Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador
Recent publications
Most research on the development of personality traits like the Dark Triad (i.e., narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy) focuses on local effects like parenting style or attachment, but people live in a larger society that may set the stage for any local effects. Here we paired nation-level data on the traits from 49 nations with several milieu indicators (e.g., life expectancy, homicide rates) from three timepoints (and change among them) where the average participant (≈ 22yo) would have been a child (≈ 6yo), a pre-teen (≈ 11yo), and a teenager (≈ 16yo). Congruent with previous research, variance in narcissism was far more sensitive to variance in milieu conditions in general and across all three time points than variance in Machiavellianism or psychopathy. The milieu conditions differentiated the traits somewhat with income and education revealing negative correlations with narcissism, positive correlations with Machiavellianism, and null correlations with psychopathy. Sex differences in Machiavellianism and narcissism were correlated with homicide rates across the three timepoints. The evidence that changes in milieu conditions in ones' past predicts the traits was erratic, but larger sex differences in the traits were associated with decreased life expectancies and homicide rates between childhood and pre-teens.
In Ecuador, tree tomato (Solanum betaceum) production is continuous throughout the year. Blight caused by Phythophthora andina is usually controlled with frequent fungicide applications containing the active ingredients metalaxyl, mefenoxam, or cymoxanil. The constant presence of inoculum year-round, the high number of sprays per season, and a pathogen population constituted by a single clonal lineage, exert a high selection pressure for development of resistance to these fungicides. The objective of this study was to measure the sensitivity of P. andina from tree tomato to the active ingredients metalaxyl, mefenoxam, and cymoxanil. For that, 69 isolates were collected from tree tomato in five provinces of Ecuador and evaluated in vitro with standard techniques to classify them as resistant, intermediate, or sensitive to metalaxyl and mefenoxam. Thirty-one of these isolates were evaluated in vitro for their sensitivity to cymoxanil by estimating EC50 by probit analysis. Most isolates were sensitive to metalaxyl (44.9%) and mefenoxam (56.5%), and 29% of the isolates had intermediate sensitivity to both fungicides. The percentage of resistant isolates was higher with metalaxyl (26.1%) than with mefenoxam (14.5%). Isolates showed a wide range of sensitivity to cymoxanil with EC50 values between 0.016 and 208.288 μg/mL. Restriction of mycelial growth occurred even with the lowest concentration dosage (0.1 μg/mL). Most isolates (55.6%) had intermediate sensitivity to cymoxanil, 40.7% were sensitive, and only one (3.7%) was resistant. The resistant isolate was collected in Napo and is the first report of resistance to cymoxanil in Ecuador. The Ecuadorian population of P. andina attacking tree tomato shows some level of resistance to three of the fungicides used to control the disease, and therefore the alternating use of active ingredients is advisable to reduce the increase of resistance in the pathogen population.
Introducción: El Linfoma de Hodgkin (LH), es una neoplasia hematológica poco frecuente, donde las células neoplásicas forman una minoría del tumor y están rodeados por un medio inflamatorio reactivo que incluye linfocitos, eosinófilos, neutrófilos, histiocitos y células plasmáticas. El objetivo del presente estudio fue describir una población con esta patología y su supervivencia en 7 años de seguimiento. Metodología: Este estudio longitudinal, se realizó en el Hospital Carlos Andrade Marín, de Quito, Ecuador, del período 2013- 2019, con una muestra no probabilística, de pacientes con LH. Se registraron variables demográficas, clínicas, de laboratorio, clasificación Ann Arbor, clasificación histológica, tratamiento y respuesta, mortalidad y tiempo de supervivencia. Se utiliza estadística descriptiva; bivariada y un análisis de supervivencia. Resultados: Se analizan 73 casos, 43 hombres (58.9 %). El grupo etáreo más prevalente fue el de 61 a 70 años con 19 casos (26 %). 