BACKGROUND: Several recent reports conclude that open-plan offices negatively impact workers across a variety of outcome measures. This contrasts to a corporate trend to move from cellular to open-plan layouts, often justified by the same outcomes. Two explanations for this paradox are proposed: (1) the results are more complicated than critical reports suggest, and (2) methodological biases make open-plan layouts look more negative than they are. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the proposed explanations using a systematic literature review. METHODS: Google Scholar was used to find original research on the relationship between office openness and worker outcomes. 89 articles were coded for the variables and methods they used, and conclusions about the relationship between layout and outcomes were evaluated. RESULTS: The proposed explanations were partly supported. The relationship between layout openness and worker outcomes depends on the variables considered and the methods used, and a small subset of methods was used far more often than others. That said, more research is needed to evaluate impact of open-plan offices on worker outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The relationship between office openness and worker outcomes varies widely depending on how it is measured. Several promising areas for future research may help clarify this relationship. Keywords: workplace performance, office type, shared office space, job satisfaction
Moral licensing posits that previous moral acts increase the probability of behaving immorally in the future. According to this perspective, rejecting bribes, even because they are too small, would create a kind of “license” for taking (presumably larger) bribes in the future. On the other hand, the desire for consistency in behavior predicts that previous rejection of bribes will increase the probability of rejection for bribes offered in the future. Using a laboratory task modeling the decision to take a bribe, we examined how resisting and succumbing to the temptation to take a bribe affects later bribe-taking. Participants (N = 297) were offered either low bribes first and high bribes later or vice versa. Low bribes were in general rejected more often and the results showed some weak, nonsignificant evidence that bribe-taking may be influenced by the order of the sizes of offered bribes. However, there was no evidence of an increased probability of taking bribes after being offered the low bribes first and thus no evidence in support of the moral licensing effect.
For decades, business and information technology alignment has fascinated scholars and practitioners. However, understanding these alignment mechanisms is challenging. The significant role of information technology (IT) in digitalization and agile transformation calls for targeted management of the readiness and capability of IT as an enabler and strategic business partner. This paper assumes that organizational culture is a success factor for business-IT alignment. Therefore, it aims to explore the culture-alignment relationship by the following research questions: What are typical IT management organizational culture characteristics, and how do they contribute to business-IT alignment? The study conducts a systematic literature review. First, after defining the critical terms, it searches the databases indexed in the Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar. Then, the study uses bibliometrics to get quantitative insights into the research topic. Finally, it investigates the key arguments and findings of the selected papers. The analyzed literature depicts the relationship between an IT management culture and business-IT alignment elements. However, the research lacks concrete modeling and conception. This article contributes to a better culture-alignment relationship interpretation and closes a gap in the body of knowledge by combining quantitative and qualitative literature review methods.
We develop a new statistical model to analyse time‐varying ranking data. The model can be used with a large number of ranked items, accommodates exogenous time‐varying covariates and partial rankings, and is estimated via the maximum likelihood in a straightforward manner. Rankings are modelled using the Plackett–Luce distribution with time‐varying worth parameters that follow a mean‐reverting time series process. To capture the dependence of the worth parameters on past rankings, we utilise the conditional score in the fashion of the generalised autoregressive score models. Simulation experiments show that the small‐sample properties of the maximum‐likelihood estimator improve rapidly with the length of the time series and suggest that statistical inference relying on conventional Hessian‐based standard errors is usable even for medium‐sized samples. In an empirical study, we apply the model to the results of the Ice Hockey World Championships. We also discuss applications to rankings based on underlying indices, repeated surveys and non‐parametric efficiency analysis.
The existing literature has displayed mixed results in terms of the relationship between tighter bank capital regulation and lending, which may be due to poor approximation of capital requirements. We emphasise the crucial role of the excess of bank capital over the minimum capital requirement, the capital surplus, in the transmission of more stringent capital regulation. Specifically, we explore the effect of higher capital requirements on bank credit growth in the Czech Republic, drawing on a unique confidential bank-level dataset. Our results indicate that higher additional capital requirements have a negative effect on the credit supply of banks maintaining lower capital surplus. We estimate the effect on annual credit growth to be between 1.2 and 1.8 pp, using a wide range of model specifications and estimation techniques. Furthermore, the relationship between the capital surplus and credit growth proves to be significant also at times of stable capital requirements, i.e., the capital surplus does not serve only as an intermediate channel of higher capital requirements.
