This paper takes a landscape view of archives practice now operating in a sea of human digital behavior, interacting with computational systems embedded in real and virtual life, part of our complex global digital ecosystem driving cultural and social change. We envision a new computational archives framework, designed to be user-centric, in ways that integrate traditional archival practice into an overarching computational framework incorporating structured and unstructured data, computational tools, AI (artificial intelligence), ML (machine learning), robotics, and automation intended to aid in management and public engagement with physical, digitized, and born-digital documents. Set in a networked environment of increasing computing power, this “more than human” system derives from the latest computing advances from NLP (natural language processing) and image recognition to artificial neural networks. We envision an archives system that is at once complex and integrated into a new inclusive and diverse cultural fabric. This paper covers general issues that have been accelerated by the Covid-19 pandemic, together with two institutional case studies.
The North-West Frontier of British India, a semi-independent mountainous borderland, was the site of continuous Pukhtun armed struggle against colonial intrusion throughout the nineteenth century and into the first half of the twentieth. Persistent tribal armed attacks and major rebellions were followed by ‘butcher and bolt’ or ‘burn and scuttle’ British military expeditions, including one of the biggest Victorian small wars–the Tirah Campaign of 1897/98. Two features are particularly distinctive about the Pukhtun insurgencies: 1) The fierce and consistent nature of Pukhtun opposition to the encroaching British military state; 2) The insurgents’ success in warding off annexation and inflicting decisive military defeat time and time again propelled the colonial state into an ongoing reflexive about its failure to ‘pacify’ the region and control the tribes. Focusing on Afridi insurgency in the nineteenth century, this article examines some themes that draw attention to causes, grievances, and toward the insurgent actors. While our fleeting glimpses into insurgents motives and actions come largely from colonial accounts of counter-insurgency operations, by drawing on my extensive archival and field research in the North-West Frontier, including Afridi oral testimonies, this paper focuses its lens on the Pukhtun perspective of the North-West Frontier ‘small wars’.
I extend Grossman and Trubina's argument about dignity in urban geography in one direction: the problem of scale. It is worth noting that both of their case studies – mega-events, and large housing estates – involve mega-projects. There is an inherent conflict between the micro-scale of the individual and community – where the lived experience of dignity occurs – and the much bigger scale of the mega-project – where much contemporary city-making occurs. Governance for the micro-scale is inherently skeptical of big urban transformations, prioritizing individual rights to the city: to home, to neighborhood, to public space. In contrast, governance for the mega-scale values big picture thinking and economies of scale, where the common good might trump the dignity of individual urban citizens. Reconciling these scalar conflicts is a foundational problem in the ‘urban age’ of rapid and global mega-urbanization.
Mesoproterozoic marbles of the southwestern Grenville Province contain numerous stratiform zinc deposits, which include the world-class Balmat-Edwards Zn-Pb district in the Adirondack Lowlands and the Franklin-Sterling Zn-Fe-Mn district in the New Jersey Highlands. Ten small deposits in the Central Metasedimentary Belt (CMB) of Ontario and Quebec were selected for stable isotope study (C and O in carbonates and S and Zn in sulfides) to help constrain depositional conditions, ore genesis, and tectonic setting. These deposits and the Balmat-Edwards and Franklin-Sterling districts are interpreted to have formed in contemporaneous back-arc basins associated with rifting of the Andean-style margin of Laurentia. Stable isotope systematics and the geology of these deposits indicate two distinct sedimentary exhalative (Sedex) settings: marble-hosted deposits associated with volcanic rocks, and marble-hosted deposits that are not associated with volcanic rocks and sometimes occur with evaporites . Volcanic-associated Sedex deposits (the Long Lake, Slave Lake, Wilkinson, Lafontaine, Bouchette, and Leitch deposits, and the Franklin-Sterling district) have C–O–S isotope systematics that are consistent with water/rock interaction between marine carbonate protoliths and fluids having an igneous component at ca.150±25°C. In contrast, Sedex deposits not associated with volcanic rocks (the Cadieux, Spry, Thirty Island Lake, and Salerno Lake deposits, and the Balmat-Edwards district) have C and O isotope ratios that are consistent with formation at ambient or low (<80°C) temperatures. Sulfur isotopes of sulfides in some evaporite-associated deposits are similar to those of other Proterozoic Sedex deposits (δ³⁴S=5–15‰ VCDT), with the Cadieux and Spry having lower values (δ³⁴S≈0‰) which might reflect differences in depositional settings. Zinc isotope ratios of CMB Zn deposits are relatively constrained (δ⁶⁶Zn= 0.17±0.04), and are similar to other seafloor deposits. An exception to this is the Thirty Island Lake deposit in the Frontenac terrane, which has δ⁶⁶Zn= 0.46±0.05‰, which may indicate an exotic origin relative to other CMB deposits. The recognition of the volcanic association for some Grenville Sedex deposits and not for others (and the relationship with evaporites for this group) has implications for Zn exploration programs in this region.
