This chapter will explore the intersections of creativity and the experience of moral emotions. Moral emotions, related to the moral judgments and decisions, may shape one's creative thoughts and actions, but may also be consequences of one's creative behavior. The available empirical evidence shows several intersections of creativity and moral emotions. Sympathy and authentic pride have been found to be related to creative originality and greater creative performance. In contrast, creative activity may cause an increase of the subsequent experience of guilt. This chapter outlines the research in this field and provides avenues for future research. The issues such as the social evaluation–creativity relationship, the effects of narrowly focused versus broadly focused moral emotions on creative performance, or possible disturbance of perception of social conformity by the creative action of an individual represent several directions for future research of creativity and moral emotions.
A growing body of research has been focusing recently on the life and well-being of students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and also on the well-being of their teachers. However, there is a need for in-depth, qualitative insights into ADHD issues from the teachers’ perspectives. Therefore, the main aim of this qualitative study was to use thematic analysis to explore how teachers perceive the relationship with students with ADHD and the factors that influence the quality of this relationship. Sixteen teachers working with adolescent ADHD students were interviewed for this purpose. The results indicate that the quality of the teacher-ADHD student relationship is associated with the ADHD students related behaviours, ambivalent emotions of the teacher, the teacher’s beliefs about ADHD and the beliefs about the determinants of the behaviour of the students with ADHD and the teacher’s approaches and methods of work in the classroom. Furthermore, the results suggest that increasing the quality of the teachers’ well-being is associated with knowledge of ADHD determinants, regulation of ambivalent emotions, empathy, teachers’ ability to perceive positive qualities and the potentials of the students with ADHD and their motivation to teach ADHD students.
Objective There is evidence that experiencing childhood trauma and life stressors across the lifespan together with lower resilience is associated with chronic pain-related conditions. The aim of this study was to explore the potential mediating role of resilience in the relationship between childhood trauma and long-term pain and to explore a possible moderating role of serious life stressors in the last year. Methods The participants, drawn from a representative sample of citizens of the Czech Republic (n = 1800, mean age: 46.6 years, 48.7% male), were asked to report various long-term pain conditions, childhood trauma (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, CTQ), life stressors (Life Stressor Checklist Revised, LSC-R) and resilience (Brief Resilience Scale, BRS) in a cross-sectional face-to-face study conducted in 2016. A conditional process SEM model of moderated mediation was performed. Results The occurrence of life stress events affecting the participant’s last year moderated the relationship between childhood trauma, resilience and health. In the group of participants who experienced at least one life stress event affecting their last year, resilience fully mediated the effect of past childhood trauma on long-term pain. In participants who did not experience life stressors with an impact on the last year, the direct path from childhood trauma to health through resilience lost its significance. Conclusion The subjective meaning of stress events on one’s life has an impact on the trajectory between childhood trauma and health and acts as a moderator. Resilience may buffer the negative effect of trauma on later long-term pain.
Objective: The Boston Naming Test (BNT) is the most widely used test to assess visual confrontation naming in both research and clinical settings. Recently, an abbreviated Czech version of the BNT was described. The purpose of this study is to assess the validity of this new test at the item level with advanced psychometric methods to assess its equivalence with the original test. The rationale was to help busy clinicians in the differential diagnosis of language disorders. Method: We administered the BNT-30 (odd item form of BNT-60) (N = 535; 75.61 ± 9.11; 60-96 years) and shortened the BNT-15 (N = 754; 71.94 ± 7.88; 60-96 years) to a large sample of healthy older adults. Results: Significant but low associations between BNT performance and age, education, and sex were found. We found strong evidence for the unidimensionality of both BNT-15/BNT-30 versions in healthy adults (p's < .001). Conclusion: In-depth psychometric analysis of the BNT-15 and BNT-30 Czech versions show that test stimuli function in a similar fashion as the original BNT. Normative values adjusting for the influence of age, education, and sex are provided for use in clinical settings and future cross-cultural comparisons.
