Princess Margaret Hospital, Hong Kong
Recent publications
Purpose Trauma remains a major cause of morbidity and disability worldwide; however, reliable data on the health status of an urban Asian population after injury are scarce. The aim was to evaluate 1-year post-trauma return to work (RTW) status in Hong Kong. Methods This was a prospective, multi-center cohort study involving four regional trauma centers from 2017 to 2019 in Hong Kong. Participants included adult patients entered into the trauma registry who were working or seeking employment at the time of injury. The primary outcome was the RTW status up to 1 year. The Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale, 12-item Short Form (SF-12) survey and EQ5D were also obtained during 1-, 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-ups. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used for analysis. Results Six hundred and seven of the 1115 (54%) recruited patients had RTW during the first year after injury. Lower physical requirements (p = 0.003, HR 1.51) in pre-injury job nature, higher educational levels (p < 0.001, HR 1.95), non-work-related injuries (p < 0.001, HR 1.85), shorter hospital length of stay (p = 0.007, HR 0.98), no requirement for surgery (p = 0.006, HR 1.34), and patients who could be discharged home (p = 0.006, HR 1.43) were associated with RTW within 12 months post-injury. In addition, 1-month outcomes including extended Glasgow Outcome Scale ≥ 6 (p = 0.001, HR 7.34), higher mean SF-12 physical component summary (p = 0.002, HR 1.02) and mental component summary (p < 0.001, HR 1.03), and higher EQ5D health index (p = 0.018, HR 2.14) were strongly associated with RTW. Conclusions We have identified factors associated with failure to RTW during the first year following in Hong Kong including socioeconomic factors, injury factors and treatment-related factors and 1-month outcomes. Future studies should focus on the interventions that can impact on RTW outcomes. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT03219424.
We evaluated the feasibility of existing risk assessment tools for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in children. Fifty-five patients with newly diagnosed CML between 1996 and 2019 were included. Forty-nine patients presented in chronic phase, thirty-six of whom were treated with upfront tyrosine kinase inhibitor (CP-TKI group); one presented in accelerated phase and four in blastic phase. Treatment, survival, responses, and tolerance were evaluated. All patients in the CP-TKI group received imatinib as their first TKI treatment. The 10-year overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and event-free survival (EFS) of TKI-treated group was 97%, 91.4%, and 72.3%, respectively. At 60 months, the rates of major molecular response were 81.2% and deep molecular response was 67.5%. The EUTOS long-term survival (ELTS) risk grouping did not predict OS, PFS, or EFS. The IMAFAIL risk groups were correlated with the risk of imatinib failure. Further studies are required to modify the existing risk assessment tools for children.
Aim This study aims to identify independent factors associated with cervical spinal injuries in head-injured patients. The extent of injuries to other body parts was assessed by the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and was included in the analysis. Methods Consecutive head-injured patients admitted via the Emergency Department from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. The inclusion criteria were head-injured patients with an Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score ≥2 (i.e. head injuries with intracranial hematoma or skull fracture). Minor head injuries with only scalp abrasions or superficial lacerations without significant intracranial injuries (i.e. head injury AIS score = 1) were excluded. The primary outcome is to identify independent predictors associated with cervical spinal injuries in these head-injured patients. Univariate and multivariable analyses were conducted. Results 1105 patients were identified. 11.2% (124/1105) had cervical spinal injuries. Univariate and multivariable analyses identified male gender (p=0.006), the presence of thoracic injury (including rib fracture, hemothorax, or pneumothorax) (p=0.010), and hypotension with systolic blood pressure <90mmHg upon admission (p=0.009), as independent predictors for cervical spinal injury in head-injured patients. Conclusions This study showed that about one in ten patients with significant head injury had cervical spine injury, usually associated with fracture or dislocation. Male gender, the presence of thoracic injury, and hypotension upon admission were independent risk factors associated with cervical spinal injuries.
