Pope John Paul II State School of Higher Education
Recent publications
This study assessed the possibility of using iodine-containing fertilizers for agronomic biofortification of rye biomass used as fodder for cows, and establish the best application method and form and the optimal dose of iodine (I) under field conditions. The impact of iodine fertilization on grain iodine content was not studied. Results showed that agronomic biofortification of rye plants with iodine, influenced by its dose, form, and method of application was highly effective in increasing I shoot contents. Plant I-enrichment via foliar and soil application significantly affected I concentration in plant biomass even at a low dose (2.5 kg ha−1). Soil I application as KI appeared optimal for rye plants used as fodder for cows, especially cropped under the soil with a neutral reaction. Iodine application improved the biological quality of rye plants by increasing concentrations of sugar, chlorophylls, and at a low rate, protein and total antioxidant capacity.
The aim of the study was to determine the effect of mechanical and chemical treatments with the application of biostimulants on the effectiveness of weed infestation reduction and potato yielding. A three-year field research study was conducted at the Agricultural Experimental Station Zawady (52°03′ N; 22°33′ E). The field experiment was set up in a split-plot design with three replicates. The first factor was the two edible potato cultivars, and the second was five methods of mechanical and chemical treatments with biostimulants: (1) control object—mechanical weeding, (2) the herbicide Avatar 293 ZC (clomazone + metribuzin), (3) the herbicide Avatar 293 ZC and the biostimulant PlonoStart, (4) the herbicide Avatar 293 ZC and the biostimulant Aminoplant, (5) the herbicide Avatar 293 ZC and the biostimulant Agro-Sorb Folium. Before emergence, the control object was double ridging and single ridging with harrowing and double ridging after emergence. On other objects (2–5) before emergence, two ridgings were applied. The assessment of weed infestation was performed using the quantitative weight method on two dates: about 2 weeks after the application of the herbicide and biostimulants and before the potato tubers harvest. The herbicide and the herbicide with biostimulants applied to the potato crop showed a positive influence in reducing the number and fresh weight of weeds compared to mechanical-only treatments. The highest effectiveness, calculated on the basis of the number and fresh mass of weeds, was found on the fifth object. It was, on average, 70.5 and 71.6% for cultivars, respectively. Research into the use of biostimulants in potato cultivation will continue due to the pro-environmental nature of biostimulants and the importance of this crop. It is certain that the methodology of future field experiments will meet the challenges of sustainable development.
The main aim of this paper was to determine changes in renewable energy production in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The specific objectives were to assess the degree of concentration of renewable energy and the pace of changes in the volume of production of this energy from individual sources in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe, as well as to determine the structure according to renewable energy sources to show the directions of changes. Central and Eastern Europe countries were covered in the research, meaning that a total of 23 countries were included in the analysis. The data used in the study was obtained from the IRENA and World Bank databases. The research period covered the years from 2011 to 2019. For data analysis, the following methods were used: Index methods, Gini coefficient, Lorenz curve, and Grade Data Analysis. The development of the renewable energy sector and modernisation of the energy structure are of great importance for countries to meet their climate obligations. Large-scale energy production from renewable sources could reduce a 60% reduction in the temperature rise. Additionally, such activities will contribute to an increase in energy efficiency by 90%. The energy transition would also bring more comprehensive social and environmental benefits. Thus far, researchers have dealt with energy consumption-related problems in Central and Eastern Europe countries. This article focuses on the production of renewable energy in countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The article fills the research gap in this area. It refers to the situation in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe at a time when developing renewable energy has become very important. In our analysis, we examine renewable energy production in countries located in one region but are and are not EU members. Thanks to this, it will be possible to observe differences in terms of belonging to economic groups. In the case of the pace of changes and the structure of renewable energy produced, a difference can be found between the EU member countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the group of countries outside the EU. The fastest renewable energy production growth was achieved in EU member countries of Central and Eastern Europe. In the case of the mentioned countries, the production of solar, wind, and bioenergy was developed. In other countries, hydropower production was set and treated as a traditional energy source. Generally, in countries of Central and Eastern Europe, the development of energy based on renewable energy sources was not dependent on the pace of economic development of the country. Decision-makers in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe should develop the production of renewable energy from sources that are the easiest and cheapest to use. This is the only way to increase the production of renewable energy in developing countries.
