Political controversies concerning the memory of historical events have adapted to the digital specificity of Twitter and are currently growing in significance. This study investigates the sentiment bias of a memory war between two major Polish political parties, the currently ruling conservative Law and Justice (PiS) party and Civic Platform (PO), the main opposition party, concerning Polish-Jewish relations, and especially the Holocaust. Totally, 23699 PO Tweets and 29,441 PiS Tweets from 2015 to 2019 were collected, out of which, 241 concerning memory war were sampled with a lexicon-based approach. Sentiment was analysed using tweet-based consensual coding with an ordinal five-point scale and automated word-based coding with a three-point scale. PiS tweets had more positive sentiment regarding the memory of the Holocaust and Jewish legacy in Poland. The final hermeneutical analysis showed that the rulling party narratives were aimed appropriation of collective memory and “Polonizing” the Holocaust, and that the positive sentiment was a function of ‘positive anti-Semitism’.
Cardiac myxomas (CM) are one of the most common benign tumors which are typical in adults with a yearly incidence of 0.5–1 case per million individuals. This review article includes discussions based on existing literature on the role of interleukin interactions in the pathophysiology of cardiac myxoma which can lead to embolic complications, aneurysms, and CNS involvement. The objective of this narrative review was to study the variable clinical presentations of cardiac myxoma, its detection and diagnosis involving multiple modalities like genetic and hematological testing, echocardiography, CT, and MRI, of which transoesophageal echocardiogram shows excellent precision with a 90% to 96% accuracy in diagnosing CM. Individuals with the Carney complex are prone to such neoplasia. Cardiac myxomas are challenging to diagnose due to the ambiguity of their differential with thrombi. Myxomas can also be diagnosed by tumor markers like interleukin-6 and endothelial growth factors. The management of CM includes surgical excision like median sternotomy and robotic minimally invasive surgery. The use of robotic surgery in CM increased from 1.8% in 2012 to 15.1% in 2018. Tumor recurrences are uncommon but can occur due to inadequate surgical resection.
Kleefstra syndrome (KS) is a rare genetic disorder ( prevalence < 1 / 1 000 000 ) characterised by autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), childhood hypotonia, and seizures. A typical facial appearance includes microcephaly, arched eyebrows, synophrism, hypertelorism, a short nose, midface hypoplasia, prognathism, and tongue protrusion. This case report presents a 19-year-old female with KS from a dentist’s perspective. The patient demonstrates limited mouth opening with a slight deviation of the mandible on the left side. The mandibular prognathism and anterior open bite are visible. A generalised inflammatory gingival enlargement is most likely a response to local irritants like plaque and calculus but is enhanced by the patient’s mouth breathing habit. Also, the tongue is unusually large—macroglossia. Dental anomalies were diagnosed by digital panoramic radiograph, including dilaceration of the maxillary left second premolar and taurodontism. The patient was qualified to be treated under general anaesthesia with multiple extractions, restorations, hygienisation procedures, and tooth remineralisation. This individual should also be considered for orthodontic treatment and an eventual tongue reduction procedure. In the case of KS, multidisciplinary cooperation as well as frequent dental check-ups with fluoride prophylaxis are recommended. Unfortunately, dental treatment is still not an integral part of taking care of disabled children and youth with rare diseases.
Ovarian cancer is the worst prognostic gynaecological cancer and represents a grave clinical and social problem. Therefore, the study aimed to assess female patients’ emotional, cognitive,physical, and social quality of life. The study included 100 patients diagnosed with ovarian cancer and treated with chemotherapy in a day hospital setting at the Department of Radiotherapy and Gynaecological Oncology at the Wielkopolska Oncology Centre in Pozna ´n. The patients were given a standard treatment regimen: paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 in a 3 h infusion and carboplatin at an AUC of 6 (5–7) following Calvert as a 1 h infusion for six cycles administered every 21 days. In addition, standardised questionnaires of the Polish version of the EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQOV28 were used. The analysis of the collected material shows that the patients reported the highest level of general health and quality of life at the study’s first stage, i.e., before chemotherapy (mean value of 59.67 points). In contrast, the patients’ lowest level of general health and quality of life was observed in the fourth stage of the study (mean value of 45.04 points). The problem of side effects, such as nausea and vomiting, affected the entire study group and was more troublesome in the final stage of treatment for all patients. In the study’s first stage, the mean score on the nausea and vomiting symptom scale was 16 points; in the fourth stage, the mean score was 40.07. Of the clinical factors, the symptom of fatigue was the most severe health problem for the subjects. The mean score of the fatigue scale in the study’s first stage was 37.11 points, while a score of 70.33 was obtained in the fourth stage of the research. The multivariate linear regression model showed that the lack of professional activity lowers quality of life, especially combined with other side effects of chemotherapy, including hair loss in Stage IV of the study. This study shows that women with ovarian cancer undergoing chemotherapy need exceptional support from psychologists, nurses, dieticians, and physiotherapists.
