable groups such as pregnant women. Stop smoking professionals and vapers disagreed with the forced closure of vape shops because it created unnecessary difficulties for vapers to access supplies. Conclusions: COVID-19 was both a barrier and facilitator for smoking cessation. Remote provision of stop smoking services implemented due to lockdown was beneficial for hard-to-reach groups; services should look to incorporate these changes into day-to-day practice. Implications: This study is one of the first to explore how the COVID-19 pandemic directly affected smokers, vapers, stop smoking services, tobacco control leads and vape shops. It provides evidence for the continued use of remote provision of smoking cessation services to increase engagement among hard-to-reach groups and provides information on how pandemics can be a catalyst for health behaviour change. This study is unique in that it incorporates the views of different stakeholders.
Background Accelerated partner therapy has shown promise in improving contact tracing. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of accelerated partner therapy in addition to usual contact tracing compared with usual practice alone in heterosexual people with chlamydia, using a biological primary outcome measure. Methods We did a crossover cluster-randomised controlled trial in 17 sexual health clinics (clusters) across England and Scotland. Participants were heterosexual people aged 16 years or older with a positive Chlamydia trachomatis test result, or a clinical diagnosis of conditions for which presumptive chlamydia treatment and contact tracing are initially provided, and their sexual partners. We allocated phase order for clinics through random permutation within strata. In the control phase, participants received usual care (health-care professional advised the index patient to tell their sexual partner[s] to attend clinic for sexually transmitted infection screening and treatment). In the intervention phase, participants received usual care plus an offer of accelerated partner therapy (health-care professional assessed sexual partner[s] by telephone, then sent or gave the index patient antibiotics and sexually transmitted infection self-sampling kits for their sexual partner[s]). Each phase lasted 6 months, with a 2-week washout at crossover. The primary outcome was the proportion of index patients with a positive C trachomatis test result at 12–24 weeks after contact tracing consultation. Secondary outcomes included proportions and types of sexual partners treated. Analysis was done by intention-to-treat, fitting random effects logistic regression models. This trial is registered with the ISRCTN registry, 15996256. Findings Between Oct 24, 2018, and Nov 17, 2019, 1536 patients were enrolled in the intervention phase and 1724 were enrolled in the control phase. All clinics completed both phases. In total, 4807 sexual partners were reported, of whom 1636 (34%) were steady established partners. Overall, 293 (19%) of 1536 index patients chose accelerated partner therapy for a total of 305 partners, of whom 248 (81%) accepted. 666 (43%) of 1536 index patients in the intervention phase and 800 (46%) of 1724 in the control phase were tested for C trachomatis at 12–24 weeks after contact tracing consultation; 31 (4·7%) in the intervention phase and 53 (6·6%) in the control phase had a positive C trachomatis test result (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0·66 [95% CI 0·41 to 1·04]; p=0·071; marginal absolute difference –2·2% [95% CI –4·7 to 0·3]). Among index patients with treatment status recorded, 775 (88·0%) of 881 patients in the intervention phase and 760 (84·6%) of 898 in the control phase had at least one treated sexual partner at 2–4 weeks after contact tracing consultation (adjusted OR 1·27 [95% CI 0·96 to 1·68]; p=0·10; marginal absolute difference 2·7% [95% CI –0·5 to 6·0]). No clinically significant harms were reported. Interpretation Although the evidence that the intervention reduces repeat infection was not conclusive, the trial results suggest that accelerated partner therapy can be safely offered as a contact tracing option and is also likely to be cost saving. Future research should find ways to increase uptake of accelerated partner therapy and develop alternative interventions for one-off sexual partners. Funding National Institute for Health Research.
Aims: Hip fracture commonly affects the frailest patients, of whom many are care-dependent, with a disproportionate risk of contracting COVID-19. We examined the impact of COVID-19 infection on hip fracture mortality in England. Methods: We conducted a cohort study of patients with hip fracture recorded in the National Hip Fracture Database between 1 February 2019 and 31 October 2020 in England. Data were linked to Hospital Episode Statistics to quantify patient characteristics and comorbidities, Office for National Statistics mortality data, and Public Health England's SARS-CoV-2 testing results. Multivariable Cox regression examined determinants of 90-day mortality. Excess mortality attributable to COVID-19 was quantified using Quasi-Poisson models. Results: Analysis of 102,900 hip fractures (42,630 occurring during the pandemic) revealed that among those with COVID-19 infection at presentation (n = 1,120) there was a doubling of 90-day mortality; hazard ratio (HR) 2.09 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.89 to 2.31), while the HR for infections arising between eight and 30 days after presentation (n = 1,644) the figure was greater at 2.51 (95% CI 2.31 to 2.73). Malnutrition (1.45 (95% CI 1.19 to 1.77)) and nonoperative treatment (2.94 (95% CI 2.18 to 3.95)) were the only modifiable risk factors for death in COVID-19-positive patients. Patients who had tested positive for COVID-19 more than two weeks prior to hip fracture initially had better survival compared to those who contracted COVID-19 around the time of their hip fracture; however, survival rapidly declined and by 365 days the combination of hip fracture and COVID-19 infection was associated with a 50% mortality rate. Between 1 January and 30 June 2020, 1,273 (99.7% CI 1,077 to 1,465) excess deaths occurred within 90 days of hip fracture, representing an excess mortality of 23% (99.7% CI 20% to 26%), with most deaths occurring within 30 days. Conclusion: COVID-19 infection more than doubles the rate of early hip fracture mortality. Those contracting infection between 8 and 30 days after initial presentation are at even higher mortality risk, signalling the potential for targeted interventions during this period to improve survival.Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2022;104-B(10):1156-1167.
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803 members
Gordon Langston Nichols
  • Gastrointestinal, Emerging and Zoonotic Infections (GEZI) department
Jon Green
  • Microbiology Services, Colindale
Barry Atkinson
  • Biosafety Unit
Xu-sheng Zhang
  • Modelling and Economics Unit
Christophe Badie
  • Cancer Mechanisms and Biomarkers-Radiation Effects department-Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards (CRCE)
London, United Kingdom