Pomona College
  • Claremont, CA, United States
Recent publications
This paper presents the results of an empirical study of the determinants of non-residential real estate values in Los Angeles County. The data base consists of 13, 370 property transactions from 1996 to 2005. Separate spatial econometric models are developed for industrial, commercial, retail and office properties. The study focuses on the impact on property values of environmental local amenities. Our analytical results provide insights on how local amenities may affect non-residential properties values and how the impact may differ across property types. Our empirical results offer evidence that explicitly modeling spatial dependence is necessary for hedonic non-residential property models where there is interest in local amenities. We also show that it is important to account for the temporal dimension since ignoring it can lead to misinterpretation of the real measure of spatial dependence over time. We find that open space, typically an amenity considered to be jointly valuable to firms and households, has either weak or non-robust effects on non-residential property values. On the other hand, the joint amenities coastal access, air pollution, weather and crime appear to have stable spatial correlations with property values across specifications. In contrast, those amenities that are likely only valued by firms, such as transportation access and proximity to concentrations of skilled workers, have robust and significant correlations with non-residential values.
This paper describes a predictive control method to search for unstable periodic orbits of the generalized tent map. The invariant set containing periodic orbits is a repelling set with a complicated Cantor-like structure. Therefore, a simple local stabilization of the orbit may not be enough to find a periodic orbit, due to the small measure of the basin of attraction. It is shown that for certain values of the control parameter, both the local behaviour and the global behaviour of solutions change in the controlled system; in particular, the invariant set enlarges to become an interval or the entire real axis. The computational particularities of using the control system are considered, and necessary conditions for the orbit to be periodic are given. The question of local asymptotic stability of subcycles of the controlled system's stable cycles is fully investigated, and some statistical properties of the subset of the classical Cantor middle thirds set that is determined by the periodic points of the generalized tent map are described.
Although English for Academic Purposes (EAP) needs among undergraduate and graduate students in both English as a second language and English as a foreign language contexts have been widely researched, there is still a scarcity of research on the EAP needs of graduate students in less-developed parts of China. Adopting a mixed-methods approach (MMR) and collecting data through a questionnaire from student and teacher interviews, this study examined the views of graduate students at a public university in northwestern China on the importance of academic speaking, listening, reading, and writing skills. The study also examined the graduate students’ general perceptions of their English classes, and the problems they had with academic speaking, listening, reading, and writing. Additionally, students’ and teachers’ perspectives on EAP were compared and contrasted. The findings revealed that productive skills were rated as more important as compared to receptive skills. Furthermore, over 82% of the comments on their English classes were negative. Several important issues and specific pedagogical implications for curriculum design were discussed.
As the world becomes increasingly “smaller,” global governance too shifts beyond states and formal agreements to include norms and actors at all levels of government and society. Cities, in particular, are emergent actors in global affairs. This paper examines a new type of experiential learning model for this burgeoning local–global governance: academic partnerships with city governments for undergraduate international relations courses. Occidental College and Pomona College have partnered with the Los Angeles Mayor's Office to localize and adopt the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This study focuses on two Spring 2021 Task Force courses, where students worked in consultation with the Mayor's Office to conduct policy research on local implementation of SDG 5 on gender equality. It analyzes the pedagogical value of the Task Force courses with a focus on student learning outcomes and challenges. Through qualitative content analysis of student reflection papers, we find that the courses generate substantial student learning, particularly in higher forms of learning, including development of research and professional skills and metacognitive reflection on “doing theory,” or praxis, within the international relations discipline. Further, these partnerships also benefit the city, as they generate valuable data that inform policymaking.