The current study aimed to define and validate the criteria for characterizing possible and probable cognitive deficits based on the psychometric approach using the Uniform data set Czech version (UDS-CZ 2.0) to reduce the rate of misdiagnosis. We computed the prevalence of low scores on the 14 subtests of UDS-CZ 2.0 in a normative sample of healthy older adults and validated criteria for possible and probable cognitive impairment on the sample of amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) patients. The misclassification rate of the validation sample using psychometrically derived criteria remained low: for classification as possible impairment, we found 66–76% correct classification in the clinical sample and only 2–8% false positives in the healthy control validation sample, similar results were obtained for probable cognitive impairment. Our findings offer a psychometric approach and a computational tool to minimize the misdiagnosis of mild cognitive impairment compared to traditional criteria for MCI.
Objective: The MATRICS consensus cognitive battery (MCCB) is a widely used neuropsychological battery for the assessment of cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. However, the accuracy of measurement is dependent on suitable normative data which are in the Czech Republic lacking. Method: The Czech academic research translation of the MCCB battery was administered to a sample of healthy volunteers aged 17 to 62 years (N = 573) and the effects of age, education and sex were examined. In addition, a comparison was made to examine the differences between the US and current normative data. Results: Consistent with previous studies, significant effects of age, sex and education were found, however, in sex and education in distinct MCCB-domains. By comparing the original and current normative data, significant differences with small to large effect sizes were revealed in all domains except for Verbal Learning. Conclusions: We present nationally specific MCCB regressionbased and tabular normative data applicable in research and clinical settings.
While the interpretability of machine learning models is often equated with their mere syntactic comprehensibility, we think that interpretability goes beyond that, and that human interpretability should also be investigated from the point of view of cognitive science. The goal of this paper is to discuss to what extent cognitive biases may affect human understanding of interpretable machine learning models, in particular of logical rules discovered from data. Twenty cognitive biases are covered, as are possible debiasing techniques that can be adopted by designers of machine learning algorithms and software. Our review transfers results obtained in cognitive psychology to the domain of machine learning, aiming to bridge the current gap between these two areas. It needs to be followed by empirical studies specifically focused on the machine learning domain.
Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) suffer from a wide range of non-motor symptoms, including cognitive deficits and impairment of emotional processing. The present study aimed to explore in PD patients compared to healthy adults the relationship between cognitive performance and emotional creativity (EC), defined as a set of cognitive abilities and personality traits related to originality and appropriateness of emotional experience. PD patients (n = 22) and healthy controls (n = 40) underwent a complex neuropsychological assessment and were administrated with the self-reported Emotional Creativity Inventory (ECI) questionnaire. To explore the relationship between cognitive tests and the ECI, a regression analysis was conducted. PD patients and healthy controls differed significantly in the EC component Preparedness as well as in the neuropsychological test battery scores. PD patients showed lower scores in cognitive tests and a lower score in Preparedness compared to healthy adults. The output of the regression analysis showed that the extent to which the neuropsychological tests relate to the ECI components is low.
