This article explores Jacques Rancière’s critique of political philosophy. I argue that, to understand this critique, it is necessary to explore the aesthetic dimension of philosophers’ politics, pointing out that, at its foundation, lies a certain understanding of time that, paradoxically, negates political practice. To get out of this paradox, I point out that Rancière proposes a politics of writing that allows us to understand political practice from the point of view of a heterochronic and conflictive form of time. This approach, which distances itself from the Western tradition of political thought, allows us to address the concepts of contingency and equality in a radical way.
The live music concert business was one of the economic sectors most affected by mandatory quarantine and social restrictions due to COVID-19. The quarantine forced this industry to reinvent itself through digital communication, to be able to continue offering this type of shows, but in a completely virtual way. Taking this into account, this research analyses the adaptation of the live music concert business through e-service quality management in digital communication, and how the consumer of this type of shows responded to this new commercial strategy. Through the PLS a sample of 294 consumers was processed in the city of Bogota, (Colombia), who, once the mandatory quarantine ended, attended some kind of live music concert, but completely in a virtual way. The results allow us to show the positive relationships between study variables, thus demonstrating the emergence of a digital consumer in this sector. © 2022 The Author(s). This open access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 license.
Corruption and organized crime are social problems that affect different communities around the world, involving public and private organizations in diverse sectors and activities. However, these problems are global phenomena that transcend economic, cultural, and social borders, especially, when corrupt individuals use the global financial system to protect their illegal money. This paper aims to evaluate the money laundering mechanism in financial networks, studying the structure of some suspicious money laundering groups, and how they could be detected by the use of topological and geometrical considerations that avoid the need of possibly non-available (or restricted) information.
Coxiella burnetii is the etiologic agent of Q fever, a zoonotic infectious disease of worldwide distribution that has a wide clinical spectrum. Transmission of C. burnetii occurs by inhalation of contaminated secretions and excreta of infected animal species, particularly goats, cattle and sheep. Activities associated with livestock contact represent the principal risk factor, however participation of wildlife reservoirs is underestimated. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of C. burnetii DNA in blood from bats. Molecular analyses using a qPCR targeting the IS1111 specific gene to detect DNA of C. burnetii in blood samples from 126 bats captured in the Macaregua cave, Colombia, between 2014, 2015 and 2018 were performed. Molecular evidence of C. burnetii was found in 6.3%. Results obtained in the present study represent the first detection of C. burnetii among bats in Colombia, suggesting that more studies need to be done in order to determine the role of these animals in the eco-epidemiology of Q fever.
This article delineates the notion of conjectural artworks—that is, ways of thinking and explaining formal and relational phenomena by visual means—and presents an appraisal and review of the use of such visual ways in the work of Chilean biologists and philosophers Humberto Maturana and Francisco Varela. Particularly, the article focuses on their recurrent uses of Cellular Automaton, that is, discrete, locally interacting, rule-based mathematical models, as conjectural artworks for understanding the concepts of autopoiesis, structural coupling, cognition and enaction: (i.e. Protobio and Bittorio). Additionally, the article proposes a new model of conjectural artwork based on an extension of cellular automaton: random Boolean networks namely, binary systems with variable local connections. Such model, as it is argued, is useful to connect the theoretical frameworks by Maturana and Varela, especially structural coupling and enaction, with other relevant fields such as biosemiotics’ Umwelt-research and cognitive landscapes in neurodynamics, and to advance and explore the concepts of structurally coupled categorization and generalization.
Guanarito virus (GTOV) is a member of the family Arenaviridae and has been designated a category A bioterrorism agent by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. It is endemic to Venezuela’s western region, and it is the etiological agent of “Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever” (VHF). Similar to other arenaviral hemorrhagic fevers, VHF is characterized by fever, mild hemorrhagic signs, nonspecific symptoms, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia. Patients with severe disease usually develop signs of internal bleeding. Due to the absence of reference laboratories that can handle GTOV in endemic areas, diagnosis is primarily clinical and epidemiological. No antiviral therapies are available; thus, treatment includes only supportive analgesia and fluids. GTOV is transmitted by contact with the excreta of its rodent reservoir, Zygodontomys brevicauda. The main reasons for the emergence of the disease may be the increase in the human population, migration, and changes in land use patterns in rural areas. Social and environmental changes could make VHF an important cause of underdiagnosed acute febrile illnesses in regions near the endemic areas. Although there is evidence that GTOV circulates among rodents in different Venezuelan states, VHF cases have only been reported in the states of Portuguesa and Barinas. However, due to the increased frequency of invasions by humans into wildlife habitats, it is probable that VHF could become a public health problem in the nearby regions of Colombia and Brazil. The current Venezuelan political crisis is causing an increase in the migration of people and livestock, representing a risk for the redistribution and re-emergence of infectious diseases.