1 caso (4.1 %) con VIH. El 9.6% (7 casos) recibían tratamiento con inmunosupresores. Síntomas B en 49 casos (67.1%). Adenomegalias en 15 casos (20.5 %). Masa Bulky 5 casos (6.8 %). Fallecieron 22 casos (30.1 %). Supervivencia media de 52.8 meses, el 83.6% de los pacientes recibieron Adriamicina, Bleomicina, Vincristina y Doxorrubicina como 1ra línea de tratamiento, con remisión completa en el 61.7%. El estadio IV de Ann Arbor incremento significativamente la mortalidad (HR: 3.474, IC95%: 1.202 – 6.112, P= 0.036). Pacientes con la variante de depleción linfocitaria tuvieron mayor probabilidad de fallecimiento (HR: 4.975, IC95%: 1.313 – 9.472, P= 0.041). Los valores medios de hemoglobina < 10.5 g/dL (HR: 2.395, IC95%: 1.466 – 5.941, P= 0.029), albúmina < 4 g/dL (HR: 4.020, IC95%: 1.936 – 7.257, P= 0.011) y linfocitos < 600 células/µL (HR: 4.572, IC95%: 1.853 – 11.282, P= 0.001). Conclusión: La prevalencia de LH fue ligeramente mayor en hombres que en mujeres, con una relación de 1.1: 1. La incidencia por edad tuvo dos picos, entre 31-40 años y entre 61-70 años. La diabetes e hipertensión fueron las mayores comorbilidades previas al diagnóstico. La sintomatología más frecuente fueron los síntomas B, la segunda manifestación clínica más frecuente fue adenomegalias. Los estadios II y III (Ann Arbor) fueron los más frecuentes. El promedio de Hemoglobina fue menor en los fallecidos, así como la albúmina. Para el tratamiento de primera línea se utilizó ABVD, con lo cual se alcanzó remisión completa en el 61.7% de los casos. La ausencia de síntomas B, se relacionó con una mayor supervivencia; los estadios avanzados se relacionaron con peor supervivencia; la supervivencia fue mayor en pacientes que obtuvieron remisión completa con la primera línea de tratamiento; la supervivencia no se vio afectada por el uso de radioterapia y la supervivencia general fue menor a la encontrada en países desarrollados.
Hydrocarbon activities over the years have been one of the main sources of environmental pollution, creating short and long-term impacts. This study aims to analyze the scientific production of the American continent through a bibliographic review of scientific articles published from the 1970s to the present, in order to contrast relevant scientific information about the types of pollution, water, atmospheric, and acoustic, published in the most important scientific repositories in the world, such as Scopus and Web of Science. The Prisma methodology was adopted for its development. From the plethora of articles collected, a sample of 3879 scientific articles was extracted, from which 3322 of them were excluded, leaving 557 records with remarkable information such as: country, year of publication, type of contamination, remediation if applicable, the associated oil & gas sector, and publication registration on the indexed website. It was noted that the countries with the highest scientific production are the United States, Canada, Brazil, Mexico, and Argentina. Furthermore, the Web of Science, unlike Scopus, contains more indexed publications related to the types of contamination objects relevant to this study. On the other hand, publications focused on water pollution are the only ones that come up with remediations; the rest release a smaller number of publications on these topics.
Energy poverty (EP) is a systemic problem associated with various health effects. The city council of Barcelona carried out an intervention to reduce EP among social services users. The aim of our study was to assess the effects of the intervention perceived by participants and to identify typologies of social vulnerability that could affect these effects. A qualitative methodology was used within a grounded theory framework with a critical theory approach. Twenty-one interviews and 11 discussion groups were conducted among 89 participants in the intervention. Six typologies of social vulnerability were defined: single mothers, older people, migrants, tenants, people living in dwellings in poor conditions and people with chronic health problems. The results show that the overall effects of the program included economic savings, improved thermal comfort, increased perception of social support, enhanced knowledge of energy efficiency and rights to basic supplies, and greater energy security. These factors improved well-being and reduced stress and anxiety related to not being able to use energy supplies. The effects of the intervention might vary according to housing conditions, the perceived priority of social problems and the type of social vulnerability among participants. Importantly, a single individual could experience different axes of social inequality simultaneously. A typologies approach to interventions can provide a deeper understanding for the design of equitable policies to reduce EP.
