Protocol Labs
  • Wilmington, United States
Recent publications
The InterPlanetary File System (IPFS) is a novel decentralised storage architecture, which provides decentralised cloud storage by building on founding principles of P2P networking and content addressing. IPFS is used by more than 230 k peers per week and serves tens of millions of requests per day, which makes it an interesting large-scale operational network to study. While it is used as a building block in several projects and studies, its inner workings, properties, and implications have only been marginally explored in research. Thus, we provide an overview of the IPFS design and its core features, along with the opportunities that it opens, as well as the challenges that it faces because of its properties. Overall, IPFS presents an interesting set of characteristics and offers lessons which can help building decentralised systems of the future.
Commitments to key-value maps (or, authenticated dictionaries) are an important building block in cryptographic applications, including cryptocurrencies and distributed file systems.In this work we study short commitments to key-value maps with two additional properties: double-hiding (both keys and values should be hidden) and homomorphism (we should be able to combine two commitments to obtain one that is the “sum” of their key-value openings). Furthermore, we require these commitments to be short and to support efficient transparent zero-knowledge arguments (i.e., without a trusted setup).As our main contribution, we show how to construct commitments with the properties above as well as efficient zero-knowledge arguments over them. We additionally discuss a range of practical optimizations that can be carried out depending on the application domain. Finally, we formally describe a specific application of commitments to key-value maps to scalable anonymous ledgers. We show how to extend QuisQuis (Fauzi et al. ASIACRYPT 2019). This results in an efficient, confidential multi-type system with a state whose size is independent of the number of transactions.KeywordsZero-knowledgeKey-Value mapCommitments
Oblivious Polynomial Evaluation (OPE) schemes are interactive protocols between a sender with a private polynomial and a receiver with a private evaluation point where the receiver learns the evaluation of the polynomial in their point and no additional information. In this work, we introduce MyOPE, a “short-sighted” non-interactive polynomial evaluation scheme with a poly-logarithmic communication complexity in the presence of malicious senders. In addition to strong privacy guarantees, MyOPE enforces honest sender behavior and consistency by adding verifiability to the calculations.The main building block for this new verifiable OPE is an inner product argument (IPA) over rings that guarantees an inner product relation holds between committed vectors. Our IPA works for vectors with elements from generic rings of polynomials and has constant-size proofs that consist in one commitment only while the verification, once the validity of the vector-commitments has been checked, consists is one quadratic equation only.We further demonstrate the applications of our IPA for verifiable OPE using Fully Homomorphic Encryption (FHE) over rings of polynomials: we prove the correctness of an inner product between the vector of powers of the evaluation point and the vector of polynomial coefficients, along with other inner-products necessary in this application’s proof.MyOPE builds on generic secure encoding techniques for succinct commitments, that allow real-world FHE parameters and Residue Number System (RNS) optimizations, suitable for high-degree polynomials.
Recent years have witnessed growing consolidation of web operations. For example, the majority of web traffic now originates from a few organizations, and even micro-websites often choose to host on large pre-existing cloud infrastructures. In response to this, the "Decentralized Web" attempts to distribute ownership and operation of web services more evenly. This paper describes the design and implementation of the largest and most widely used Decentralized Web platform - the InterPlanetary File System (IPFS) - an open-source, content-addressable peer-to-peer network that provides distributed data storage and delivery. IPFS has millions of daily content retrievals and already underpins dozens of third-party applications. This paper evaluates the performance of IPFS by introducing a set of measurement methodologies that allow us to uncover the characteristics of peers in the IPFS network. We reveal presence in more than 2700 Autonomous Systems and 152 countries, the majority of which operate outside large central cloud providers like Amazon or Azure. We further evaluate IPFS performance, showing that both publication and retrieval delays are acceptable for a wide range of use cases. Finally, we share our datasets, experiences and lessons learned.
Anonymous attestation for secure hardware platforms leverages tailored group signature schemes and assumes the hardware to be trusted. Yet, there is an increasing concern on the trustworthiness of hardware components and embedded systems. A subverted hardware may, for example, use its signatures to exfiltrate identifying information or even the signing key. We focus on Enhanced Privacy ID (EPID)—a popular anonymous attestation scheme used in commodity secure hardware platforms like Intel SGX. We define and instantiate a subversion resilient EPID scheme (or SR-EPID). In a nutshell, SR-EPID provides the same functionality and security guarantees of the original EPID, despite potentially subverted hardware. In our design, a “sanitizer” ensures no covert channel between the hardware and the outside world both during enrollment and during attestation (i.e., when signatures are produced). We design a practical SR-EPID scheme secure against adaptive corruptions and based on a novel combination of malleable NIZKs and hash functions modeled as random oracles. Our approach has a number of advantages over alternative designs. Namely, the sanitizer bears no secret information—hence, a memory leak does not erode security. Also, we keep the signing protocol non-interactive, thereby minimizing latency during signature generation.
With the rapid increase in the size and volume of cloud services and data centers, architectures with multiple job dispatchers are quickly becoming the norm. Load balancing is a key element of such systems. Nevertheless, current solutions to load balancing in such systems admit a paradoxical behavior in which more accurate information regarding server queue lengths degrades performance due to herding and detrimental incast effects. Indeed, both in theory and in practice, there is a common doubt regarding the value of information in the context of multi-dispatcher load balancing. As a result, both researchers and system designers resort to more straightforward solutions, such as the power-of-two-choices to avoid worst-case scenarios, potentially sacrificing overall resource utilization and system performance. A principal focus of our investigation concerns the value of information about queue lengths in the multi-dispatcher setting. We argue that, at its core, load balancing with multiple dispatchers is a distributed computing task. In that light, we propose a new job dispatching approach, called Tidal Water Filling, which addresses the distributed nature of the system. Specifically, by incorporating the existence of other dispatchers into the decision-making process, our protocols outperform previous solutions in many scenarios. In particular, when the dispatchers have complete and accurate information regarding the server queues, our policies significantly outperform all existing solutions.
Vector commitments with subvector openings (SVC) [Lai-Malavolta, Boneh-Bunz-Fisch; CRYPTO’19] allow one to open a committed vector at a set of positions with an opening of size independent of both the vector’s length and the number of opened positions. We continue the study of SVC with two goals in mind: improving their efficiency and making them more suitable to decentralized settings. We address both problems by proposing a new notion for VC that we call incremental aggregation and that allows one to merge openings in a succinct way an unbounded number of times. We show two applications of this property. The first one is immediate and is a method to generate openings in a distributed way. The second application is an algorithm for faster generation of openings via preprocessing. We then proceed to realize SVC with incremental aggregation. We provide two constructions in groups of unknown order that, similarly to that of Boneh et al. (which supports aggregating only once), have constant-size public parameters, commitments and openings. As an additional feature, for the first construction we propose efficient arguments of knowledge of subvector openings which immediately yields a keyless proof of storage with compact proofs. Finally, we address a problem closely related to that of SVC: storing a file efficiently in completely decentralized networks. We introduce and construct verifiable decentralized storage (VDS), a cryptographic primitive that allows to check the integrity of a file stored by a network of nodes in a distributed and decentralized way. Our VDS constructions rely on our new vector commitment techniques.
Institution pages aggregate content on ResearchGate related to an institution. The members listed on this page have self-identified as being affiliated with this institution. Publications listed on this page were identified by our algorithms as relating to this institution. This page was not created or approved by the institution. If you represent an institution and have questions about these pages or wish to report inaccurate content, you can contact us here.
Wilmington, United States
Head of institution
Juan Benet