Early symptoms of primary (AL) amyloidosis are non‐specific. Any delay in diagnosis and treatment results in poor outcome despite increasing treatment options. We aimed to determine baseline risk factors that identify patients with poor kidney outcomes and overall survivals. We recruited all patients aged 18 years or above with biopsy‐proven renal amyloidosis between years 2000 and 2019 in three Hong Kong regional hospitals. Patients’ clinical and pathological parameters, treatment response, kidney outcomes and overall survivals were recorded and analyzed. Thirty‐six cases of renal amyloidosis were recruited. Four cases were diagnosed to have multiple myeloma. Edema was the most common presenting symptom. The mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 98.8 ml/min/1.73m2 at presentation. Autologous stem cell transplant conferred the best renal outcomes as well as patients’ survival. Twenty‐two patients had 50% decrease in eGFR, twelve patients developed end‐stage kidney disease (ESKD) and 22 patients died. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, proteinuria and low eGFR were identified as independent baseline risk factors for ESKD. Proteinuria, hyperlipidemia, and cardiac involvement were independent baseline risk factors for death. Amyloidosis, a rare disease with poor prognosis without treatment. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, heavy proteinuria and low eGFR at diagnosis were associated with poor kidney outcome.
Drug resistance derived from extracellular vesicles (EVs) is an increasingly important research area but has seldom been described regarding fungal pathogens. Here, we characterised EVs derived from a triazole-resistant but amphotericin B-susceptible strain of Candida auris. Nano- to microgram concentrations of C. auris EVs prepared from both broth and solid agar cultures could robustly increase the yeast's survival against both pure and clinical amphotericin B formulations in a dose dependent manner, resulting in up to 16-fold changes of minimum inhibitory concentration. Meanwhile, this effect was not observed upon addition of these EVs to C. albicans, nor upon addition of C. albicans EVs to C. auris. No change in susceptibilities was observed upon EV treatment for fluconazole, voriconazole, micafungin, and flucytosine. Mass spectrometry indicated the presence of immunogenic-/drug resistance-implicated proteins in C. auris EVs, including alcohol dehydrogenase 1 as well as C. albicans Mp65-like and Xog1-like proteins in high quantities. Based on these observations, we propose a potential species-specific role for EVs in amphotericin B resistance in C. auris. These observations may provide critical insights into treatment of multidrug-resistant C. auris.
Background A key component of trauma system evaluation is the Injury Severity Score (ISS). The ISS is dependent on the AIS, and as AIS versions are updated this effects the number of patients within a health system which are considered severely injured (ISS >15). This study aims to analyse the changes comparing AIS1998 and AIS2015, and its impact on injury severity scoring and survival prediction model in a major trauma centre. Methods This retrospective study reviewed all blunt trauma admissions from 1 January 2020 to 31 December 2020 from the trauma registry of Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong. Patients were manually double coded with AIS1998 and AIS2015 by the same experienced trauma nurse who have completed both AIS 1998 and AIS 2015 Courses. AIS patterns and Injury Severity Scores (ISS) derived from AIS 1998 and 2015 were compared using the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. The area under the receiving operator curve (AUROC) was compared based on the Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) model using AIS 1998 and AIS 2015. Results 739 patients were included. There were 34 deaths within 30 days (30-day mortality rate 4.6%). Patients coded with AIS2015 compared with AIS1998 had significant reductions in the classification of serious, severe and critical categories of AIS, with a substantial increase in the mild and moderate categories. The largest reduction was observed in the head and neck region (Z = −11.018, p < 0.001), followed by the chest (Z = −6.110, p < 0.001), abdomen (Z = −4.221, p < 0.001) and extremity regions (Z = -4.252, p < 0.001). There was a 27% reduction in number of cases with ISS >15 in AIS2015 compared with AIS1998. Rates of 30-day mortality, ICU admission, emergency operation and trauma team activation of ISS > 15 using AIS 1998 were similar to the cut off for New Injury Severity Score (NISS) >12 using AIS 2015. The AUROC from the TRISS (AIS2015) was 0.942, and not different from the AUROC for TRISS (AIS1998) of 0.936. The sensitivity and specificity were 93.9% and 82.1% for TRISS (AIS2015), and 93.9% and 76.0% for TRISS (AIS1998). Conclusion Trauma centres should be aware of the impact of the AIS2015 update on the benchmarking of trauma care, and consider the need for updating the ISS cut off for major trauma definitions.