The genus Cerradoa (type species Cerradoa palmaea) was established in 1978 by Hennen and Ono and named after the Brazilian Cerrado biome. The holotype collected in Planaltina, Federal District, Brazil, belonged to the first rust fungus reported on palms (Arecaceae). For decades, the status of Cerradoa as a distinct genus has been regarded as doubtful, representing a synonym of Edythea (Uropyxidaceae) starting with the second edition of the Illustrated Genera of Rust Fungi in 1983. Our molecular phylogenetic analyses, as well as our morphological investigations, allowed us to reject this synonymy, leading to the reinstatement of Cerradoa within the Pucciniaceae. Cerradoa, together with morphologically similar genera such as the newly established Pseudocerradoa with two species (Ps. paullula and Ps. rhaphidophorae) infecting araceous hosts, the fern rust Desmella, and also P. engleriana, could not be assigned to any of the seven identified major lineages within the Pucciniaceae. Edythea, instead of being maintained as a member of the Uropyxidaceae, was herein placed in Pucciniaceae, shown phylogenetically in close relationship to Cumminsiella mirabilissima, both infecting the Berberidaceae. Additionally, our extensive phylogenetic analyses add guidance for future taxonomic revisions in the highly polyphyletic genus Puccinia and other established taxa within the family Pucciniaceae.
This document analyzes the approaches and meanings through which the Universities and Polytechnic Schools in Ecuador have conceived and implemented the concepts of student well-being and formative accompaniment in higher education in Ecuador. Analyzed and understood as a set of tools, the relevance of the welfare approach helps, on one hand, to equate structural inequalities and, on the other hand, contribute to the scope of the purposes of university academic training. This approach tends to face student dropout while strengthening retention strategies during training courses, thus promoting greater terminal efficiency. Student well-being and training support as axes of higher education propose the challenge of incorporating support structures within educational models. This makes it possible to build the necessary conditions for the maximum development of students’ capacities. Well, it is not only a question of guaranteeing access to higher education, but, above all, has to do with enabling all students to continue studying and successfully complete their training processes.
Background and aims Testosterone supplementation therapy (TST) is a longstanding treatment for hypogonadal men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), even though the benefits of TST are variable among trials. This meta-analysis was done to determine the specific role of TST in hypogonadal men with T2DM. Methods PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar were queried to discover eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies. To quantify the specific effects of TST, we estimated pooled mean differences (MDs) and relative risks with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results Our meta-analysis included 1596 hypogonadal T2DM subjects from 12 randomized controlled trials and one observational study. TST can significantly enhance glycemic control compared to placebo by decreasing homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (WMD = −1.55 [-2.65, −0.45]; p = 0.26; I2 = 20.2%), fasting glucose (WMD = −0.35 [-0.79, 0.10]; p = 0.07; I2 = 69.7%), fasting insulin (WMD = −2.88 [-6.12, 0.36]; p = In addition, TST can decrease cholesterol (WMD = −0.28 [-0.47, −0.09] p = 0.0008; I2 = 91%) and triglyceride (WMD = −0.23 [-0.43, −0.03] p = 0.03; I2 = 79.2%). Furthermore, Testosterone therapy is related to a significant rise in total testosterone levels (WMD = 5.08 [2.90, 7.26] p = 0.0002; I2 = 92.9%). Pooling of free testosterone levels indicated a larger increase in the patients who got TST than placebo (WMD = 81.21 [23.87, 138.54] p = 0.07; I2 = 70%). Conclusion Our findings suggested that TST can enhance glycemic control and hormone levels and reduce total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol whereas increase HDL cholesterol in hypogonadal T2DM patients. Therefore, in these patients, we propose TST alongside anti-diabetic treatment.
Evaluation of an electrochemical biosensor based on glassy carbon (GC) electrode that was modified with multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), which in turn were modified with hydroxyapatite (HAp) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP), for the detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), is reported. Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles namely HAp5 and HAp20, that respectively correspond to five- and twenty-days aging times, were in situ synthesised on functionalized carbon nanotubes (fCNTs) walls by a biomimetic procedure using a solution mimicking the inorganic composition of human blood plasma (simulated body fluid (SBF)). HRP was introduced dropwise to the electrode surface. The materials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry and electrochemical techniques. The Michaelis-Menten apparent constant obtained for both sensors were 0.37 mmol L⁻¹ for HAp5-fCNT/GC and 2.93 mmol L⁻¹ for HAp20-fCNT/GC, indicating that the HRP keeps its enzymatic activity on both electrodes H2O2 detection was performed by chronoamperometry. The linear range obtained for the HRP/HAp5-fCNT/GC electrode and the HRP/HAp20-fCNT/GC electrode was from 1.0 × 10⁻⁵ M to 2.34 × 10⁻⁴ M, with a detection limit of 1.91 μmol L⁻¹ for the HRP/Hap5-fCNT/GC electrode and 4.45 μmol L⁻¹ for the HRP/HAp20-fCNT/GC electrode. H2O2 was quantified using real-life raw and pasteurized milk samples using the electrode that showed the better performance parameters, the HRP/HAp5-fCNT/GC electrode. The obtained recovery percentage (R %) indicate that the proposed method has a good accuracy.