Currently, in agricultural engineering, plant growth regulators or biostimulants, immunity stimulants or bacterial vaccines are becoming standard elements in the production technology of many types of field, fruit and vegetable crops. The research was based on a three-year field experiment carried out in 2018–2021 at the Agricultural Experimental Station of northeastern Poland. The aim of the research was to determine the effect of biostimulators containing microorganisms and micro and macro elements, phosphorus and potassium and silicon on the morphological features of the leaf rosette and the increase in fresh and dry mass of the above-ground part of the rosette and the root system of three winter rape cultivars. The conducted research showed that the application of the organic preparation Ugmax significantly increased the number of rosette leaves (by an average of 13.9%), the length of the tap root (by an average of 2.3 cm), root neck diameter (by an average of 4.2%), fresh and dry weight of the above-ground part of the rosette (by an average of 6.0% and 6.6%) and fresh weight of the root system (by an average of 0.88 g) compared to the control variant. The hybrid morphotypes that were restored compared to the population cultivar Chrobry were characterized by a weaker autumn development of the leaf rosette.
Introduction: Zoonoses have recently become an increasing public health problem. Zoonoses are estimated to account for 60% of all emerging infectious diseases. One particularly important zoonosis is human tuberculosis, especially tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), which is naturally resistant to pyrazinamide (PZA). Material and methods: The patient had a pulmonary form of tuberculosis accompanied by a cough and fever. At the same time, the disease was also confirmed in 20 out of 25 cattle on the farm. The clinical specimen (sputum) was examined in accordance with the European Union (EU) laboratories' methodology. Tissue materials from cattle were verified in the National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI), in the Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) Reference Laboratory, Pulawy, Poland and tested in accordance with the guidelines for the laboratory diagnosis of BTB. Results: All M. bovis isolates represented one spoligotype, SB0120. The results of mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) evaluation showed the same genetic pattern. Conclusions: Findings from this study suggest the first confirmed interspecific transmission of Mycobacterium bovis, between a farmer and his cattle, in Poland. Present findings support the increasing concern regarding zoonotic TB that has been highlighted elsewhere.
The profile of the Lipowo palaeolake (NE Poland) preserves a record of environmental and climate changes from the Last Glacial Termination (16.5k cal ka BP), stretching from the Oldest Dryas to the youngest Allerød warm oscillation. In this interdisciplinary study of the lacustrine succession at Lipowo, we used biological and geochemical indicators and multiproxy analyses to reconstruct environmental changes in the lake ecosystem, such as mollusc, zooplankton and vegetation development, trophic state, water temperature and water level. Four cold and four warm climate oscillations of different durations were identified on this basis: the Older Dryas climate deterioration and two short‐term coolings within the Allerød Interstadial, separated by warm periods in the Bølling and Allerød. The covering of the lake series by diamicton deposits from the melting of dead‐ice blocks is a particularly interesting and rare phenomenon for a postglacial area. The hydrological system of the catchment was generally closed, with a periodically opening and existing flow‐through lake. Over the period of the lake's existence, vegetation changed in general from steppe tundra to forest with birch and pine. For most of this time, the palaeolake was mainly oligotrophic, with increased productivity and a higher trophic level only notable during the middle Bølling.
The paper presents a general computer vision model based on neural-symbolic artificial intelligence capable of performing semantic analysis of a video stream. The proposed approach integrates artificial neural networks (ANN) with the knowledge base on the basis of an ontological approach. In this case, the knowledge base interacts with the neural networks as with agents and the results of their functioning are used for further semantic analysis. The problems of object detection and recognition of images, as well as emotions, are considered as tasks of computer vision. The features, advantages and prospects of using this model are described. Its implementation is considered on the example of an intelligent module that includes the FaceNet and eXnet neural network models for face identification and emotion recognition in the conversational modeling system.KeywordsNeurosymbolic AIComputer visionArtificial neural networkKnowledge baseLogical inference
The article is an attempt to highlight the main types of security threats in cyberspace. As literature provides a multitude of different approaches, standards, methodologies, and proposals for the classification of threats, the article focuses on threats to privacy and national ICT security. Cyberspace is subject to increasingly sophisticated and targeted threats, while our growing reliance on cyberspace exposes our privacy to risks, giving rise to new and significant security gaps. Due to its specific characteristics, it generates serious threats to individuals as well as to national and international security. Depending on the research perspective we adopt, these threats are variable, multidimensional, and multifaceted in nature. Therefore, they require systematic analysis and response.