Background Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rare acquired immune-mediated polyneuropathy. Updated population-based data concerning paediatric GBS is needed. Methods Paediatric patients aged below 18 years diagnosed with GBS between 2009 and 2018 in all 11 paediatric departments in Hong Kong were identified from the Hong Kong Hospital Authority Clinical Data Analysis and Reporting System. The collected data from medical health records were reviewed by paediatric neurologist from each department. Estimated incidence of paediatric GBS was calculated. We also compared our findings with other paediatric GBS studies in Asia. Results 63 subjects of paediatric GBS were identified, giving an estimated annual incidence of 0.62 per 100,000 population. Half of the subjects had acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) (n = 31; 49.2%), one quarter had Miller Fisher Syndrome (MFS) (n = 16; 25.4%), one-fifth had axonal types of GBS (n = 12; 19.0%), and four were unclassified. Paediatric subjects with axonal subtypes of GBS compared to the other 2 subtypes, had significantly higher intensive care unit (ICU) admission rates (p = 0.001) and longest length of stay (p = 0.009). With immunomodulating therapy, complete recovery was highest in those with MFS (100%), followed by AIDP (87.1%) and axonal GBS (75%). Our study also confirms a higher MFS rate for paediatric GBS in East Asia region and our study has the highest MFS rate (25.4%). Conclusion Our population-based 10-year paediatric GBS study provides updated evidence on estimated incidence, healthcare burden and motor outcome of each subtype of paediatric GBS and confirmed a higher occurrence of paediatric MFS in East Asia.
Introduction Mass-casualty incidents (MCIs) are events in which many people are injured during the same period of time. This has major implications in regards to practical concerns and planning for both personnel and medical equipment. Smart glasses are modern tools that could help Emergency Medical Services (EMS) in the estimation of the number of potential patients in an MCI. However, currently there is no study regarding the advantage of employing the use of smart glasses in MCIs in Thailand. Study Objective This study aims to compare the overall accuracy and amount of time used with smart glasses and comparing it to manual counting to assess the number of casualties from the scene. Methods This study was a randomized controlled trial, field exercise experimental study in the EMS unit of Srinagarind Hospital, Thailand. The participants were divided into two groups (those with smart glasses and those doing manual counting). On the days of the simulation (February 25 and 26, 2022), the participants in the smart glasses group received a 30-minute training session on the use of the smart glasses. After that, both groups of participants counted the number of casualties on the simulation field independently. Results Sixty-eight participants were examined, and in the smart glasses group, a total of 58.8% (N = 20) of the participants were male. The mean age in this group was 39.4 years old. The most experienced in the EMS smart glasses group had worked in this position for four-to-six years (44.1%). The participants in the smart glasses group had the highest scores in accurately assessing the number of casualties being between 21-30 (98.0%) compared with the manual counting group (89.2%). Additionally, the time used for assessing the number of casualties in the smart glasses group was shorter than the manual counting group in tallying the number of casualties between 11-20 (6.3 versus 11.2 seconds; P = .04) and between 21-30 (22.1 versus 44.5 seconds; P = .02). Conclusion The use of smart glasses to assess the number of casualties in MCIs when the number of patients is between 11 and 30 is useful in terms of greater accuracy and less time being spent than with manual counting.
Background: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia (ARVC/D) is a hereditary disease characterized by fibrofatty infiltration of the right ventricular myocardium that predisposes affected patients to malignant ventricular arrhythmias, dual-chamber cardiac failure and sudden cardiac death (SCD). The present study aims to investigate the risk of detrimental cardiovascular events in an Asian population of ARVC/D patients, including the incidence of malignant ventricular arrhythmias, new-onset heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), as well as long-term mortality. Methods and Results: This was a territory-wide retrospective cohort study of patients diagnosed with ARVC/D between 1997 and 2019 in Hong Kong. This study consisted of 109 ARVC/D patients (median age: 61 [46-71] years; 58% male). Of these, 51 and 24 patients developed incident VT/VF and new-onset HFrEF, respectively. Five patients underwent cardiac transplantation, and 14 died during follow-up. Multivariate Cox regression identified prolonged QRS duration as a predictor of VT/VF (p < 0.05). Female gender, prolonged QTc duration, the presence of epsilon waves and T-wave inversion (TWI) in any lead except aVR/V1 predicted new-onset HFrEF (p < 0.05). The presence of epsilon waves, in addition to the parameters of prolonged QRS duration and worsening ejection fraction predicted all-cause mortality (p < 0.05). Clinical scores were developed to predict incident VT/VF, new-onset HFrEF and all-cause mortality, and all were significantly improved by machine learning techniques. Conclusions: Clinical and electrocardiographic parameters are important for assessing prognosis in ARVC/D patients and should in turn be used in tandem to aid risk stratification in the hospital setting.