Due to the seismicity of the country and especially to the geology of the province of Pichincha, it was considered important to obtain this equation in order to improve the structural design of future constructions since we do not have our own parameters to determine the mechanical properties of concrete. Based on previous investigations of the modulus of elasticity carried out in the country, it was identified that the current formula does not reflect the reality of the existing conditions since the derivation of this equation was determined in the USA whose characteristics of the materials are totally different from those of Ecuador. Therefore, it was considered convenient to carry out a complete study of the properties of the aggregates to obtain the equation of the modulus of elasticity of concrete that represents the attributes of the province of Pichincha.
The aim was to test the cross-cultural measurement invariance of the PIL-SF in a sample of people from seven Latin American countries. Additionally, the characteristics of the PIL-SF items were evaluated and to assess the relationship between purpose in life, as measured by the PIL-SF, and fear of COVID-19. A total of 4306 people from seven Latin American countries participated in the study. The results indicated that the PIL-SF is invariant in the seven participating countries and, therefore, there is evidence that the items reflect the purpose of life in the same way in all countries. This allows comparisons of purpose in life between countries that are free of bias, reflecting the true differences in how countries respond to items. From IRT, the discrimination parameters are adequate and indicate that the items cover a wide range of the purpose in life construct. The difficulty parameters are adequate and increase monotonically. This indicates that people would need a higher level of purpose in life to respond to the higher response categories. Thus, the PIL-SF items would be useful in determining people with a relatively high degree of purpose in life. Identifying people with different levels of purpose in life would allow them to be part of intervention programs, either to support those with low levels or to maintain and reinforce their purpose in life. The evidence of cross-country measurement invariance of the PIL-SF provides a measure to be used in cross-cultural studies about the meaning of life.
The celebrated Montgomery identity has been studied extensively since it was established. We found a novel version of the Montgomery identity when we were working inside the framework of p- and q-calculus. We acquire a Montgomery identity through a definite (p,q)-integral from these results. Consequently, we establish specific Ostrowski-type (p,q)-integral inequalities by using Montgomery identity. In addition to the well-known repercussions, this novel study provides an opportunity to set up new boundaries in the field of comparative literature. The research that is being proposed on the (p,q)-integral includes some fascinating results that demonstrate the superiority and applicability of the findings that have been achieved. This highly successful and valuable strategy is anticipated to create a new venue in the contemporary realm of special relativity and quantum theory. These mathematical inequalities and the approaches that are related to them have applications in the areas that deal with symmetry. Additionally, an application to special means is provided in the conclusion.
An important target of photoelectrocatalysis (PEC) technology is the development of semiconductor-based photoelectrodes capable of absorbing solar energy (visible light) and promoting oxidation and reduction reactions. Bismuth oxyhalide-based materials BiOX (X = Cl, Br, and I) meet these requirements. Their crystalline structure, optical and electronic properties, and photocatalytic activity under visible light mean that these materials can be coupled to other semiconductors to develop novel heterostructures for photoelectrochemical degradation systems. This review provides a general overview of controlled BiOX powder synthesis methods, and discusses the optical and structural features of BiOX-based materials, focusing on heterojunction photoanodes. In addition, it summarizes the most recent applications in this field, particularly photoelectrochemical performance, experimental conditions and degradation efficiencies reported for some organic pollutants (e.g., pharmaceuticals, organic dyes, phenolic derivatives, etc.). Finally, as this review seeks to serve as a guide for the characteristics and various properties of these interesting semiconductors, it discusses future PEC-related challenges to explore.
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12 de Octubre 1076 y Roca, Quito, Pichincha, Ecuador
Head of institution
Fernando Ponce León
Website
http://www.puce.edu.ec/
Phone
+593-2 299 1700