Introduction: The COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) affected individuals and society and caused disruption, anxiety, stress, and loneliness. Being hospitalized during the pandemic increase a patient's negative feelings. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on patients' feelings (loneliness, depression, hope, self-efficacy) during a hospital stay. Materials and methods: This study included 207 women, aged from 15 to 83 years (55 ± 21.2) that were hospitalized during the pandemic in Białystok, Łomża, and Biała Podlaska, Poland at internal medicine departments. The main reasons for hospitalization were cardiovascular diseases, abdominal pain, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia, diabetes, and unknown fever. Respondents were asked to complete the following questionnaires: Sense of Loneliness (the DJGLS), Depression Beck Inventory (BDI), Basic Hope (BHI-12), and Self-Efficacy (GSES). Results: Most of the studied group of women had an average sense of loneliness. A greater sense of loneliness was found among hospitalized women living in the countryside-the lowest sense of loneliness and depression was among women with higher education and the highest sense of effectiveness. One-third of respondents had a moderate degree of depression. Of the respondents, 39% had a relatively high level of basic hope. The assessment of self-efficacy demonstrated that 52% of the respondents showed a high sense of self-efficacy, an average sense of self-efficacy was shown by 35.5% of the respondents, and a low sense of self-efficacy was shown by 12.6% of the respondents. Conclusions: Numerous hospitalized women during the COVID-19 pandemic, despite experiencing moderate depression, had an average sense of loneliness and a high level of hope and self-efficacy.
Obesity is a complex multifactorial abnormality that has a well-confirmed genetic basis. However, the problem still lies in identifying the polymorphisms linked to body mass and composition. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze associations between FTO (rs9939609), FABP2 (rs1799883), and LEP (rs2167270), LEPR (rs1137101), and MC4R (rs17782313) polymorphisms and obesity-related parameters. Unrelated Caucasian males (n = 165) were recruited. All participants had similar physical activity levels. The participants were divided into two groups depending on their body mass index (BMI) and fat mass index (FMI). All samples were genotyped using real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR). When tested individually, only one statistically significant result was found. The FTO A/T polymorphism was significantly associated with FMI (p = 0.01). The chance of having increased FMI was >2-fold higher for the FTO A allele carriers (p < 0.01). Gene–gene interaction analyses showed the additional influence of all investigated genes on BMI and FMI. In summary, it was demonstrated that harboring the FTO A allele might be a risk factor for elevated fat mass. Additionally, this study confirmed that all five polymorphisms are involved in the development of common obesity in the studied population and the genetic risk of obesity is linked to the accumulation of numerous variants.
Introduction The COVID-19 pandemic is stressful for pregnant women, their families, and their unborn baby. Aim of the Study The study aimed to assess the impact of a pandemic on the mental state of women after childbirth. Material and Methods The study included 363 women hospitalized after delivery. The study used a diagnostic survey method using the proprietary questionnaire and the Family Affluence Scale (FAS), Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale (DJGLS), The Basic Hope Inventory (BHI-12), and General Self Efficacy Scale (GSES). Results Suspicion of postpartum depression was found in 109 women (mean: 15.28 ± 2.22)—group I, and no suspicion of it in 254 subjects (mean: 6.03 ± 2.63)—group II. Mean values of the sense of loneliness in group I (27.11 ± 6.00) were higher than in group II (21.35 ± 7.02), and the basic hope—BHI-12, in group I—lower (27.92 ± 5.14) than in group II (31.75 ± 4.97). In the Generalized Own Efficacy Scale, the group I obtained lower mean values (28.07 ± 4.86 points and 5.87 ± 1.96 points) than group II (30.97 ± 3.77 points and 6.02 ± 1 points, 38 sten). Conclusions As much as 30% of the respondents showed a risk of postpartum depression. The most felt was the limitation of family visits during the hospital stay. In addition, the respondents were most concerned about the child's health in both groups. The feeling of loneliness in group I was higher, and basic hope and generalized self-efficacy were lower than in group II. The differences between these relationships were statistically significant.