Objectives Our study compares two national COVID-19 vaccination plan strategies—high-risk prioritization and no prioritization—and estimates their cost-effectiveness compared with no vaccination, to generate possible recommendations for future vaccination plans. Methods We developed a Markov discrete-time, compartmental, deterministic model stratified by Colombian departments, healthcare workers, comorbidities, and age groups and calibrated to seroprevalence, cases, and deaths. The model simulates three scenarios: no vaccination, no prioritization of vaccination, and prioritization of high-risk population. The study presents the perspective of the health system of Colombia, including the direct health costs financed by the government and the direct health outcomes related to the infection. We measured symptomatic cases, deaths, and costs for each of the three scenarios from the start of the vaccination rollout to February 20, 2023. Results Both for the base-case and across multiple sensitivity analyses, the high-risk prioritization proves to be the most cost-effective of the considered strategies. An increment of US$255 million results in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of US$3339 per disability-adjusted life-year avoided. The simulations show that prioritization of high-risk population reduces symptomatic cases by 3.4% and deaths by 20.1% compared with no vaccination. The no-prioritization strategy is still cost-effective, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of US$5223.66, but the sensitivity analysis the show potential risks of losing cost-effectiveness under the cost-effectiveness threshold (one gross domestic product per averted disability-adjusted life-year). Conclusions The high-risk prioritization strategy is consistently more cost-effective than the no-prioritization strategy across multiple scenarios. High-risk prioritization is the recommended strategy in low-resource settings to reduce the burden of disease.
Background Patient and stakeholders’ involvement in the development of mental health interventions is a central part of the research process as end-user’s input can improve the design of patient-centered interventions. This is particularly important when developing interventions directed towards improving the mental health of children and adolescents. The rising prevalence of mental health disorders in this population requires special attention and the development of interventions that include them as active participants is crucial. Objective Our aim is to explore the perspectives and opinions of adolescents, parents, educators/youth workers, and clinicians regarding the appeal and usability of an existing patient-centered digital intervention (DIALOG+), which aims to improve quality of life. Methods As part of a broader study aiming to adapt and test DIALOG+, we conducted Online Focus Groups (OFGs) with adults and adolescents in two cities in Colombia. The existing DIALOG+ intervention was introduced to participants, followed by a structured discussion regarding the opinions and views of stakeholders. A framework approach was used to identify the main themes followed by content analysis to aid adaptation. Results We conducted 10 OFGs with a total of 45 participants. A positive feature highlighted by all groups was the innovation of including a digital intervention in a traditional medical visit. Additionally, participants considered that the active role that adolescents have when using the intervention empowers them. Barriers identified included concerns from clinicians related to the time required during consultations and confusion with terminology. Furthermore, additional domains that are particularly relevant for the adolescent population were suggested. Conclusions Data obtained suggest that overall, the DIALOG+ intervention and supporting app are seen as innovative and appealing to adolescents as well as adult stakeholders. However, concerns raised about the availability of time to apply the intervention, the app interface and the language and terminology require modification.
Objective: The differential diagnosis of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains challenging in underrepresented, underdiagnosed groups, including Latinos, as advanced biomarkers are rarely available. Recent guidelines for the study of dementia highlight the critical role of biomarkers. Thus, novel cost-effective complementary approaches are required in clinical settings. Approach: We developed a novel framework based on a gradient boosting machine learning classifier, tuned by Bayesian optimization, on a multi-feature multimodal approach (combining demographic, neuropsychological, MRI, and EEG/fMRI connectivity data) to characterize neurodegeneration using site harmonization and sequential feature selection. We assessed 54 bvFTD and 76 AD patients and 152 healthy controls (HCs) from a Latin American consortium (ReDLat). Main results: The multimodal model yielded high AUC classification values (bvFTD patients vs. HCs: 0.93 (±0.01); AD patients vs. HCs: 0.95 (±0.01); bvFTD vs. AD patients: 0.92 (±0.01)). The feature selection approach successfully filtered non-informative multimodal markers (from thousands to dozens). Results proved robust against multimodal heterogeneity, sociodemographic variability, and missing data. Significance: The model accurately identified dementia subtypes using measures readily available in underrepresented settings, with a similar performance than advanced biomarkers. This approach, if confirmed and replicated, may potentially complement clinical assessments in developing countries.