Emotion concepts are representations that enable people to make sense of their own and others’ emotions. The present study, theoretically driven by the conceptual act theory, explores the overall spectrum of emotion concepts in older adults and compares them with the emotion concepts of younger adults. Data from 178 older adults (⩾55 years) and 176 younger adults (20–30 years) were collected using the Semantic Emotion Space Assessment task. The arousal and valence of 16 discrete emotions – anger, fear, sadness, happiness, disgust, hope, love, hate, contempt, guilt, compassion, shame, gratefulness, envy, disappointment, and jealousy – were rated by the participants on a graphic scale bar. The results show that (a) older and younger adults did not differ in the mean valence ratings of emotion concepts, which indicates that older adults do not differ from younger adults in the way they conceptualise how pleasant or unpleasant emotions are. Furthermore, (b) older men rated emotion concepts as more arousing than younger men, (c) older adults rated sadness, disgust, contempt, guilt, and compassion as more arousing and (d) jealousy as less arousing than younger adults. The results of the present study indicate that age-related differentiation of conceptual knowledge seems to proceed more in the way that individuals understand how arousing their subjective representations of emotions are rather than how pleasant they are. FULLTEXT OF THIS PAPER IS AVAILABLE AT: https://www.pvsps.cz/data/2021/02/02/16/age-related_differences_in_valence_and_arousal_of_emotion_concepts.pdf
Euthanasia is a highly controversial topic. One of the arguments against legalisation of euthanasia is that it would lead to an attitudinal slippery slope effect; that is, a shift in attitudes toward euthanasia even toward cases which were not legalised. The present study tested a possible mechanism which may lead to such shift in two experiments. Participants judged morality of euthanasia in two hypothetical scenarios describing patients requesting euthanasia. We found that participants who first evaluated a case of a non-terminally ill patient suffering from fatigue afterward considered euthanasia for a terminally ill patient suffering from pain more morally right than participants who evaluated euthanasia in the latter case first. Furthermore, we found that presenting the case of the patient suffering from fatigue before asking about attitudes toward legality of euthanasia led participants to oppose it more. The study suggests that public’s expressed attitudes toward legality of euthanasia might be easily influenced by a choice of illustrative examples. However, the change in attitudes predicted by the slippery slope effect was not observed.
Tobias-Renstrøm and Køppe (2020) show the several conceptual limits that new materialism and postmodern subject models have for psychological theory and research. The present study continues this discussion and argues that the applicability of the ideas of quantum-inspired new materialism depends on the theoretical perspectives that we consider for analysis: be it the first-person perspective referring to the subjective experience of a human subject, or the third-person perspective, in which a human subject is observed by an external observer. While the arguments of new materialism are in accordance with the analysis of the act of observation performed by an external observer, some problems arise when trying to theoretically approach the first-person subjective experience of a human subject. For example, new materialism fails to explain why human minds can maintain the awareness of a subject’s identity throughout their lives and to recall the memories about their past personal experiences. Keywords: subject models, quantum, observer effect, experience, consciousness, conscious experience, memory, self-awareness, theoretical psychology, new materialism, first-person perspective, third-person perspective, mind, body, sense of body ownership, identity, apparatus, observation, phenomenology, attention, mental states, mental processes, mental contents, past actions, past behaviors, past experiences, constant becoming, pre-existing relata, psyche, complexity, cognitive processing of past experiences; MeSH Headings: Consciousness, Awareness, Metacognition, Meta-cognition, Meta-cognitive Awareness, Metacognitive Awareness, Metacognitive Knowledge, Memory, Episodic Memory, Attention, Cognition
Introduction: The Brief Visual Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R) is a frequently used visuospatial declarative memory test, but normative data in the Czech population are lacking. Moreover, the BVMT-R includes promising learning indexes that can be used to detect learning deficits in Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, its clinical usefulness has not yet been thoroughly examined. Early detection of memory impairment in PD is essential for effective treatment. Therefore, this study aimed to provide BVMT-R Czech normative data for clinical use and to find the detection potential of the principal BVMT-R scores, including new learning indices, to capture the cognitive deficit in PD. Method: The BVMT-R were administered to a normative sample of 920 participants aged 17 to 95 years and to a clinical sample of 60 PD patients; 25 with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) and 35 with normal cognition (PD-NC). In order to provide normative values, multiple regression analyses were employed, and to compare the clinical and control sample, Bayesian Hierarchical Linear Models were used. Results: The best model for regression-based norms showed to be with age + age² + education + sex as predictors. From all learning indexes, L6 (sum of trials 1–3), followed by, L4 (sum of trials 1–3 multiplied by the difference between the highest and the lowest score) best differentiated between controls or PD-NC and PD-MCI. Conclusions: We provide regression-based normative values for BVMT-R that could be used in clinical settings and meta-analytic efforts. Furthermore, we revealed visuospatial learning and memory deficit in PD-MCI. We have also identified the most discriminative learning index adapted to BVMT-R.