There has been a rapid surge of hospitalization due to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variants globally. The severity of Omicron BA.2 in unexposed, unvaccinated, hospitalized children is unknown. We investigated the severity and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 infection during the Omicron wave in uninfected, unvaccinated hospitalized children and in comparison with influenza and parainfluenza viral infections. This population-based study retrieved data from the HK territory-wide CDARS database of hospitalisations in all public hospitals and compared severe outcomes for the Omicron BA.2-dominant fifth wave (5 to 28 February 2022, n = 1144), and influenza and parainfluenza viruses (1 January 2015 to 31 December 2019, n = 32212 and n = 16423, respectively) in children 0-11 years old. Two deaths (0.2%) out of 1144 cases during the initial Omicron wave were recorded. Twenty-one (1.8%) required PICU admission, and the relative risk was higher for Omicron than influenza virus (n = 254, 0.8%, adjusted RR = 2.1, 95%CI 1.3-3.3, p = 0.001). The proportion with neurological complications was 15.0% (n = 171) for Omicron, which was higher than influenza and parainfluenza viruses (n = 2707, 8.4%, adjusted RR = 1.6, 95%CI 1.4-1.9 and n = 1258, 7.7%, adjusted RR = 1.9, 95%CI 1.6-2.2, p < 0.001 for both, respectively). Croup occurred for Omicron (n = 61, 5.3%) more than influenza virus (n = 601, 1.9%, adjusted RR = 2.0, 95%CI 1.5-2.6, p < 0.001) but not parainfluenza virus (n = 889, 5.4%). Our findings showed that for hospitalized children who had no past COVID-19 or vaccination, Omicron BA.2 was not mild. Omicron BA.2 appeared to be more neuropathogenic than influenza and parainfluenza viruses. It targeted the upper airways more than influenza virus.
Introduction: Compared with young children who have acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), adolescents with ALL have unfavourable disease profiles and worse survival. However, limited data are available regarding the characteristics and outcomes of adolescents with ALL who underwent treatment in clinical trials. The aim of this study was to investigate the causes of treatment failure in adolescents with ALL. Methods: We retrospectively analysed the outcomes of 711 children with ALL, aged 1-18 years, who were enrolled in five clinical trials of paediatric ALL treatment between 1993 and 2015. Results: Among the 711 children with ALL, 530 were young children (1-9 years at diagnosis) and 181 were adolescents (including 136 younger adolescents [10-14 years] and 45 older adolescents [15-18 years]). Compared with young children who had ALL, adolescents with ALL were less likely to have favourable genetic features and more likely to demonstrate poor early response to treatment. The 10-year overall survival and event-free survival rates were significantly lower among adolescents than among young children (77.9% vs 87.6%, P=0.0003; 69.7% vs 76.5%, P=0.0117). There were no significant differences in the 10-year cumulative incidence of relapse, but the 10-year cumulative incidence of treatment-related death (TRD) was significantly greater among adolescents (7.2%) than among young children (2.3%; P=0.002). Multivariable analysis showed that both younger and older adolescents (vs young children) had worse survival and greater incidence of TRD. Conclusion: Adolescents with ALL had worse survival because they experienced a greater incidence of TRD. There is a need to investigate optimal treatment adjustments and novel targeted agents to achieve better survival rates (without excessive toxicity) among adolescents with ALL.
Background: Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy is a standard treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer, for which pathological complete response is typically used as a surrogate survival endpoint. Neoadjuvant rectal score is a new biomarker that has been shown to correlate with survival. The main objectives of this study were to investigate factors contributing to pathological complete response, to validate the prognostic significance of neoadjuvant rectal score, and to investigate factors associated with a lower neoadjuvant rectal score in a cohort of Hong Kong Chinese. Methods: Data of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who received neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy from August 2006 to October 2018 were retrieved from hospital records and retrospectively analysed. Results: Of 193 patients who had optimal response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and surgery, tumour down-staging was the only independent prognostic factor that predicted pathological complete response (P<0.0001). Neoadjuvant rectal score was associated with overall survival (hazard ratio [HR]=1.042, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.021-1.064; P<0.0001), disease-free survival (HR=1.042, 95% CI=1.022-1.062; P<0.0001), locoregional recurrence-free survival (HR=1.070, 95% CI=1.039-1.102; P<0.0001) and distant recurrence-free survival (HR=1.034, 95% CI=1.012-1.056; P=0.002). Patients who had pathological complete response were associated with a lower neoadjuvant rectal score (P<0.0001), but pathological complete response was not associated with survival. For patients with intermediate neoadjuvant rectal scores, late recurrences beyond 72 months from diagnosis were observed. Conclusion: Neoadjuvant rectal score is an independent prognostic marker of survival and disease recurrence in a cohort of Hong Kong Chinese patients who received neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer.