Auditory word recognition in the non-dominant language has been suggested to break down under noisy conditions due, in part, to the difficulty of deriving a benefit from contextually constraining information. However, previous studies examining the effects of sentence constraints on word recognition in noise have conflated multiple psycholinguistic processes under the umbrella term of “predictability”. The present study improves on these by narrowing its focus specifically on prediction processes, and on whether the possibility of using semantic constraint to predict an upcoming target word improves word recognition in noise for different listener populations and noise conditions. We find that heritage, but not second language, Spanish listeners derive a word recognition-in-noise benefit from predictive processing, and that non-dominant language word recognition benefits more from predictive processing under conditions of energetic, rather than informational, masking. The latter suggests that managing interference from competing speech and generating predictions about an upcoming target word draw on the same cognitive resources. An analysis of individual differences shows that better inhibitory control ability is associated with reduced disruption from competing speech in the more dominant language in particular, revealing a critical role for executive function in simultaneously managing interference and generating expectations for upcoming words.
Urban landscaping conversions can alter decomposition processes and soil respiration, making it difficult to forecast regional CO2 emissions. Here we explore rates of initial mass loss and net nitrogen (N) mineralization in natural and four common urban land covers (waterwise, waterwise with mulch, shrub, and lawn) from sites across seven colleges in southern California. We found that rates of decomposition and net N mineralization were faster for high-N leaf substrates, and natural habitats exhibited slower rates of decomposition and mineralization than managed urban landcovers, especially lawns and areas with added mulch. These results were consistent across college campuses, suggesting that our findings are robust and can predict decomposition rates across southern California. While mechanisms driving differences in decomposition rates among habitats in the cool-wet spring were difficult to identify, elevated decomposition in urban habitats highlights that conversion of natural areas to urban landscapes enhances greenhouse gas emissions. While perceived as sustainable, elevated decomposition rates in areas with added mulch mean that while these transformations may reduce water inputs, they increase soil carbon (C) flux. Mimicking natural landscapes by reducing water and nutrient (mulch) inputs and planting drought-tolerant native vegetation with recalcitrant litter can slow decomposition and reduce regional C emissions.
Social neuroscience combines tools and perspectives from social psychology and neuroscience to understand how people interact with their social world. Here we discuss a relatively new method—hyperscanning—to study real‐time, interactive social interactions using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We highlight three contributions that fMRI hyperscanning makes to the study of the social mind: (1) Naturalism: it shifts the focus from tightly‐controlled stimuli to more naturalistic social interactions; (2) Multi‐person Dynamics: it shifts the focus from individuals as the unit of analysis to dyads and groups; and (3) Neural Resolution: fMRI hyperscanning captures high‐resolution neural patterns and dynamics across the whole brain, unlike other neuroimaging hyperscanning methods (e.g., electroencephalogram, functional near‐infrared spectroscopy). Finally, we describe the practical considerations and challenges that fMRI hyperscanning researchers must navigate. We hope researchers will harness this powerful new paradigm to address pressing questions in today's society.
This article describes the results of an experiential learning activity conducted at Cal Poly Pomona (CPP) and the University of North Florida (UNF). The activity formed the basis for an assignment required for class credit in a course titled Politics of the Developing Areas (Politics of Developing Countries at UNF). The authors developed and administered a pre- and post-assignment survey measuring student attitudes on the causes of global poverty. Between surveys, students recorded their baseline spending habits, indicated whether or not they were able to reduce their expenses over the activity period, and wrote a reflection essay on the difficulties of limiting their expenditures, connecting their experiences to citizens living in less developed countries. The article discusses the findings across the two samples, highlighting the effectiveness of experiential learning and its appropriateness in and benefits for the classroom.
Humans are inherently social creatures within larger social-cultural networks. In an increasingly globalized world, individuals often move from one cultural context to another. In attempting to understand the impact of culture and individual factors in predicting mental health, culture-fit models focus specifically on the interactions between individual characteristics and culture. These models argue that fit, or congruence, between the individual and the larger cultural society is essential for mental health, well-being, and positive adaptation. In the current paper, we discuss operationalizations of culture, cultural differences in self-construal, values, personality and review the evidence for the culture-fit hypothesis in these domains.