There are different bovine infectious diseases that show economic losses and social problems in various sectors of the economy. Most of the studies are focused on some diseases (for example, tuberculosis, salmonellosis, and brucellosis), but there are few studies on other diseases which are not officially controlled but also have an impact on the economy. This work is a systematic literature review on models (as a theoretical scheme, generally in mathematical form) used in the epidemiological analysis of bovine infectious diseases in the dairy farming sector. In this systematic literature review, criteria were defined for cattle, models, and infectious diseases to select articles on Scopus, IEEE, Xplorer, and ACM databases. The relations between the found models (model type, function and the proposed objective in each work) and the bovine infectious diseases, and the different techniques used and the works over infectious disease in humans, are presented. The outcomes obtained in this systematic literature review provide the state-of-the-art inputs for research on models for the epidemiological analysis of infectious bovine diseases. As a consequence of these outcomes, this work also presents an approach of EiBeLec, which is an adaptive and predictive system for the bovine ecosystem, combining a prediction model that uses machine-learning techniques and an adaptive model that adapts the information presented to end users.
It is an increasingly accepted idea that biological diversity stabilizes ecosystem processes and the services they provide to society. By reducing biomass fluctuation, biodiversity could mitigate the impact of changing environmental conditions on rural incomes as long as people exploits a diverse set of natural assets. This effect is analogous to the risk-spreading function of financial portfolios. This paper presents evidence of the portfolio effect for an open-access artisanal fishery in an estuarine ecosystem, located in a Colombian Biosphere Reserve. Using catch statistics from 2002 to 2018, we evaluate the contribution of catch diversity to the stabilization of fishing income. We find that changes in catch composition are related to seasonal and interannual variations in salinity conditions. The portfolio effect arises from asynchronous fluctuations of fish species due to fluctuating environmental conditions. Catch diversification, instead of specialization, help achieve resilient fisheries.
Background. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the leading causes of chronic liver disease and is closely associated with cardiometabolic disorders, being insulin resistance (IR) the common pathogenic mechanism. The triglycerides/glucose (TyG) index and triglycerides/HDL-c (TG/HDL) ratio are markers correlated with IR. We compared the capacity of these two indexes, alongside IR, to detect NAFLD. Methods. In a cross-sectional cohort study, we examined 263 active military personnel from the Colombian Air Force, aged between 29 and 54 years. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical determinations (glycemia, lipid profile, and insulin) were obtained, and ultrasound studies were performed to evaluate the presence of NAFLD. HOMA-IR index was calculated as (fasting insulin (µIU/mL) × fasting glucose (mmol/L)/22.5), the TyG index as Ln (triglycerides (mg/dL) × fasting glucose (mg/dL)/2), and the TG/HDL ratio as (triglycerides (mg/dL)/HDL-c (mg/dL)). Results. NAFLD ultrasound criteria were met in 70 individuals (26.6%). Subjects with NAFLD had significantly higher values of HOMA-IR (2.55 ± 1.36 vs. 1.51 ± 0.91), TyG (9.17 ± 0.53 vs. 8.7 ± 0.51), and TG/HDL (6.6 ± 4.54 vs. 3.52 ± 2.32) compared to those without NAFLD p < 0.001 . A TyG cutoff point of 8.92 showed an AUC of 0.731, while cutoff points of 3.83 for TG/HDL and 1.68 for HOMA-IR showed an AUC of 0.766 and 0.781, respectively. Conclusion. Our study shows that novel and lower-cost markers of IR are useful for detecting NALFD, with a performance comparable to the HOMA-IR index. These markers should be used as the first step when screening patients for NAFLD.