This study is centred around social research that aims to reconstruct relevant knowledge on the contemporary VR work environment. More particularly, we seek to answer three research questions. First, we seek an understanding of elements and factors within the VR work environment that influence an individual’s productivity. Second, we explore how a VR work environment can impact individuals’ well-being. Finally, we investigate what can strengthen the formal and informal interactions between individuals and subsequently knit collaborative ties.
Telework can be defined as using a computer or a similar technological device to work away from the central office. The remote location is commonly set at the worker’s home (Lafferty & Whitehorse, 2000). In this regard, the main difference in the conceptualization of telework and remote work is that telework is primarily conducted from a home office. In contrast, remote work can be carried out from a satellite office, local shared space facilities such as a coworking environment or home. However, both concepts have been widely used to describe the same situation where individuals conduct team-based and work-related activities from various locations to shorten the commute time, cut down the related costs, and seek positive work-life-associated improvements. While the term telework has been extensively used in scholarly debates throughout the 1980s and 1990s, the term remote work has somewhat prevailed in the 2000s and early 2010s, mainly due to organizations and knowledge workers experimenting and trying various facilities to conduct their work and scout for compatible leisure activities. In turn, the term “work from home” (WFH) arose during the recent pandemic-driven disruption, with similar term-related spins such as “COVID-working” (Tagliaro & Migliore, 2021) also emerging in scholarly debates. Therefore, the following discussion aims to understand the contemporary history of dislocated work and the related production and social experience processes.
Citing the words of Verda Alexander, a founder of San Francisco-based architecture biro Studio O+A, Smith (2020) reports that a silver lining in the cloud of human catastrophes such as a pandemic or climate crisis will be how the nature of work will change and the workplace will adapt. While traditional office environments will still be widely used, the recent COVID-19 crisis will heighten the need for alternative work arrangements. Technology will play a central part in this transition, with remote work becoming equal to work from the organization’s workspace in terms of efficiency. Furthermore, some larger companies, such as Microsoft, had already made the remote work option permanent by the third quarter of 2020 (Warren, 2020), with other companies being expected to follow suit.
The article compares the value relevance of information contained in financial statements, namely earnings, operating cash flows and book value of equity, in the V4 countries (the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia). Using a dataset of 604 firm-year observations for the period 2005–2017, we identify higher value relevance of accounting information in the Czech and Hungarian capital markets than in Poland. The financial statements of the Slovak listed firms are found not to present value relevant information. The most relevant metric on the Prague and Budapest stock exchanges are earnings. For the Czech Republic and Poland, we find that investors value between-period changes more than absolute amounts for the period. Finally, the Czech and Hungarian markets exhibit a considerable improvement in value relevance of accounting information approximately five years after adopting the IFRS.
Although Czech women are solidly represented in the Czech Ministry of Foreign Affairs, only a fraction of this 14 per cent make it to the highest positions. This underrepresentation is in stark contrast with Nordic countries, where women make up almost half of the top diplomats. Based on semi-structured interviews with top diplomats conducted in the period 2018-2021, this study aims to identify how Czech female diplomats assess their own gender and professional identity, and to what extent they apply these identities strategically in order to advance their careers. The research enriches concepts on femininities by adding a type of ‘principled feminist’ and further develops career strategies in a specific historical and cultural context. The analysis shows that conservative personal gender ideologies of top Czech female diplomats and their related career strategies present one of the major obstacles to the increased representation of women in top diplomatic positions.
Economic inequality is associated with preferences for smaller, immediate gains over larger, delayed ones. Such temporal discounting may feed into rising global inequality, yet it is unclear whether it is a function of choice preferences or norms, or rather the absence of sufficient resources for immediate needs. It is also not clear whether these reflect true differences in choice patterns between income groups. We tested temporal discounting and five intertemporal choice anomalies using local currencies and value standards in 61 countries (N = 13,629). Across a diverse sample, we found consistent, robust rates of choice anomalies. Lower-income groups were not significantly different, but economic inequality and broader financial circumstances were clearly correlated with population choice patterns.