Psychotherapists around the world are facing an unprecedented situation with the outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). To combat the rapid spread of the virus, direct contact with others has to be avoided when possible. Therefore, remote psychotherapy provides a valuable option to continue mental health care during the COVID-19 pandemic. The present study investigated the fear of psychotherapists to become infected with COVID-19 during psychotherapy in personal contact and assessed how the provision of psychotherapy changed due to the COVID-19 situation and whether there were differences with regard to country and gender. Psychotherapists from three European countries: Czech Republic (CZ, n = 112), Germany (DE, n = 130) and Slovakia (SK, n = 96), with on average 77.8% female participants, completed an online survey. Participants rated the fear of COVID-19 infection during face-to-face psychotherapy and reported the number of patients treated on average per week (in personal contact, via telephone, via internet) during the COVID-19 situation as well as (retrospectively) in the months before. Fear of COVID-19 infection was highest in SK and lowest in DE (p < 0.001) and was higher in female compared to male psychotherapists (p = 0.021). In all countries, the number of patients treated on average per week in personal contact decreased (p < 0.001) and remote psychotherapies increased (p < 0.001), with more patients being treated via internet than via telephone during the COVID-19 situation (p < 0.001). Furthermore, female psychotherapists treated less patients in personal contact (p = 0.036), while they treated more patients via telephone than their male colleagues (p = 0.015). Overall, the total number of patients treated did not differ during COVID-19 from the months before (p = 0.133) and psychotherapy in personal contact remained the most common treatment modality. Results imply that the supply of mental health care could be maintained during COVID-19 and that changes in the provision of psychotherapy vary among countries and gender.
Previous research has shown that cognitive creativity decreases in older adulthood. However, the impact of age on emotional creativity remains unknown. The main aim of the present study was to explore how emotional creativity differs across adulthood. A total of 407 participants (251 women, 156 men) consisting of older, midlife and younger adults were administrated the Emotional Creativity Inventory (ECI). A hierarchical multiple regression was used to determine whether emotional creativity differed with age. Age was negatively associated with the ECI total score and two components of the ECI, emotional novelty and emotional preparedness. In contrast, emotional effectiveness/authenticity was constant across adulthood. The results indicate that the tendency to think about one’s emotions and to evaluate them as novel and unique decreases with age, whereas the ability to respond effectively in situations requiring novel emotional responses remains relatively intact across adulthood.
Objective: We aimed to examine whether demographic characteristics (i.e., sex, age and education) correlate with total scores of the Czech version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), understand the factorial structure of this scale, compare our results with findings of studies conducted in other countries and provide preliminary normative data for use in clinical practice. Methods: Data of 450 participants were analysed using correlation analysis, non-parametric tests and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Results: Women, and participants with lower education, tended to score higher than men, and participants with higher education. There was no significant relationship between age and total scores. CFA confirmed two factors: cognitive-affective and somatic. Czech participants scored lower than participants in other studies. Preliminary normative data are presented in the form of percentile values for the whole sample and stratified according to gender and education level. Conclusions: We recommend the usage of the BDI-II total score while taking into account also the cognitive-affective and somatic factor subscores. The comparison of our results with other foreign findings shows the need for the development of locally specific normative values for self-reported depression scales. • KEY POINTS • Women scored higher in the BDI-II than men. • Participants with lower education scored higher in the BDI-II than participants with higher education. • CFA confirmed two factors: cognitive-affective and somatic. • Preliminary normative data for the Czech version of the BDI-II are stratified according to gender and education.
