The objective of this study is to explore how a populated territory of wooden construction on water and peculiar buildings, consolidate a unique vernacular architecture. Chiloé Island in southern Chile has been selected as a case study, due to (1) it has a vernacular architecture (2) it has a geographic morphology that has allowed from its genesis as a city to build in wood and sustainable materials; (3) it is an island at the end of the world with a high Jesuit presence and presence of religious architecture in larch, cypress, coihue and mañio wood. The methodology is developed through the analysis of a complete palafito from the constructive and architectural point of view. It is concluded that a populated territory of wooden construction on the water and peculiar buildings, can be consolidated with a unique vernacular architecture, which contributes to the heritage and development of the place.
Background: Early Psychological First Aid (PFA) has been widely recommended for preventing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, its lack of empirical evidence of safety and effectiveness has been criticized. Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of PFA-ABCDE, an original PFA protocol, for preventing PTSD one month after the intervention and decreasing PTSD symptoms at one and six months of follow up. Methods: We assessed the eligibility of 1,140 adult survivors of recent trauma (≤ 72 hours) consulting five emergency departments in Chile. Two hundred twenty-one were randomized to receive either PFA-ABCDE (active listening, breathing retraining, categorization of needs, referral to ancillary services, and psychoeducation) or only psychoeducation. We used the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) to assess PTSD diagnosis. The Posttraumatic Checklist (PCL), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and a 0-10 points analogue visual scale were used to assess PTSD symptoms, depressive symptoms, and immediate distress relief after the intervention. Results: We found no difference between the experimental and control groups in the frequency of PTSD one month after the intervention (PFA-ABCDE = 23/76 [30.3%], psychoeducation = 18/75 [24.0%], adjusted odds ratio = 1.39, 95% confidence interval = 0.63-3.07, p = .408). Immediately after the intervention, participants who received PFA-ABCDE reported greater distress relief (PFA-ABCDE mean = 9.06, psychoeducation mean = 8.55, Cohen's d = 0.30, p = .038). Fewer PTSD symptoms were reported by those who received PFA-ABCDE one month after the intervention (PFA-ABCDE mean = 36.26, psychoeducation mean = 43.62, Cohen's d = 0.42, p = .033). We found no difference in depressive symptoms at one-month follow up (p = .713) nor in PTSD symptoms six months after the intervention (p = .986). Conclusions: PFA-ABCDE does not prevent PTSD diagnosis, but it provides immediate distress relief and decreases PTSD symptoms in the short term.
This book explores the role of Chineseness or lo chino in the production of Chilean national identity. It does so by discussing the many voices, images, and intentions of diverse actors who contribute to stereotyping or problematizing Chineseness in Chile. The authors argue that in general, representing and perceiving China or Chineseness as the Other is part of a broader cultural and political strategy for various stakeholders to articulate Chile as either a Western country or one that is becoming-Western. The authors trace the evolution of the symbolic role that China and Chineseness play in defining racial, gendered, and class aspects of Chilean national social imaginary. In doing so, they challenge a common idea that Chineseness is a stable signifier and the simplistic perception of the ethnic Chinese as the unassimilable foreigner within the nation. In response, the authors call for a postmigrant approach to understanding identities and Chilean society beyond stubborn Orient-Occident and us-them dichotomies. Maria Montt Strabucchi is Assistant Professor in the Institute of History and Member of the Center for Asian Studies at the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. Carol Chan is Associate Professor of Sociology at Universidad Academia de Humanismo Cristiano, Chile. María Elvira Ríos is a researcher in the Institute of Aesthetics at the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile.
The pervasiveness of preventive rationality, which is especially evident in populations caught in the prison-neighbourhood circuit, constitutes a challenging field for anthropological theory because it allows us to rethink the problem of hegemony in the context of the crises of capitalism. Drawing on research conducted in Chile amongst practitioners of crime prevention programmes and prisoners’ families targeted by such initiatives, in this paper, we explore crime prevention as a political concept whose effects are inseparable from the maintenance of class and gender disparities. In conceptualising how petty crime prevention has become a predominant technology of classifying, policing and managing low-income populations, we take Foucault's notion of illegalism – as distinct from illegality – and extend it to dispossessed groups affected by dramatic levels of economic inequality and structural violence. We discuss preventive rationality in relation to the contradictions engendered by an authoritarian form of capitalism protected by constitutional constraints inherited from the Pinochet dictatorship. By connecting the conceptualisation of petty crime prevention to the ongoing contradictions of the society in which we live, we seek to sharpen attention to the ways in which the neoliberal hegemony attempts to contain its decline.