Parental vaccine hesitancy is a major barrier to achieving high vaccination uptake among children, particularly in young children during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Developing herd immunity is a critical concept for overcoming the current pandemic. The purpose of this study is to reduce parental vaccine hesitancy through a focused educational seminar in ZOOM and to empower parents who are concerned about vaccinating their children to communicate with medical experts during live seminars. Parents of preschoolers, teachers, and kindergarten principals from three local pre-school education and services associations attended live seminars. After attending seminars, parental willingness to vaccinate their children increased by 65%. The live Zoom seminar led by medical experts resulted in a decrease in vaccine hesitancy. Our findings support the creation of seminars that allow clients and medical specialists to communicate directly with one another. Offering an open and honest forum for people to express their concerns to medical experts could be a useful strategy for dealing with not only vaccination apprehension, but also other health-related emergencies.
The thrombopoietin mimetic eltrombopag (EPAG) is efficacious in clinical trials of newly diagnosed moderate (M), severe (S) and very severe (vS) aplastic anaemia (AA). Its use in routine practice and resource-constrained settings is not well described. Twenty-five men and 38 women at a median age of 54 (18–86) years with newly diagnosed AA treated consecutively in a 7-year period with EPAG (N = 6), EPAG/cyclosporine (CsA) (N = 33) and EPAG/CsA/anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) (N = 24) were analyzed. Because EPAG was not reimbursed, peak doses ranged from 25 to 200 mg/day depending on affordability. EPAG/CsA-treated patients were older (median age: 61 years) with less severe AA (MAA, N = 15; SAA, N = 14; vSAA, N = 4), whereas EPAG/CsA/ATG-treated patients were younger (median age: 44 years) with more severe AA (MAA, N = 2; SAA, N = 12, vSAA, N = 10). The overall/trilineage response rates were 83%/50% for EPAG-treated patients; 79%/42% for EPAG/CsA-treated patients and 75%/63% for EPAG/CsA/ATG-treated patients. Adverse events included grade 1 liver derangement (N = 7) and grade 1 dyspepsia (N = 3). The 5-year overall survivals/failure-free survivals were 62%/80% for the entire cohort; 55%/75% for EPAG/CsA-treated patients and 82%/78% for EPAG/CsA/ATG-treated patients. EPAG showed robust efficacy in AA in routine practice. However, EPAG dosage and combinations remain to be optimized for AA of different severities.
Purpose It is well-known that obesity has an adverse impact on breast cancer prognosis; nonetheless, the prognostic role of abdominal obesity, especially its post-diagnosis change, has been understudied. This study aims to examine the prospective associations of general and abdominal obesity and their post-diagnosis changes with all-cause mortality, breast cancer-specific mortality, and breast cancer recurrence in Chinese breast cancer patients. Methods From 2011 to 2014, 1460 Chinese breast cancer patients were recruited and followed up at 18, 36, and 60 months after diagnosis. Body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and their changes between baseline and 18-month follow-up were derived. Clinical records on diagnosis, treatment, and death were also obtained. In total, 1309 women who completed the 18-month follow-up were included for Cox regression analyses, stratified by follow-up periods. Results Within 18–48 months post-diagnosis, substantial WHR loss (5% or above) had reduced risk of all-cause (HR = 0.21 [95% CI 0.06–0.75]) and breast cancer-specific mortality (0.21 [0.06–0.77]) relative to stable WHR; whereas after 48 months post-diagnosis, substantial WHR gain showed elevated risks of all-cause mortality (2.67 [1.22–5.85])). Higher baseline WHR was also associated with both mortality outcomes. Nonetheless, no such associations were observed for BMI measures. Also, the effects of obesity measures on breast recurrence were less apparent. Conclusion Abdominal obesity, rather than general obesity, was linked to worse survival in Chinese breast cancer patients. Prevention on abdominal obesity and waist gain following breast cancer diagnosis may have a beneficial effect on longer-term survival over and above conventional weight management. Waist assessment and abdominal obesity control should therefore be incorporated as a vital component of the evaluation and interventions of breast cancer prognosis.