This essay is a poetic reflection on how the history and practice of Khayal, an improvisatory North Indian vocal form, provides lessons on being-with an Other. This submission is a form of ficto-critique and is based on the author's musical practice, revived via online lessons during the pandemic.
This article draws attention to the present-day transnational rise of state archives in the Greater Caribbean. It takes as a case study the Dominican Republic’s National Archives System (NAS) and National General Archives (AGN), which opened in 2008 and 2011, respectively, to signal a Caribbean neoliberal archival turn and interrogate the data politics behind these institutions’ neoliberal promises of equality, progress, and freedom. Intersecting Critical Archival Theory and Critical Caribbean Studies, the article pushes for a new critical archival theory of color that draws from scholarship centering the erasure of histories of enslavement and the hyper-masculinization of white colonial privilege. In doing so, it advocates for a decolonial practice of public archives demanding that archivists and archive users reckon with these archives’ historical role in powering anti-Black racism and structural oppression.
In many scientific studies, beams reinforced with synthetic fiber ribbons are modeled, wood composites and materials are designed, and structures made with hollow core boards are developed. However, no research was conducted on increasing the width of the flat wooden panels by modeling an openwork structure and obtaining them from solid panels of smaller width. The research aimed to determine the impact of wood species and inclination angle of the side walls on the stiffness, strength, and ability to absorb the energy of the new openwork panel made of curvilinear wooden slats. Three-point bending tests were performed numerically and verified experimentally. It has been shown that the stiffness of the openwork panels was lower compared to solid panels. No cracks in the glue line were observed. Walnut openwork panels demonstrated the best energy absorption capacity. Therefore, it is recommended that the openwork panels be made out of walnut and beech wood, rather than ash and oak. It is also more advantageous for the panel’s construction to use the 11° inclination angle of the side walls.
As we begin this second decade of Lateral, we reflect on the origins of the journal and new initiatives underway. We also consider the precarious nature of scholarly publishing and editing in the pandemic and reaffirm our commitment to this care work. This issue features three articles—two of which emerged from our articles-in-progress workshop at last year's Cultural Studies Association annual meeting—as well as the 2021 Randy Martin Prize winning essay and a number of book reviews. We invite applications for our editorial team and proposals for new initiatives at the journal.