The path to a sustainable management of the urban water cycle requires the assessment of both operational and quality-adjusted efficiency in a unified manner. This can be done by the use of non-radial Data Envelopment Analysis models. This study used Range Adjusted Measure models to evaluate the operational, quality-adjusted, and operational & quality-adjusted efficiency (O&QAE) scores of the Chilean water industry including water leakage and unplanned interruptions as undesirable outputs. It was found that on average water utilities presented large O&QAE scores over time. The mean O&QAE score was 0.964 which means that water utilities could further reduce costs and undesirable outputs by 3.6% on average, while trying to expand the scale of operation. This finding suggests that excellent quality-adjusted efficiency at an efficient expenditure could be feasible. It was also evidenced that customer density, mixed water resources, and ownership influenced the O&QAE of Chilean water companies.
The accurate simulation of additional interactions at the ATLAS experiment for the analysis of proton–proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider presents a significant challenge to the computing resources. During the LHC Run 2 (2015–2018), there were up to 70 inelastic interactions per bunch crossing, which need to be accounted for in Monte Carlo (MC) production. In this document, a new method to account for these additional interactions in the simulation chain is described. Instead of sampling the inelastic interactions and adding their energy deposits to a hard-scatter interaction one-by-one, the inelastic interactions are presampled, independent of the hard scatter, and stored as combined events. Consequently, for each hard-scatter interaction, only one such presampled event needs to be added as part of the simulation chain. For the Run 2 simulation chain, with an average of 35 interactions per bunch crossing, this new method provides a substantial reduction in MC production CPU needs of around 20%, while reproducing the properties of the reconstructed quantities relevant for physics analyses with good accuracy.
The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider has a broad physics programme ranging from precision measurements to direct searches for new particles and new interactions, requiring ever larger and ever more accurate datasets of simulated Monte Carlo events. Detector simulation with Geant4 is accurate but requires significant CPU resources. Over the past decade, ATLAS has developed and utilized tools that replace the most CPU-intensive component of the simulation—the calorimeter shower simulation—with faster simulation methods. Here, AtlFast3, the next generation of high-accuracy fast simulation in ATLAS, is introduced. AtlFast3 combines parameterized approaches with machine-learning techniques and is deployed to meet current and future computing challenges, and simulation needs of the ATLAS experiment. With highly accurate performance and significantly improved modelling of substructure within jets, AtlFast3 can simulate large numbers of events for a wide range of physics processes.
A two-dimensional material – Mg 2 B 4 C 2 , belonging to the family of the conventional superconductor MgB 2 , is theoretically predicted to exhibit superconductivity with critical temperature T c estimated in the 47–48 K range (predicted using the McMillian-Allen-Dynes formula) without any tuning of external parameters such as doping, strain, or substrate-induced effects. The origin of such a high intrinsic T c is ascribed to the presence of strong electron-phonon coupling and large density of states at the Fermi level. This system is obtained after replacing the chemically active boron-boron surface layers in a MgB 2 slab by chemically inactive boron-carbon layers. Hence, the surfaces of this material are inert. Our calculations confirm the stability of 2D Mg 2 B 4 C 2 . We also find that the key features of this material remain essentially unchanged when its thickness is increased by modestly increasing the number of inner MgB 2 layers.
Objective To reanalyze a clinical trial on the effectiveness of a Brief Intervention (BI) delivered by non-professionals to reduce risky alcohol drinking. Our previous null-hypothesis test of the effects of the BI yielded a ‘non-significant’ p-value, yet remained uninformative. Here we use the Bayesian paradigm which allows for expressing the probability of different effect sizes to better inform public policy decisions. Results The posterior probability of the odds of risky drinking at follow-up favored a marked effect of the BI, with 96% of the probability mass being less than OR = 1, and 84% being less than OR = 0.8. Our findings show that there is a high probability that the BI delivered by health technicians lowered risky alcohol use. The posterior distributions of the BI’s effects are presented to help contextualize the evidence for policy making in Chile.
Introduction Fluid challenges are widely adopted in critically ill patients to reverse haemodynamic instability. We reviewed the literature to appraise fluid challenge characteristics in intensive care unit (ICU) patients receiving haemodynamic monitoring and considered two decades: 2000–2010 and 2011–2021. Methods We assessed research studies and collected data regarding study setting, patient population, fluid challenge characteristics, and monitoring. MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane search engines were used. A fluid challenge was defined as an infusion of a definite quantity of fluid (expressed as a volume in mL or ml/kg) in a fixed time (expressed in minutes), whose outcome was defined as a change in predefined haemodynamic variables above a predetermined threshold. Results We included 124 studies, 32 (25.8%) published in 2000–2010 and 92 (74.2%) in 2011–2021, overall enrolling 6,086 patients, who presented sepsis/septic shock in 50.6% of cases. The fluid challenge usually consisted of 500 mL (76.6%) of crystalloids (56.6%) infused with a rate of 25 mL/min. Fluid responsiveness was usually defined by a cardiac output/index (CO/CI) increase ≥ 15% (70.9%). The infusion time was quicker (15 min vs 30 min), and crystalloids were more frequent in the 2011–2021 compared to the 2000–2010 period. Conclusions In the literature, fluid challenges are usually performed by infusing 500 mL of crystalloids bolus in less than 20 min. A positive fluid challenge response, reported in 52% of ICU patients, is generally defined by a CO/CI increase ≥ 15%. Compared to the 2000–2010 decade, in 2011–2021 the infusion time of the fluid challenge was shorter, and crystalloids were more frequently used.