Climate change increases the occurrence and severity of droughts due to increasing temperatures, altered circulation patterns, and reduced snow occurrence. While Europe has suffered from drought events in the last decade unlike ever seen since the beginning of weather recordings, harmonized long-term datasets across the continent are needed to monitor change and support predictions. Here we present soil moisture data from 66 cosmic-ray neutron sensors (CRNSs) in Europe (COSMOS-Europe for short) covering recent drought events. The CRNS sites are distributed across Europe and cover all major land use types and climate zones in Europe. The raw neutron count data from the CRNS stations were provided by 24 research institutions and processed using state-of-the-art methods. The harmonized processing included correction of the raw neutron counts and a harmonized methodology for the conversion into soil moisture based on available in situ information. In addition, the uncertainty estimate is provided with the dataset, information that is particularly useful for remote sensing and modeling applications. This paper presents the current spatiotemporal coverage of CRNS stations in Europe and describes the protocols for data processing from raw measurements to consistent soil moisture products. The data of the presented COSMOS-Europe network open up a manifold of potential applications for environmental research, such as remote sensing data validation, trend analysis, or model assimilation. The dataset could be of particular importance for the analysis of extreme climatic events at the continental scale. Due its timely relevance in the scope of climate change in the recent years, we demonstrate this potential application with a brief analysis on the spatiotemporal soil moisture variability. The dataset, entitled “Dataset of COSMOS-Europe: A European network of Cosmic-Ray Neutron Soil Moisture Sensors”, is shared via Forschungszentrum Jülich: https://doi.org/10.34731/x9s3-kr48 (Bogena and Ney, 2021).
The World Health Organization defines quality of life as a person's perception of his or her life situation in relation to the culture and value system in which he or she lives, in relation to and with respect to his or her functioning assumptions, expectations, and standards set by environmental conditions. Meeting the expectations of patients with CVD is one of the factors that positively influences their health status and leads to better diagnostic and treatment outcomes. The aim of this study was to answer three main questions related to patients with chronic cardiovascular disease: (1) What is their quality of life? (2) Are patients' expectations about the quality of care provided by primary health care physicians/nurses met (and at what level)? (3) Is there a correlation between patients' quality of life and their expectations of primary health care physicians/nurses? The study involved 193 Polish CVD patients who were cared for at home by a family nurse practitioner working in primary health care facilities. Data were collected from March 2016 to January 2017. The WHOQOL-BREF Quality of Life Questionnaire and the Author Interview Questionnaire were used for the study. Data analysis was based on the Spearman correlation coefficient test. There was a statistically significant association between patients' expectations of the physician regarding information about the course of the disease and quality of life in the following domains: environmental r = 0.20, p = 0.006, psychological: r = 0.18, p = 0.015, physical: r = 0.18, p = 0.013, and social: r = 0.16, p = 0.025. Patients who did not expect the nurse to be courteous, understanding, or interested were found to have higher quality of life scores in psychological (r = -0.17, p = 0.023) and physical (r = -0.15, p = 0.044) domains. There was a statistically significant relationship between expectations of care from nurses regarding intimacy during care activities and the level of satisfaction with one's own health (r = -0.15, p = 0.038) and quality of life (r = -0.14, p = 0.045), as well as quality of life in the domains of physical (r = 0.21, p = 0.004), social (r = 0.19, p = 0.010), and psychological (r = 0.16, p = 0.024). There is a need to define the expectations of patients with chronic cardiovascular disease in primary care, as lack of expectations of a physician/nurse continues to be associated with lower quality of life in all domains.
A field experiment was carried out in 2018–2020 in central-eastern Poland. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of different methods of applying herbicide and herbicide with biostimulants on the yields of dry matter, starch and protein. The experiment was established using the split-plot method, in which the first factor were two potato varieties (Oberon and Malaga), and the second factor involved five methods of applying herbicide and herbicide with biostimulants (1. control object, 2. clomazone herbicide + metribuzin, 3. clomazone herbicide + metribuzin + PlonoStart biostimulant, 4. clomazone herbicide + metribuzin + Aminoplant biostimulant, 5. clomazone herbicide + metribuzin + Agro-Sorb-Folium biostimulant). Potato varieties and methods of herbicide and biostimulant application significantly influenced the yield of dry matter, starch and protein. The highest yields of the above-mentioned tuber components were obtained from objects 5 and 3 sprayed with herbicide with the Agro-Sorb-Folium and PlonoStart biostimulants. The weather conditions prevailing in the years of the research were also decisive for the yield of protein collected from the area unit.