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
A comprehensive review of 1985-2019 trends related to the (English) term social informatics was conducted for scholarly literature, research and educational institutions, conferences, journals, blogs, and presentations at the International Conference on Social Informatics. The bibliographic search yielded 275 scientific documents with the term social informatics in the title, abstract, or keywords; which were coded according to ten characteristics. The analysis showed that corresponding scientific publications peaked in 2005-2009 and then roughly stagnated. At the same time, they increasingly spread worldwide, with most authors still referring to the concept of social informatics developed by Rob Kling. Other activities related to social informatics were mostly stagnant or slightly declining after 2010-2014, except for the number of educational courses. In contrast, the widespread general use of the term social informatics grew rapidly, especially in the context of computational social science. This is most evident in the analysis of 476 papers from the proceedings of International Conference on Social Informatics (2009-2019), which revealed a very weak identification with the notion of social informatics. Considering these findings, the prospects of social informatics are discussed in a broader context.
Objective Nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy (NSRH) decreases the negative postoperative consequences of radical surgery for cervical cancer, such as bladder evacuation disorders, colorectal motility disorders, and sexual dysfunction. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the sexuality and quality of life in a group of women who underwent NSRH with lymphadenectomy for cervical cancer. Materials and methods A total of 65 patients with early-stage cervical cancer underwent NSRH between 2014 and 2016. Patient examinations and questionnaire surveys (Female Sexual Function Index questionnaire and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer questionnaires QLQ-C30 and QLQ-CX24) were conducted, before and one year after the surgery. Results After the exclusion of 19 sexually inactive women and 10 women who received adjuvant anticancer treatment, 36 sexually active patients treated solely with nerve-sparing surgery were eligible for evaluation. The mean age was 47 years. The average preoperative vaginal length was 9.4 cm, whereas the postoperative length was shortened to 7.1 cm. This study showed no negative impact of NSRH on sexual desire, arousal, satisfaction, orgasm, pain, sexual activity, sexual enjoyment, and sexual worry. The worsening of sexual functioning was recorded during the one-year follow-up. The QLQ-C30 questionnaire confirmed postoperative improvement in global health status and role, emotional, and social functioning. Conclusion Our study showed using standardized questionnaires that NSRH has no negative impact on sexual desire, arousal, satisfaction, orgasm, pain, sexual activity, frequency of sexual intercourse, sexual enjoyment, and sexual worry, while only the worsening of sexual functioning was recorded. Moreover, NSRH did not cause postoperative deterioration in the quality of life parameters.
This paper studies whether flows of funds into and out of equity mutual funds depend on investor attention measured as Google searches for company names and on fund’s performance. We find that mutual funds which performed well in the past receive more attention and more inflows. These results hold no matter which measure of past performance is considered. Interestingly, funds which performed well in previous twelve months are also subject to increased outflows, but this relationship is less robust than relationship for inflows. Lastly, longer-term (one year) performance matters more than shorter-term (one month and and six months) performance.
The Brazilian electric energy compensation system (EECS) states that 100% of the energy generated and inserted into the grid should be returned to prosumers as credits to their energy bill. Ongoing regulatory changes propose that compensation should only be provided for the energy cost (43%). From this perspective, with awareness of the complementarity between wind and solar sources, energy storage systems (ESS) applied to hybrid distributed generation (DG) can become attractive. This study aimed to assess the economic feasibility of hybrid DG power plants with battery banks. Stochastic analyses were carried out by varying nine of the variables (nominal power, solar radiation, wind speed, electricity demand, energy tariffs, discount rate, battery bank investment, and solar and wind installation costs) in three types of hybrid power plants (micro, mini, and small). All scenarios presented a high probability of viability. The main conclusions are as follows. The complementarity of the sources yields benefits to the system: batteries have a high investment cost, which require incentives for their insertion in the DG as a decrease in battery cost or a specific subsidy. The regulatory framework should consider the possibility of payout for the benefits provided by the use of an ESS for DG, i.e., energy storage is directly related to the smart grid concept.
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