Despite recognition that borderline personality disorder (BPD) is one of the most stigmatized psychological disorders, destigmatization efforts have thus far focused on the views and actions of clinicians and the general public, neglecting the critical role that psychological science plays in perpetuating or mitigating stigma. This article was catalyzed by recent concerns about how research and editorial processes propagate stigma and thereby fail people with BPD and the scientists who study BPD. We provide a brief overview of the BPD diagnosis and its history. We then review how BPD has been stigmatized in psychological science, the gendered nature of BPD stigma, and the consequences of this stigmatization. Finally, we offer specific recommendations for researchers, reviewers, and editors who wish to use science to advance our understanding of BPD without perpetuating pejorative views of the disorder. These recommendations constitute a call to action to use psychological science in the service of the public good.
In the spring of 2018, the Pomona College mathematics department hosted a community seminar on identity, culture, and power in the discipline and education of mathematics. The seminar was free and open to all students, faculty, and staff of the college. In this paper I describe the specifics of the seminar, what types of issues we discussed, what a typical seminar session looked like, and what we all gained from the experience. Similar community seminars might support mathematics departments and faculty in their own endeavors to create inclusive and healthy mathematical communities.
Mammalian dental formulae often are highly conserved, at least at a generic level. In walruses (Odobenus rosmarus), the constraints of dentition in light of documented high variability in tooth counts among walrus are examined. We propose that walruses do not have a constrained dental formula in terms of tooth position or tooth count. Instead, while walrus tooth counts vary, total occlusal area (TOA) is constrained relative to body mass, independent of tooth position or count. Nearly three-fourths of the 70 individuals sampled here had dentitions deviating from the previously reported dental formula of 1/1, 1/0, 3/3, 0/0, but there is a strong relationship between body size and total occlusal area. While the positive correlation between body size and TOA is consistent between sexes, the slope of the relationship differs significantly, suggesting an important sexual dimorphism in more than just walrus body size or tusk morphology. It is unclear if walrus teeth are involved at all in feeding, so TOA may impact positioning of prey during feeding or be completely independent of prey acquisition or feeding. Limited field observations support the hypothesis that dentition may play some role in prey positioning, with males feeding on both larger species and larger individuals of bivalves than females. Differences in food availability to individuals of differing body size have implications for conservation of walruses in the face of climate change and interactions with human fisheries, as well as diagnosing fossil taxa frequently defined in part by dental count. Extant walruses also may present an example of linking increased trait variability with the relaxation of functional constraints in response to shifting ecological roles.
Linguists interested in intonation have long struggled to establish a maximally broad set of annotation conventions that function equally well across varieties of American English. The current study tests the advantages and limitations of the widely-used MAE-ToBI conventions, focusing on the H* and L+H* distinction, for three varieties of American English: African American English, Appalachian English, and Jewish English. Results of quantitative analysis of production data from 30 speakers of the three varieties finds major differences in rate of use of the H* and L+H* pitch accent as well as the phonetic realizations of these pitch accents, which may not be captured solely using the MAE-ToBI conventions. These differences appear not only between MAE-ToBI and the other three varieties, but also between the varieties themselves in unique ways that may shed light on the nature of sociolinguistic variation at the level of intonation, as well as the debated status of the distinction of H* vs. L+H* as a phonological or phonetic distinction. These findings provide further motivation for the development and use of annotation systems that explicitly consider sociolinguistic variation as well as phonetic parameters. Such systems will become even more essential as both sociolinguists and phoneticians expand intonational analysis beyond so-called “standard varieties” in order to arrive at a richer and more accurate picture of the intonational system of American English.
Rural Latinx immigrants experienced disproportionately negative health and economic impacts during the COVID-19 pandemic. They contended with the pandemic at the intersection of legal status exclusions from the safety net and long-standing barriers to health care in rural regions. Yet, little is known about how rural Latinx immigrants navigated such exclusions. In this qualitative study, we examined how legal status stratification in rural contexts influenced Latinx immigrant families’ access to the safety net. We conducted interviews with first- and second-generation Latinx immigrants (n = 39) and service providers (n = 20) in four rural California communities between July 2020 and April 2021. We examined personal and organizational strategies used to obtain economic, health, and other forms of support. We found that Latinx families navigated a limited safety net with significant exclusions. In response, they enacted short-term strategies and practices – workarounds – that met immediate, short-term needs. Workarounds, however, were enacted through individual efforts, allowing little recourse beyond immediate personal agency. Some took the form of strategic practices within the safety net, such as leveraging resources that did not require legal status verification; in other cases, they took the form of families opting to avoid the safety net altogether.