In recent years, the distribution of Dermacentor reticulatus ticks has expanded into new territories in many European countries, including Poland, with increased population densities in areas of their regular occurrence. The spread of D. reticulatus enhances the risk of exposure of domestic animals and their owners to tick-borne diseases. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of infection of D. reticulatus ticks feeding on dogs with the pathogens Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The study material comprised 152 D. reticulatus ticks collected from dogs in the northeastern part of Lublin Province (eastern Poland). A ready-made AmpliSens® TBEV, B.burgdorferi sl, A.phagocytophilum, E.chaffeensis/E.muris-FRT PCR kit was used for qualitative detection and differentiation of tick-borne infections. The assessment of the degree of infection of the analyzed ticks with the two pathogens revealed that 9.2% (14/152) of the examined ticks were infected with one of the pathogens. No co-infections with the pathogens were detected in any of the ticks. The highest specific percentage of infections (8.6%, 13/152) was associated with A. phagocytophilum. The presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. was detected in only one of the examined ticks (0.7%). The spread of D. reticulatus to new territories and the increase in population density in areas of their regular occurrence implies the need for further studies of the prevalence of pathogens with medical and veterinary importance in order to assess the risk of tick-borne diseases.
Introduction The study highlights the transboundary nature of tuberculosis (TB) in alpacas and the failure of current ante-mortem testing protocols (the tuberculin skin and Enferplex Camelid TB tests) to identify TB-free alpaca herds and individuals for export. Our research and the available literature indicate that the alpaca ( Vicugna pacos ) is extremely susceptible to Mycobacterium bovis infection, and that testing periodicity fails to take into account that animals do not manifest disease symptoms for a long time. The skin test failed to identify Mycobacterium bovis infection in two alpacas prior to their movement from the UK to Poland. The animals were purchased by a breeding centre in Poland, and were then shown at an international animal exhibition. The last owner of the alpacas before their deaths from TB bought the infected animals unwittingly in order to run rehabilitation activities with disabled children on his farm. Material and Methods Thoracic lymph node, lung and liver tissue samples obtained at necropsy were examined histopathologically after Ziehl–Neelsen staining. Tissue samples were homogenised and mycobacteria present there were cultured on Stonebrink’s medium during a 6-week incubation. A commercial test using polymorphism of the chromosomal direct repeat region provided species identification and additional identification was by spacer oligonucleotide typing and mycobacteria interspersed repetitive unit–variable number tandem repeat analysis with a gel electrophoresis protocol. Results The microbiological examination confirmed multiorgan TB caused by the SB0666 spoligotype of Mycobacterium bovis . Conclusion Due to the suboptimal performance of current diagnostic tests for TB in alpacas, there is a risk that infected animals may be moved unwittingly. A risk of TB spread associated with the international movement of alpacas is implied by this study.
The results of three years of research concerned the assessment of the profitability of table potato production depending on the control of weed infestation and the use of biostimulants: 1. control object, 2. Avatar 293ZC (clomazone + metribuzin), 3. Avatar 293ZC + biostimulator PlonoStart, 4. Avatar 293ZC + biostimulator Aminoplant, 5. Avatar 293ZC + biostimulator Agro-Sorb-Folium. The research material consisted of potato tubers of the Malaga variety coming from a field experiment carried out in 2018-2020 on medium soil, in a split-plot arrangement, as two-factorial in three replications. Mechanical and chemical treatments increased the marketable yield of tubers by an average of 37.4%, and decreased the by-yield of tubers by an average of 23.9% compared to the control object. The direct surplus per 1 ha of cultivation ranged from PLN 3521.1 in the control object 1. to PLN 11277.9 in object 5. (herbicid + Agro-Sorb Folium).