Resumo Objetivo O presente estudo avalia os resultados de uma técnica cirúrgica minimamente invasiva para o manejo da instabilidade aguda e crônica do tornozelo. Métodos O presente estudo de uma série de casos avaliou retrospectivamente 40 pacientes submetidos à reconstrução percutânea assistida por artroscopia do ligamento do tornozelo entre 2013 e 2019. Resultados O estudo incluiu 17 homens e 23 mulheres com idade média de 38,3 anos. O acompanhamento pós-intervenção utilizou a pontuação American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS, na sigla em inglês). As pontuações do tornozelo-retropé identificaram melhora > 30 pontos na função e no controle da dor. As lesões associadas mais frequentes foram as osteocondrais (35%). Nenhum paciente precisou de reintervenção ou teve infecção durante o acompanhamento. Conclusão A técnica do presente estudo é fácil e consegue resultados satisfatórios para a função e o controle da dor. Nível de Evidência IV.
Context Identifying the habitat preferences and core areas of Inia geoffrensis activity is essential to designing effective strategies for the management and conservation of Amazon River dolphins and their habitats in the Colombian Amazonas River and Orinoco basin. Objectives Quantify the differential use of habitat that Amazon River dolphins exhibit and identify core areas of activity during seasons of rising waters in the Colombian Amazonas River and five major rivers in the Orinoco basin. Methods Based on processed satellite images from Landsat 8 (2018–2021), we classified habitat types used by I. geoffrensis as reported in the literature as follows: (1) main river, (2) confluences, (3) tributaries, (4) channels, (5) islands, (6) bays, and (7) lagoons. We combined this dataset with GPS location data obtained from 17 tagged Amazon River dolphins to quantify the proportion of habitat types used. We used kernel density estimate (KDE) analysis to identify both areas used (K95) and core areas (K50) in the habitat types for the satellite-monitored individuals. Results Satellite tracking of I. geoffrensis individuals reported 16,098 locations classified into seven habitat types. For the analyzed period (rising waters) main habitat types used were as follow: (1) main river (n = 9144, 57%); (2) confluences (n = 932, 6%); (3) tributaries (n = 1423, 9%); (4) channels (n = 1597, 10%); (5) islands (n = 738, 5%); (6) bays (n = 1096, 7%), and (7) lagoons (n = 1168, 7%). Home range size (K95) for the satellite-monitored I. geoffrensis individuals ranged from 6 to 116 km² (mean = 40 ± 33); and the largest core areas (K50) or core area of activity were recorded in the main river, confluences, channels, bays, lagoons, and tributaries. Conclusions Our results demonstrated the importance of spatial ecology analysis of Amazon River dolphins for the definition of protected areas, quantifying the use of ecosystems within these areas, and the location of priority areas for the implementation of management plans for the species and habitats.
Objective We sought to determine if soluble levels of C5b-9, the terminal complement complex, correlate with end-organ injury in preeclampsia. Study Design Project COPA (Complement and Preeclampsia in the Americas), a multi-center observational study in Colombia from 2015 to 2016, enrolled hypertensive pregnant women into four groups: chronic hypertension, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, and preeclampsia with severe features. Trained coordinators collected clinical data, blood and urine. End-organ injury was defined by serum creatinine ≥ 1.0 mg/dl, aspartate transaminase ≥ 70U/L, platelet count < 150,000/µl, or lactate dehydrogenase ≥ 500 U/L. Data were analyzed by χ² or Fisher’s exact test with significance at P < 0.05. Main Outcome Measure C5b-9 concentrations in plasma and urine, using enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. Results In total, 298 hypertensive participants were enrolled. Plasma and urine C5b-9 levels were measured in all participants and stratified by quartile (Q1-4), from lowest to highest C5b-9 concentration. Participants with low plasma C5b-9 levels (Q1) were more likely to have end-organ injury compared to those with higher levels (Q2-Q4) [platelet count < 150,000/μl (20.8% vs. 8.4%, P = 0.01); elevated serum creatinine ≥ 1.0 mg/dl (14.9% vs. 4.5%, P = 0.009)]. In contrast, participants with high urinary C5b-9 levels (Q4) were more likely to have end-organ injury compared to those with lower levels (Q1-Q3) [platelet count < 150,000/μl (19.7% vs. 7.4%, P = 0.003); elevated serum creatinine ≥ 1.0 mg/dl (12.3% vs. 4.4%, P = 0.025)]. Conclusion We identified a pattern of increased urine and low plasma C5b-9 levels in patients with preeclampsia and end-organ injury. Soluble C5b-9 levels may be used to identify complement-mediated end-organ injury in preeclampsia.
Nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus L.) is a plant rich in bioactive compounds such as phenolic compounds, glucosinolates (GLS) and their hydrolyzed metabolites isothiocyanates (ITCs), which modulate signaling pathways related to lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. This randomized crossover trial explored the effect of intervention with a freeze-dried nasturtium drink on insulin response and lipid profile in prediabetic subjects. Ten (10) patients were randomly assigned to the following treatments: NT (nasturtium) and PLC (placebo) for 4 weeks and after this time the treatments were crossed for another 4 weeks. Biomarkers related to insulin resistance and lipid profile were measured at the beginning and the end of the intervention with each treatment. The consumption of 15 g NT (681 μmol of benzyl glucosinolate)/dose week for four (4) weeks resulted in a significant decrease in the concentration of LDL cholesterol (LDLc), Oxidized LDL (ox-LDL), Castelli's risk index I and II (TC/HDLc, and LDLc/HDLc) and Atherogenic Coefficient (non-HDLc)/HDLc). The results suggest that the nasturtium consumption might have a modulating effect on biomarkers related to cardiovascular disease, altered in subjects with chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes. This study is the first in vivo study to explore the chronic effect of T. majus consumption in patients with prediabetes and shows the importance of continuing to explore this effect in studies with a larger number of participants.
A debated topic in the bilingualism field is if there is an advantage for bilinguals in terms of executive functions (EF). EF are an assemblage of mental processes and self-regulation skills including both basic and higher-level cognitive processes such as inhibition, working memory, monitoring, task shifting, updating, working memory capacity, planning, flexibility, and reasoning. This study investigated whether there was an inhibition control advantage for highly proficient Spanish-English late bilingual adults, compared to Spanish-speaking monolingual adults in Bogotá, Colombia. The study utilized the Victoria version of the Stroop Task (Stroop, 1935) to measure the abilities of inhibitory control between the two groups, in addition to other measures to determine second language proficiency levels. A total of 21 monolingual and 20 bilingual participants between the ages of 20 to 38 took part in the study. Results showed that there was no significant difference in response times between the bilingual and monolingual participants when performing the Stroop task. The implications of these results, the limitations of the study and recommended changes for future studies, which could potentially demonstrate a bilingual advantage, are discussed.
Posterior a la publicación de la Clasificación de Chicago 4.0 (CC4.0) ,esquema de clasificación actualizado para los trastornos de la motilidad esofágica utilizando métricas de manometría de alta resolución (MAR) ,cada uno de los siete subgrupos de trabajo elaboró la revisión técnica específica de las alteraciones motoras del esófago, el protocolo y de las métricas de la función de barrera de la unión esófagogástrica (UEG), con el fin de brindar el estado actual y comunicar el progreso en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de acuerdo a las declaraciones planteadas por un grupo de expertos asignado por el CC4.0. De acuerdo a las novedades de CC4.0 se incluye el requerimiento de la evaluación manométrica y no manométrica adicional para llegar al diagnóstico conclusivo y procesable de obstrucción al flujo de salida de la unión esofagogástrica (UEG) (EGJOO), la EGJOO, el espasmo esofágico distal y esófago hipercontráctil son alteraciones motoras manométricas que deben presentar síntomas esofágicos obstructivos de disfagia y/o dolor torácico no cardíaco para ser considerados clínicamente relevantes, actualmente debe incluirse en el protocolo las posiciones supino y vertical así como maniobras manométricas adicionales, como las degluciones rápidas múltiples y el desafío de bebida rápida. Las degluciones de prueba sólidas, las pruebas postprandiales y la provocación farmacológica también se pueden considerar para condiciones específicas como por ejemplo la rumiación y por último en la CC4.0 la definición de motilidad esofágica ineficaz es más estricta y ahora abarca el peristaltismo fragmentado.
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Carrera 7 No. 40 - 62, 110231, Bogotá, Cundinamarca, Colombia
Head of institution
S.J. Jorge Humberto Pelaez Piedrahita