We report δ⁶⁶Zn for the high temperature metamorphic zinc oxide and silicate minerals franklinite (Fr) (Zn²⁺Fe³⁺2O4), zincite (Zc) (ZnO) and willemite (Wlm) (Zn2SiO4) from the Franklin, NJ, historic mining district. With reference to the JMC-Lyon standard, δ⁶⁶Zn franklinite ranges from -0.10 to 0.48‰ with an average of 0.20 ±0.17‰ (n=22). δ⁶⁶Zn willemite ranges from 0.23 to 0.48‰ with an average of 0.37 ±0.09‰ (n=7). δ⁶⁶Zn zincite ranges from 0.29 to 0.60‰ with an average of 0.47±0.12‰ (n=9). These data suggest that the analyzed phases fractionate heavy zinc in the order Fr<Wlm<Zc. Taken as a group, these minerals have an average δ⁶⁶Zn of 0.30 ±0.19‰. This is 0.16‰ heavier than an estimated global mean δ⁶⁶Zn for sphalerite (ZnS) of 0.14 ±0.16‰ for seafloor zinc deposits. Our results are consistent with fractionation factors that predict that Zn oxides and silicates (protoliths of these ores) should be isotopically heavier than sphalerite when precipitated from fluids of the same temperature with similar zinc isotope compositions. Our samples from Sterling Hill are taken from two short transects across the orebody. Calcite (Cal) (CaCO3) from the same samples has δ¹³C from -0.54 to 1.46‰ with an average of 0.79±0.51‰ (VPDB), while δ¹⁸O ranges from 9.72 to 15.12‰ with an average of 12.42±1.35‰ (VSMOW; n=30). Results for these two isotope systems are consistent with earlier studies. δ¹³C decreases smoothly with distance towards the west along both transects; δ¹⁸O in contrast stays very close to its mean on the longer, southern transect but increases with distance to the west along the shorter, northern transect. There is no apparent covariation between δ⁶⁶Zn and either of the other isotopic ratios measured.
Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) practices often require brokering across academic and disciplinary boundaries. As a group of seven diverse international SoTL scholars, we utilize scholarly personal narratives (SPN) as our methodology to document and explore our experiences of brokering across our multiple roles, disciplines and contexts. Guided by Simmons’s 4M framework, we examine brokering within and across micro, meso, macro, and mega levels, illuminating the complexity of brokering. Our focus in this article is on the ways that brokering strengthens one’s sense of identity, sense of legitimacy, and sense of community as a SoTL practitioner. Our study contributes to the broader SoTL literature by seeking to reaffirm SoTL as its own unique and legitimate field, emphasizing the importance and complexity of brokering, and encouraging and supporting others who work within SoTL.
Policy makers across the Global North tend to remove poor and non-white vendors as inappropriate users of public space. Scholars have amply demonstrated that such removals reflect dominant aspirations of the present and future image of the city. But how do ideas about a city's past help shape these aspirations? We compare how heritage, the socially constructed meanings through which people experience history, helps forge consensus over the legitimacy of vendors in Rome and New York. Vending has long allowed oppressed people to survive in both cities. These similar histories translate today into diverging attitudes. In Rome, a city branded as a site of (white) glory, authorities banish both long-standing Jewish vendors and newly arrived immigrants. In New York, mythicised as a place of success for immigrants, policy makers cannot always displace vendors who claim historical legitimacy. We explain these different conditions through a regimes of heritage framework. Using archival and ethnographic data, we examine whose voices count more in constructing each city's past, what stories are told, and how these stories imbri-cate with existing political structures. Regimes of heritage, we find, help spatialise neoliberalism, differentiated citizenship, and authenticity. These dynamics highlight heritage as a critical, if under-explored agent of urban oppression and resistance.
Science communication aims to equip the public to become critical consumers of, advocates for, and sometimes producers of science. However, many studies suggest that audiences participating in such programs already benefit from strong cultural messages and social resources that encourage their engagement with science. The field is thus seeking to develop new models of science communication that can engage those who do not already seek out science engagement opportunities. In this article, we share findings from a study of an emerging sector of science communication that stages events in non‐science settings, such as nightclubs or music festivals. In particular, we examine a science communication program that leverages the genre of immersive storyworlds to engage non‐science‐seeking audiences at an annual country fair. Leveraging Bakhtin's conceptualization of carnival as a theoretical lens, we ask the questions: How do immersive storyworlds operate to attract and engage non‐science seeking public audiences in science conversations? In what ways do immersive storyworlds afford opportunities for participants to see science in relationship to themselves? We find that the storyworld creates an aesthetically and emotionally saturated context, with improvisational roles and routines that accommodate diverse perspectives and position participants' prior experiences and interests as the means for productive participation. Jointly producing the storyworld affords opportunities for belonging, which in turn appear to support sustained science conversations among participants and science communicators. The study contributes to the nascent evidence base for how such approaches might serve as an inclusive form of science communication, in particular by proposing new ways to think about “belonging” in science.
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