Vaccine hesitancy, spurred by misinterpretation of Adverse Events (AEs), threatens public health. Despite sporadic reports of oral AEs post-COVID-19 vaccination, systematic analysis is scarce. This study evaluates these AEs using the Australian Database of Adverse Event Notifications (DAEN). A secondary analysis of DAEN data was conducted, with the analysis period commencing from the start of the COVID-19 vaccination rollout in February 2021 and the inception of the influenza vaccine database in 1971, both through until December 2022. The focus of the analysis was on oral AEs related to COVID-19 and influenza vaccines. Reports were extracted according to a predefined schema and then stratified by vaccine type, sex, and age. Oral paresthesia was the most common oral AE after COVID-19 vaccination (75.28 per 10,000 reports), followed by dysgeusia (73.96), swollen tongue (51.55), lip swelling (49.43), taste disorder (27.32), ageusia (25.85), dry mouth (24.75), mouth ulceration (18.97), oral hypoaesthesia (15.60), and oral herpes (12.74). While COVID-19 and influenza vaccines shared most oral AEs, taste-related AEs, dry mouth, and oral herpes were significantly more common after COVID-19 vaccination. mRNA vaccines yielded more oral AEs than other types. Females had higher oral AE incidence. Most oral AEs did not differ significantly between COVID-19 and influenza vaccination. However, specific oral AEs, particularly taste-related, dry mouth, and oral herpes, were more prevalent after COVID-19 vaccination compared with seasonal influenza, especially in females and mRNA vaccine recipients.
Endometriosis is a chronic disease in which the endometrium cells are located outside the uterine cavity. The aim of this study was to evaluate circulating 20S proteasome and 20S immunoproteasome levels in plasma and peritoneal fluid in women with and without endometriosis in order to assess their usefulness as biomarkers of disease. Concentrations were measured using surface plasmon resonance imaging biosensors. Patients with suspected endometriosis were included in the study—plasma was collected in 112 cases and peritoneal fluid in 75. Based on the presence of endometriosis lesions detected during laparoscopy, patients were divided into a study group (confirmed endometriosis) and a control group (patients without endometriosis). Proteasome and immunoproteasome levels in both the plasma (p = 0.174; p = 0.696, respectively) and the peritoneal fluid (p = 0.909; p = 0.284, respectively) did not differ between those groups. There was a statistically significant difference in the plasma proteasome levels between patients in the control group and those with mild (Stage I and II) endometriosis (p = 0.047) and in the plasma immunoproteasome levels in patients with ovarian cysts compared to those without (p = 0.017). The results of our study do not support the relevance of proteasome and immunoproteasome determination as biomarkers of the disease but suggest a potentially active role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis.
Background and Objectives: Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) can improve bone health in animals, yet the effects on humans have not been consistent. Therefore, this parallel randomised controlled trial aimed to assess the effect of CLA supplementation on bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) in overweight or obese women. Materials and Methods: The study population included 74 women who were divided into the CLA (n = 37) and control (n = 37) groups. The CLA group received six capsules per day containing approximately 3 g of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers in a 50:50 ratio. The control group received the same number of placebo capsules that contained sunflower oil. BMC and BMD at total body, lumbar spine (L1–L4), and femoral neck were measured before and after a three-month intervention. Results: The comparison of BMC and BMD for the total body, lumbar spine (L1–L4), and femoral neck before and after the intervention showed no differences between the groups. However, a within-group analysis demonstrated a significant increase in BMC (p = 0.0100) and BMD (p = 0.0397) at lumbar spine (L1–L4) in the CLA group. Nevertheless, there were no significant differences between the CLA and placebo groups in changes in all analysed densitometric parameters. Conclusions: Altogether, three-month CLA supplementation in overweight and obese women did not improve bone health, although the short intervention period could have limited our findings, long-term intervention studies are needed. The study protocol was registered in the German Clinical Trials Register database (ID: DRKS00010462, date of registration: 4 May 2016).