Fear, anger and hopelessness were the most frequent traumatic emotional responses in the general public during the first stage of outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic in the Czech Republic (N = 1,000). The four most frequent categories of fear were determined: (a) fear of the negative impact on household finances, (b) fear of the negative impact on the household finances of significant others, (c) fear of the unavailability of health care, and (d) fear of an insufficient food supply. The pessimistic communications used by the Czech mass media contributed to intensifying traumatic feelings, fears and psychological distress in the general public during the outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
Emotional creativity (EC) is a pattern of cognitive abilities and personality traits related to originality and appropriateness in emotional experience. EC has been found to be related to various constructs across different fields of psychology during the past 30 years, but a comprehensive examination of previous research is still lacking. The goal of this review is to explore the reliability of use of the Emotional Creativity Inventory (ECI) across studies, to test gender differences and to compare levels of EC in different countries. Thirty-five empirical studies focused on EC were retrieved and the coefficients required for the meta-analysis extracted. The meta-analysis revealed that women showed significantly higher EC than men (total N = 3,555). The same gender differences were also found when testing scores from three ECI subscales, i.e. emotional novelty, emotional preparedness and emotional effectiveness/authenticity. When comparing EC in 10 different countries (total N = 4,375), several cross-cultural differences were revealed. The Chinese sample showed a significantly lower average ECI total score than all the other countries. Based on the integration of results, the avenues for future research on EC and the breadth of influence of the concept of EC across different fields of psychology are discussed. Keywords: Emotional Creativity, Review, Meta-Analyses, Meta-Analysis, Definition, Emotional Creativity Inventory, ECI, Reliability, Gender Differences, Cross-cultural, Cross-culture, Personality Traits, NEO Personality Inventory, Big Five, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Openness to Experience, Introversion, Neuroticism, Emotions, Creativity, Cognition, Cognitive Abilities, Affect, Fantasy, Coping, Alexithymia, Anhedonia, Self-understanding, Motivation, Creativeness, Innovative Performance, Creative Ability, Artistic Creativity, Creative Thinking. MeSH Headings: Emotions, Creativity, Affect, Affective Symptoms, Gender, Sex, Gender Identity, Cross-Cultural Comparison, Transcultural Studies, Temperament, Extraversion, Neuroticism, Anhedonia, Creativeness, Cognition, Cognitive Function, Artistic Creativity, Creative Ability, Creative Thinking
When asked whether to sacrifice oneself or another person to save others, one might think that people would consider sacrificing themselves rather than someone else as the right and appropriate course of action—thus showing an other-serving bias. So far however, most studies found instances of a self-serving bias—people say they would rather sacrifice others. In three experiments using trolley-like dilemmas, we tested whether an other-serving bias might appear as a function of judgment type. That is, participants were asked to make a prescriptive judgment (whether the described action should or should not be done) or a normative judgment (whether the action is right or wrong). We found that participants exhibited an other-serving bias only when asked whether self- or other-sacrifice is wrong. That is, when the judgment was normative and in a negative frame (in contrast to the positive frame asking whether the sacrifice is right). Otherwise, participants tended to exhibit a self-serving bias; that is, they approved sacrificing others more. The results underscore the importance of question wording and suggest that some effects on moral judgment might depend on the type of judgment.
The consideration of laypeople’s views of conditions under which euthanasia is justifiable is important for policy decisions. In an online survey of US respondents, we examined how patient’s symptoms influence justifiability of euthanasia. Euthanasia was judged more justifiable for conditions associated with physical suffering and negative impact on other people. The weight given to physical suffering and negative impact on others in evaluation of justifiability of euthanasia also differed based on personal characteristics. The results suggest that public discourse about medical assistance in dying should take into account differences in its perceived justifiability for patients with different conditions.
The personality traits of social work leaders are important factors influencing ethical decision-making in organisations. The lack of empirical evidence with regard to the relationship between personal authenticity and ethical decision-making in social work stimulated the present study. Two hundred and thirty-eight leaders (81.9% female) from organisations working in various fields of social work were given the Authenticity Scale, Managerial Ethical Profile, and conducted two free association tasks with the cue words authenticity and self. Authenticity was positively correlated with ethical decision-making. In contrast, authenticity was not correlated with the tendency to make decisions in an effort to maximise economic profit for the organisation. The results of the present study have important practical implications for the social work sector. The positive correlation of authenticity with ethical decision-making indicates that positive reinforcement of authenticity in leaders could possibly lead to supporting ethical decision-making within an organisation. Therefore, supporting authenticity in leaders working in social work may also help foster quality services and prevent unethical behaviour.
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