Water leakages and unplanned water supply interruptions are relevant variables in the provision of drinking water since they directly impact customers and the economic and environmental performance of water companies. For the first time, in this study, we estimated specific efficiency scores for these two quality-of-service variables using the multi-directional data envelopment analysis technique for a sample of 21 Chilean water companies over the 2007–2018 period. Unlike previous studies, this methodological approach allowed us to estimate potential savings for both quality-of-service variables. The results indicate that the Chilean water industry could improve its efficiency over water leakage and unplanned water supply interruption by 28.6% and 52.5%, respectively, while supplying the same volume of drinking water. It is estimated that water companies could save around 48 million cubic metres of drinking water per year. Savings on unplanned water supply interruptions for the Chilean water industry are estimated to be at the level of 62,419 h per year.
Fluid resuscitation is a core component of emergency and critical care medicine. While the focus of clinicians has largely been on detecting patients who would respond to fluid therapy, relatively little work has been done on assessing patients' tolerance to this therapy. In this article we seek to review the concept of fluid tolerance, propose a working definition, and introduce relevant clinical signals by which physicians can assess fluid tolerance, hopefully becoming a starting point for further research.
Unique fog ecosystems that occur inland along the Chilean coastal desert are dominated by Tillandsia landbeckii. The average annual precipitation in this hyperarid area lies below 1 mm per year. Tillandsia are specialized in the foliar uptake of fog as a main source of water. The detailed mapping of the distribution of Tillandsia is lacking, making it difficult to understand their geo-ecological niche and to determine the impacts that climate change may have on this species. The objective of this study is to create a detailed spatial distribution of Tillandsia in the Atacama Desert in northern Chile based on remote sensing semi-automatic detection process. For this purpose, high-resolution WorldView-3 optical satellite data has been acquired. The extraction of Tillandsia was done with ENVI Deep Learning tools. As a result, a map of Tillandsia has been created. Several fields were found between Cerro Huantajaya in the north and Cerro Soronal in the south in the study area between 800 and 1300 m a.s.l. For validation purposes ground truth data has been used. The overall accuracy of this classification is 92.02%. The results can be used as a basis for geo-ecological niche modeling, further monitoring and for the development of conservation strategies.
This study aims to explain the selective reactivation of normal faults during the Andean orogeny at the Southern Central Andes western flank. We conducted a structural mapping and paleostress field reconstruction in the regional-scale Pocuro Fault Zone (PFZ) at 32.8°S. Results reveal that the architecture of the PFZ results from at least two deformation phases, each revealing an individual progressive and gradual evolution. The earliest deformation phase is recorded by two ∼ NS-striking normal faults involving a 5 km wide damage zone characterized by quartz-laumontite and calcite veins that were developed under an extensional regime with a WNW-ESE-trending σ3-axis. The latest deformation phase is recorded by one NS-striking reverse-dextral fault with goethite-hematite syn-tectonic precipitation and two NW-striking reverse-sinistral faults. Reverse faults were developed under a compressional/transpressional regime characterised by an ENE-WSW-trending σ1-axis with a σ2-/σ3-axis permutation. From a geophysical data reassessment, we inferred that observed faults in the surface within the PFZ are regional-scale deep-seated structures. Considering previous geochronological data, we correlated the earliest and latest phases with the Abanico Basin extension (middle Eocene-early Miocene) and its subsequent inversion (Miocene). Given the neotectonic evidence (geomorphic markers and deformation of unconsolidated deposits), the latter phase likely remains active. Quartz-laumontite cementation of the fault core's cataclastic material promotes mechanical strengthening leading to negative feedback for the reactivation of inherited normal faults as reverse ones. Conversely, the concentration of fractures in the damage zone between the normal faults promotes mechanical weakening resulting in a preferential area for the propagation of reverse fault during the compressive/transpressional phase.
Providing the right incentives to bus drivers has become an issue in many cities worldwide. Liberalization experiences and research have shown that high-powered incentives lead to safety hazards, lack of service in low-demand areas, and poor service quality. Fixed-wage schemes, common in tendered systems, are among the leading causes of increased fare evasion, as drivers do not control payment adequately. In a controlled experimental setting, we show that team-based incentives induce levels of effort similar to those provided by an individual pay-for-performance scheme but without undesirable operational decisions. We find that team contracts eliminate the conflict of interest between drivers, causing drivers to control the passengers’ payment while maintaining more regular speeds. Consequently, reducing safety hazards and rushing through low-demand stops, avoiding excessive waiting times, and keeping a uniform distribution in the passenger load. These characteristics are absent in the individual contract and are a crucial part of the quality of service.
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