The primary purpose of this work was to design and obtain a series of curcuminoid chalcone–NSAID hybrid derivatives. The ester-type hybrid compounds with ibuprofen (i), ketoprofen (ii), and naproxen (iii) were obtained in two ways, using the Claisen–Schmidt reaction and the Steglich esterification reaction. The designed molecules were successfully synthesised, and FT-IR, MS, and NMR spectroscopy confirmed their structures. Moreover, the cytotoxic effect of the sonodynamic therapy and the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticholinergic properties of some curcuminoid chalcones and curcuminoid chalcones hybrids were evaluated. The curcuminoid chalcone derivatives showed promising neuroprotective activity as sonosensitisers for sonodynamic therapy in the studied cell lines. Additionally, the stability of the ester-type hybrid compounds with promising activity was determined. The RP-HPLC method was used to observe the degradation of the tested compounds. Studies have shown that structural isomers of ester-type hybrid compounds (3ai, 3bi) are characterised by a similar susceptibility to degradation factors, i.e., they are extremely unstable in alkaline environments, very unstable in acidic environments, unstable in neutral environments, practically stable in oxidising environments, and photolabile in solutions and in the solid phase. These compounds maintain adequate stability in environment at pH 1.2 and 6.8, which may make them good candidates for developing formulations for oral administration.
The objectives of this retrospective study were to measure the prevalence of complete ponticulus posticus (CPP), to propose a new classification based on two different shapes of CPP, to compare these shapes with age and gender, and to test two different methods of measurements of the diameters of CPP on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Material and methods: We used 2012 CBCT scans from Planmeca Promax 3D Mid and Romexis 5.1 software tools to measure the height and width of the CPP, and we measured the surface of the CPP using an ellipse tool. We classified the CPP into “thin” and “thick” shape. Results: the prevalence of CPP was 9.49% with 97 male and 94 female patients. The unilateral type was found in 131 patients, while the bilateral type was found in 60 patients. Intra-observer reliability was evaluated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The ICC was 0.875 for height, 0.872 for width, and 0.885 for the ellipse area. Both methods present very good intra-observer reproducibility. The “thin” group tended to be older and significantly more related to female patients. The “thick” group was associated with younger male patients. Conclusions: the proposed classification of CPP may be used when reporting the CBCT large field of view. There is still a need to increase the knowledge on the atlas and on its main variant, such as complete PP.
Aims: Expanded hemodialysis (HDx) therapy with improved molecular cut-off dialyzers exerts beneficial effects on lowering uremia-associated chronic systemic microinflammation, a driver of endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in hemodialysis (HD) patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, studies on the underlying molecular mechanisms are still at an early stage. Here, we identify the (endothelial) transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) and its associated molecular signalling pathways as key targets and regulators of uremia-induced endothelial micro-inflammation in the HD/ESRD setting, which is crucial for vascular homeostasis and controlling detrimental vascular inflammation. Methods and results: First, we found that human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs) and other typical endothelial and kidney model cell lines (e.g. HUVECs, HREC, and HEK) exposed to uremic serum from patients treated with two different hemodialysis regimens in the Permeability Enhancement to Reduce Chronic Inflammation II (PERCI-II) crossover clinical trial - comparing High-Flux (HF) and Medium Cut-Off (MCO) membranes - exhibited strongly reduced expression of vasculoprotective KLF2 with HF dialyzers, while dialysis with MCO dialyzers led to the maintenance and restoration of physiological KLF2 levels in HMECs. Mechanistic follow-up revealed that the strong downmodulation of KLF2 in HMECs exposed to uremic serum was mediated by a dominant engagement of detrimental ERK instead of beneficial AKT signalling, with subsequent AP1-/c-FOS binding in the KLF2 promoter region, followed by the detrimental triggering of pleiotropic inflammatory mediators, while the introduction of a KLF2 overexpression plasmid could restore physiological KLF2 levels and downmodulate the detrimental vascular inflammation in a mechanistic rescue approach. Conclusion: Uremia downmodulates vasculoprotective KLF2 in endothelium, leading to detrimental vascular inflammation, while MCO dialysis with the novel improved HDx therapy approach can maintain physiological levels of vasculoprotective KLF2.
This study aims to present biological studies of ultrafine-grained Ti-based materials with niobium and zirconium content, and additionally modified with 45S5 bioglass and silver—Ti23Zr25Nb-9BG-Ag. Alloy and composites with 45S5 bioglass and silver were produced with the mechanical alloying approach. The in vitro cytocompatibility of these biomaterials was evaluated and compared with conventional microcrystalline titanium. During the studies, established cell lines of normal human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPdLF, CC-7049) and normal human osteoblasts (NHost, CC-2538) were cultured in the presence of tested materials, and their survival rate and proliferation activity were examined. Ti23Zr25Nb (at%) alloy and the composite with the addition of 9 wt% of 45S5 bioglass and doped with silver has been proven to be highly biocompatible based on the number of immunopositive NHost cells. Respectively, the composite non-doped with silver has been proven to be highly biocompatible based on the number of immunopositive HPdLF cells. Biocompatibility tests carried out indicate that the ultrafine-grained Ti23Zr25Nb-BG-Ag biomaterial can be a possible candidate for dental implant applications.
Chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH) is a common neurosurgical condition that can cause severe morbidity and mortality. cSDH recurs after surgical evacuation in 5-30% of patients, but drains may help reduce this risk. We aimed to investigate the effect of drainage versus no drainage on the rates of recurrence and mortality, as well as the clinical outcomes of cSDH. Following the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines, we searched four electronic databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and Web of Science) to identify eligible studies reported up to June 2022. Using Review Manager software, we reported four primary outcomes as odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs). The meta-analysis included a total of 10 studies with 1961 patients. The use of drainage was found to be significantly more effective than non-drainage in reducing the "mortality rate" (OR = 0.65, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.97; P = 0.04), the "recurrence rate" (OR = 0.39, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.55; P < 0.00001), and occurrence of "gross focal neurological deficit" (OR = 0.58, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.89; P = 0.01). No significant difference was found in the occurrence of a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15 (OR = 1.21, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.76; P = 0.30). The use of drains after burr-hole irrigation reduces the recurrence, mortality, and gross focal neurological deficit rates of chronic subdural hematomas.
The aim of this meta-analysis was to answer the following question: “Are there any differences in opiorphin biomarker concentrations between different orofacial conditions and controls?”. Two reviewers searched for observational studies that evaluated the levels of opiorphin in orofacial conditions, annotated in seven main databases and three that compile gray literature. Of the 443 articles obtained initially, 8 met the inclusion criteria for quantitative analyses. Relative percentages showed a mean 24.1% higher opiorphin concentration in chronic conditions (Burning Mouth Syndrome, Oral Potentially Malignant Diseases and Temporomandibular Disorder) compared to controls; 33.2% higher opiorphin in sustained pain (Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis, Symptomatic Apical Periodontitis, Painful Oral Soft-tissue conditions); and 21.7% higher opiorphin after stimuli (Corneal Foreign Body, Capsaicin). Meta-analysis revealed a standardized mean difference of 0.62 [0.02, 1.22] in the absolute concentration of opiorphin in saliva for the chronic group compared to the control. The analogous values for the sustained group and the stimulated group were 2.24 [0.34, 4.14] and 0.43 [0.00, 0.85], respectively. No differences in opiorphin levels were found for ‘after Local Anesthesia before Tooth Extraction’ or for apicoectomy. Based on the available evidence, in general, a statistically higher level of opiorphin is found in orofacial conditions. Salivary opiorphin levels are elevated in chronic, persisted and acute pain conditions, presumably reflecting a physiological homeostatic adaptative response to different conditions such as stress or pain. Salivary opiorphin might therefore be used as a valuable biomarker in several oral disorders.
The COVID-19 pandemic has been met with an unprecedented response from the scientific community, leading to the development, investigation, and authorization of vaccines and antivirals, ultimately reducing the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on global public health. However, SARS-CoV-2 is far from being eradicated, continues to evolve, and causes substantial health and economic burdens. In this narrative review, we posit essential points on SARS-CoV-2 and its responsible management during the transition from the acute phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. As discussed, despite Omicron (sub)variant(s) causing clinically milder infections, SARS-CoV-2 is far from being a negligible pathogen. It requires continued genomic surveillance, particularly if one considers that its future (sub)lineages do not necessarily have to be milder. Antivirals and vaccines remain the essential elements in COVID-19 management. However, the former could benefit from further development and improvements in dosing, while the seasonal administration of the latter requires simplification to increase interest and tackle vaccine hesitancy. It is also essential to ensure the accessibility of COVID-19 pharmaceuticals and vaccines in low-income countries and improve the understanding of their use in the context of the long-term goals of SARS-CoV-2 management. Regardless of location, the primary role of COVID-19 awareness and education must be played by healthcare workers, who directly communicate with patients and serve as role models for healthy behaviors.