We examine the gender wealth gap with a focus on pension wealth and statutory pension rights. By taking into account employment characteristics of women and men, we are able to identify the extent to which the redistributive effect of pension rights reduces the gender wealth gap. The data for our analysis come from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP), one of the few surveys that collects information on wealth and pension entitlements at the individual level. Pension wealth data are available in the SOEP for 2012 only. While the relative raw gender wealth gap is about 35% (or 31,000 euros) when analysing the standard measure of net worth, it shrinks to 28% when pension wealth is added. This reduction is due to redistributive elements such as caregiver credits provided through the statutory pension scheme. Results of a recentred influence functions (RIF) decomposition show that pension wealth reduces the gap substantially in the lower half of the distribution. At the 90th percentile, the gender wealth gap in net worth and in augmented wealth remains more stable at roughly 27–30%.
Understanding the stress evolution of extinct volcanoes can improve efforts to forecast flank eruptions on active systems. Field, petrographic, and seismic data are combined with numerical modeling to investigate the paleo‐stress field of New Zealand's Akaroa Volcano, or Akaroa Volcanic Complex. Field mapping identifies 86 radially oriented dikes and seven lava domes found only within a narrow elevation range along Akaroa's erosional crater rim. These observations suggest that crater rim dike emplacement resulted from lateral deflection of vertically ascending intrusions from a centralized magma source, which in turn may have facilitated formation of the lava domes, as well as two scoria cones. We postulate that dike deflection occurred along a stress barrier, as neither a compositional change nor structural boundary are present. We use a finite element model (FEM) simulating Akaroa to test how different factors may have influenced the system's stress state and dike geometry. Elastic, non‐flexural (“roller”) model configurations containing a large, oblate, and shallow magma chamber produce stress barriers most conducive to radial dike emplacement along Akaroa's crater rim. These configurations also simulate rapid edifice construction above a preexisting lithospheric “bulge.” Conversely, simulating flexural stresses exerted on the lithosphere by Akaroa's large mass hinder rather than promote radial dike emplacement. Temperature‐dependent viscoelastic relaxation promotes gradual increases in stress barrier elevation, though this effect is strongly dependent on magma chamber parameters. These results suggest that Akaroa was constructed rapidly (within ∼100 kyr) prior to crater rim dike emplacement, which occurred throughout the volcano's remaining active lifespan.
In their Comment (DOI: 10.1021/jacs.2c02965) on two related publications by our groups (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2021, 143, 20884-20890; DOI: 10.1021/jacs.1c09455) and another (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2022, 144, 1380-1388; DOI: 10.1021/jacs.1c11754), Huang and Granick discuss the diffusion NMR measurements of molecules during a copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) "click" reaction. Here we respond to these comments and maintain that no diffusion enhancement was observed for any species during the reaction. We show that the relaxation agent does not interfere with the CuAAC reaction kinetics nor the diffusion of the molecules involved. Similarly, the gradient pulse length and diffusion time do not affect the diffusion coefficients. Peak overlap was completely removed in our study with the use of hydrazine as the reducing agent. The steady-state assumption does not hold for these diffusion measurements that take several minutes, which is the reason monotonic gradient orders are not suitable. Finally, we discuss the other reactions where similar changes in diffusion have been claimed. Our conclusions are fully supported by the results represented in our original JACS Article and the corresponding Supporting Information.
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996 members
Laura L Mays Hoopes
  • Department of Biology
Yuqing Melanie Wu
  • Department of Computer Science
Gizem Karaali
  • Department of Mathematics
Kim B. Bruce
  • Department of Computer Science
Lise Abrams
  • Department of Linguistics and Cognitive Science
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www.pomona.edu