A successful Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) procedure requires restoration of mechanical axis and soft tissue balancing. Deformity of tibia and femur occurs with history of trauma or osteotomy, infection, metabolic bone disease and excessive bowing. Tackling pre-existing extra-articular deformity of lower limbs during total knee arthroplasty can be challenging due to difficulty in restoring alignment axis and soft tissue balancing. We have recorded 6 patients underwent total knee arthroplasty with preexisting extra-articular femoral deformity by intra-articular correction from 1995 to 2017. All patients had extra-articular deformity of the femur due to fracture malunion which were treated either conservatively, plating or intra-medullary nail. Coronal deformity is corrected from an average of 15.5 degrees to 4.6 degrees from neutral axis. Sagittal deformity is corrected from average of 6.8 degrees to 3.6 degrees. One patient developed progressive genu recurvatum at 7 years follow-up with range of motion at 25 degrees extension and 110 degrees flexion. The average pre-operative Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) score was 68.5 (range 51−87) decreased to 50.7 (range 21–71) at 12 months post-operative and Knee score averaged 53.3 (range 51–55) increased to an average of 88.5 (range 82–94). There was only one revision for aseptic loosening 16 years after total knee replacement (TKR) and no other cases of radiological sign of aseptic loosening. In conclusion, Intra-articular correction of an extra articular femoral deformity for TKR is an attractive approach in mild to moderate deformity further from the knee joint.
e18029 Background: Patients with recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal cancer (R/M NPC) who failed platinum-based chemotherapy have poor prognoses. We report the clinical activity and safety of bintrafusp alfa, a first-in-class bifunctional fusion protein composed of the extracellular domain of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-βRII receptor fused to a human IgG1 antibody blocking programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), in patients with heavily pretreated R/M NPC. Tumor and plasma-based biomarkers were investigated in an exploratory analysis. Methods: Eligible patients had histologically confirmed NPC that had recurred at distant sites and were not amenable to curative treatment. All patients received at least one prior line of platinum-based chemotherapy for recurrent disease. Patients were treated with bintrafusp alfa (1200mg every 2 weeks) until disease progression. The sample size was estimated to assume a 40% objective response rate (ORR) to bintrafusp alfa compared with 20% for checkpoint inhibitors. Modified Simon two-stage optimal design was used (power, 80%; a = 0.05; P0 = 0.20; P1 = 0.40; n1 = 18; n = 33 with an additional five patients to allow for ineligibility or other reasons). The primary endpoint was ORR and secondary endpoints included survival and toxicity. Expression of PD-L1 in archived tumors, plasma clearance of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA, plasma clearance of TGF-β, and exosomal PD-L1 were assessed for a potential correlation with ORR. (NCT 04396886). Results: Out of 43 patients screened, 38 patients were enrolled. After a median follow-up of 14.9 months (range: 1.6-23.3 months), the confirmed ORR was 23.7% (95% CI: 12.4-38.8%) (complete response, n = 1; partial response, n = 8). The median treatment duration was 1.8 months (range: 0.5-14.3 months). 8 patients (21.1%) and 2 patients (5.3%) received bintrafusp alfa for > 6 months and > 12 months respectively. The 1-year overall survival (OS) rate was 57.5% (95% CI, 40.2% to 71.5%) and 1-year progression-free survival rate was 23% (95% CI, 10.1% to 39.4%). ORR was higher in patients with a decreasing trend in EBV-DNA at week 4 (40% vs. 6.3%, p = 0.02), whereas high exosomal PD-L1 levels at week 4 were predictive of worse ORR (5.3% vs. 41.7%, p = 0.012). There were no associations between clinical outcome and tissue PD-L1 expression (p = 0.952) or plasma TGF-β clearance (p = 0.28). 16 patients (42.4%) experienced ≥ grade 3 treatment-related adverse events, most commonly anemia (n = 9, 23.7%) and secondary malignancies (n = 4, 10.5%). Conclusions: Bintrafusp alfa has promising activity in heavily pretreated R/M NPC and a favorable 1-year OS rate, though the observed activity was not as high as the study initially aimed. The biomarker results warrant validation in larger cohorts. Clinical trial information: NCT04396886.
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68 members
Bun Sheng
  • Medicine & Geriatrics
Mike Yat-Wah Kwan
  • Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine
Ngai Yin Chan
  • Medicine & Geriatrics
Yh Lam
  • Department of Pathology
Hencher Han-Chih Lee
  • Department of Pathology
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