The process of isothermal and non-isothermal physical ageing of amorphous polylactide (PLA) with the active pharmaceutical ingredient, indapamide (IND), was investigated. A PLA–IND system with a 50/50 weight ratio was obtained and characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In the 50/50 (w/w) mixture, two glass transitions were observed: the first at 64.1 ± 0.3 °C corresponding to the glass transition temperature (Tg) of PLA, and the second at 102.6 ± 1.1 °C corresponding to the Tg of IND, indicating a lack of molecular mixing between the two ingredients. The PLA–IND system was subjected to the isothermal physical ageing process at different ageing temperatures (Ta) for 2 h. It was observed that the highest effect of physical ageing (enthalpy relaxation change) on IND in the PLA–IND system occurred at Ta = 85 °C. Furthermore, the system was annealed for various ageing times at 85 °C. The relaxation enthalpies were estimated for each experiment and fitted to the Kohlrausch–Williams–Watts (KWW) equation. The KWW equation allowed for the estimation of the relaxation time and the parameter describing the distribution of relaxation times of the isothermal physical ageing process of IND in the PLA–IND system. The physical ageing of the PLA–IND mixture (50/50) was also discussed in the context of heat capacity. Moreover, the activation energy and fragility parameters were determined for the PLA–IND (50/50) system.
Several cytokines and chemokines are involved in the pathogenesis and progressive injury of renal tissues in patients with primary chronic glomerulonephritis (CGN). The objective of this study was to determine whether the urinary excretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6), transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), monocytes chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNFR1) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) in patients with newly recognized CGN can serve as prognostic biomarkers in patients with newly recognized CGN and whether they can be effective in predicting a progressive reduction of renal function in prospective observation. The study included 150 Caucasian patients. UIL-6, UTGFβ1, UMCP-1 and UsTNFR1 and UEGF were measured using ELISA methods (Quantikine R&D System). UIL-6, UTGFβ1, UMCP-1 and UsTNFR1 were significantly higher, yet UEGF excretion was significantly lower in nephrotic patients, in patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60/min/1,73m ² at presentation, as well as in the progressor (PG) subgroup. In a multivariate regression analysis basal eGFR correlated with UsTNFR1, UIL-6 and UEGF excretion, although in the follow-up, ΔeGFR (delta estimated glomerular filtration rate) significantly correlated only with UEGF excretion. A logistic regression analysis showed that the most significant independent risk factors for the deterioration of renal function with time are initial high (>11.8 pg/mgCr) UIL-6 excretion, initial low (<15.5 ng/mgCr) urinary UEGF excretion and male gender. In patients with newly diagnosed CGN, UIL-6 and UEGF can serve as prognostic biomarkers for the progression of the disease.
The aim of this study was to compare the iron and calcium status in singleton and twin pregnancies and to assess whether there is an increased risk for iron and calcium deficiency in twin gestation. The study included 105 singleton and 9 twin pregnancies at or above 35 weeks of gestation. Information on prenatal supplementation with iron or calcium was acquired, and adverse perinatal outcomes were recorded. Biosamples from all 114 mothers and 73 newborns (61 singleton and 12 twin newborns) were finally analyzed. Total iron and calcium concentrations in serum were measured through total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis. The results indicated no significant differences in maternal serum iron and calcium concentrations between singleton and twin pregnancies. Similarly, iron and calcium concentrations in newborn umbilical cord serum samples were not different between singleton and twin pregnancies. The comparison of total iron and calcium between mothers and umbilical cord serum indicated significantly lower concentrations in the mothers, with the differences being not homogenous but rather pair-specific. A significant positive correlation between maternal serum and umbilical cord serum calcium concentration was noticed. Prenatal iron supplementation was associated with higher iron concentrations in both mothers and newborns, supporting the efficiency of supplementation and the quality of the study methods. Collectively, the data indicate no significant differences in serum iron and calcium concentrations with regard to singleton or twin pregnancies and the efficiency of iron supplementation during pregnancy for increasing iron status.
Despite the wide pharmacological action of polyphenols, their usefulness is limited due to their low oral bioavailability, which is due to their low solubility and rapid first-pass metabolism. Red vine leaf extract is an herbal medicine containing several polyphenols, with resveratrol and polydatin as the main compounds exhibiting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In the first stage of the work, using the Design of Experiment (DoE) approach, the red vine leaf extract (50% methanol, temperature 70 °C, and three cycles per 60 min) was obtained, which showed optimal antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In order to circumvent the above-described limitations and use innovative technology, electrospun nanofibers containing the red vine leaf extract, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) were first developed. The optimization of the process involved the time of system mixing prior to electrospinning, the mixture flow rate, and the rotation speed of the collector. Dissolution studies of nanofibers showed improved resveratrol release from the nanofibers (over five-fold). Additionally, a PAMPA-GIT assay confirmed significantly better buccal penetration of resveratrol from this nanofiber combination (over ten-fold). The proposed strategy for electrospun nanofibers with the red vine leaf extract is an innovative approach to better use the synergy of the biological action of active compounds present in extracts that are beneficial for the development of nutraceuticals.
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