Negative social attitudes towards people with disabilities are a serious barrier to their social, professional, and cultural functioning. Due to negative perception, disabled individuals are often homebound. The present study was an attempt to compare declared attitudes with the results of other studies using the Polish version of an international assessment tool. The aim was to verify the MAS-PL tool and to analyse the attitudes of students of social sciences and humanities towards people with physical disabilities. An additional aim was to compare declared attitudes with the results of other studies using the Polish version of an international assessment tool for students of medicine and health sciences. In total, 540 students were surveyed using the Polish adaptation of the Multidimensional Attitudes Scale towards Persons with Disabilities (MAS-PL). The study confirmed the high reliability of the MAS-PL Scale. The mean global score of the scale was 82.79. There were no significant differences in the global MAS-PL score depending on respondents’ sex; however, an effect of this variable on the subscales was found. The surveyed females exhibited more positive attitudes in terms of the cognitive and behavioural components, whereas the males showed more positive attitudes in the affective subscale. There was no significant impact of the place of residence, age, and majors. Along with the year of studies, the intensity of the global and affective scale slightly increased. The surveyed students of social sciences and humanities exhibited similar attitudes towards people with physical disabilities to those declared by Polish students of medical and health sciences surveyed by Radlińska et al. The authors recommend implementation of didactic classes, projects, and activities at the stage of planning and creation of student education programs to promote tolerance towards disabled people.
The work is an attempt to highlight the problem related to too weak or even insufficient communication in a team integrating healthcare professionals and drawing attention to this very important aspect of caring for the patient without competing for the grandmaster’s laurel. The definition of the term Interdisciplinary Team in the medical context is very simple. It is a group of people, specialists in various fields of medicine, dealing with solving a specific problem using the resources at the disposal of each member of such a Team. Polish realities in many cases are far from this concept, which, unfortunately, may result in worse therapy outcomes. Although each of the members of this team may think that his contribution is the most important, it is only the sum of all activities that translates into success, the effect of which is regaining the health lost by the patient, and this success is achieved by not one person but a multi-person team. Currently, it is not possible to provide a patient with only one specialist with the full range of medical services guaranteeing success.Treatment is a complex process involving diagnosticians (imaging diagnostics, laboratory diagnostics), a doctor, physiotherapist, psychologist, dietitian, nurse and many other specialists without whom it is difficult to imagine any treatment activities. The group should be led by a leader, but information on the patient’s health should be available to each member of the therapeutic team, and decisions should be made on the basis of joint arrangements, so that none of the team members“pulls in their way”but contributes to mutual success, what a healthy patient is. The work raises problems such as the lack of reliability of information, points to the unfavourable phenomenon of“generalization”of disease entities and the frequent dissonance in the selection of appropriate therapeutic measures. The article indicates only a few situations that cause inconsistencies in the patient’s rehabilitation process. The rights and scope of the work of a physiotherapist on the basis of current legal documents were emphasized, the possibilities of extending the qualifications of physiotherapists were highlighted and the opportunities that would be granted to physiotherapists after obtaining additional qualifications were emphasized as well.
Entrepreneurship is a process in which goals or tasks are set at one’s own initiative, whereby no efforts are spared to ensure their efficient and effective implementation. The concept of entrepreneurship is associated with innovation as entailing ongoing research and the introduction of rational changes and novel ideas. The aim of the research is to determine the regression interdependencies between the number of enterprises (entrepreneurship) and process and product innovation expenditure (innovators' activity) and the number of inventions (inventors' activity), and in the second regression model: also the number of enterprises (entrepreneurship) and process and product innovative expenditure (innovators' activity) and the number of patents (inventors' activities) generated within the Polish industry in the years 2015-2017. The hypothesis is that patents (inventors' activities) get reinforced with process and product innovation expenditures (innovators’ activities) employed in the process of growth of the number of enterprises (entrepreneurship) in industry, as well as the overall efficiency of expenditures and technologies (patents) in the Polish industry over the course of the researched years. Conducted studies have confirmed the above hypothesis. In addition, the research carried out has shown that patents (inventors 'activities) have supplemented the share (elasticity) of process and product innovation (innovators' activities) by 10% in the increase in the number of enterprises (entrepreneurship) as observed in industry. This share is transferred from the supply element to that of demand.
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54 members
Gustaw Wójcik
  • Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, Institute of Physical Education and Physiotherapy, Department of Physiotherapy
Małgorzata Tokarska-Rodak
  • Department of Public Health
Marcin Klimek
  • Department of Computer Science
Artur Popko
  • Department of Computer Science
Kamil Zaworski
  • Department of Physiotherapy
Biała Podlaska, Poland