Climatic changes bring the problem of drought tolerance of winter cereals to the fore at the earliest stages of development, immediately after autumn sowing. The reaction of antioxidant and osmoprotective systems of etiolated seedlings of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under osmotic stress was investigated. Seeds of seven cultivars were germinated for 4 days in Petri dishes on filter paper moistened with distilled water (control) or nonpenetrating osmotic agent PEG 6000 at a concentration of 12% (osmotic pressure 0.17 MPa) at 24°C. After that, the mass of shoots and roots of seedlings of experimental and control treatments were determined. Biochemical parameters were also determined in the shoots of 4-day-old seedlings. The highest ability to maintain shoot growth under osmotic stress was in the ‘Tobak’; it was medium in the ‘Antonivka’, ‘Lira Odeska, and ‘Darynka Kyivska’, and low in the ‘Bogdana’, ‘Doskonala’, and ‘Avgustina’. In the least resistant ‘Doskonala’ and ‘Avgustina’, the content of lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde was significantly increased in the shoots under osmotic stress. In the non-resistant cultivars and, also, in the medium-resistant ‘Darynka Kyivska’, an increase in hydrogen peroxide content was noted under osmotic stress. High- and medium-resistant cultivars were characterised by an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in response to osmotic stress. Also, high- and medium-resistant cultivars showed a high catalase (CAT) activity. Osmotic stress caused an increase in guaiacol peroxidase activity in all cultivars, regardless of their drought tolerance. The proline content increased to some extent in all cultivars in response to stress exposure; however, no relationship was found between the amount of proline and drought resistance. The content of sugars under osmotic stress increased only in high and medium drought-resistant cultivars. Drought-resistant cultivars were also characterised by a high base content of flavonoid compounds absorbing UV-B and their retention under osmotic stress. Under osmotic stress, the strongest correlation (p ≤ 0.05) was found between the resistance to osmotic stress and the SOD activity (r = 0.93) as well as the sugar content (r = 0.85). In addition, a significant correlation was found between the drought tolerance and the flavonoid content and the CAT activity in seedlings. The complex of these indicators can be used to assess the drought tolerance of various genotypes of etiolated winter wheat seedlings.
The object of this study is the technology of Turkish delight production based on fruit and vegetable paste with a high content of physiologically functional ingredients. The chemical composition of Turkish delight has been optimized by introducing physiologically functional ingredients. As a source of physiologically functional ingredients, it was proposed to use a multicomponent fruit and vegetable paste from apples, quince, pumpkins, made in an improved way. The technique is characterized by concentrating the paste in the rotary evaporator for 30...42 s at a temperature of 60...63 °C under conditions of preheating the purée to 50...52 °C. The dependence of the effective viscosity on the shear rate of samples of fruit and vegetable pastes was determined and it was found that the best indicators characterized the paste with a formulation ratio of raw materials: apple – 30 %; quince – 50 %; pumpkin – 20 %. The resulting paste has good organoleptic properties and a high content of dietary fiber, ascorbic acid, polyphenolic compounds. It has been established that the production of Turkish delight with the addition of the developed fruit and vegetable paste provides the product with good organoleptic characteristics. Namely, it is characterized by a sweet-sour taste with a pleasant smell of quince, rich yellow-orange color, gelatinous, slightly viscous consistency, and the proper shape with a clear contour. Also, the addition of fruit and vegetable paste reduces the formulation amount of starch by 20 % while the resulting Turkish delight is characterized by a high strength value τ=38 kPa. The improved technology of Turkish delight could expand the range of "healthy products" with increased nutritional value. In addition, the proposed technique and the modes of concentration make it possible to organize the process of paste production using energy-saving equipment.
In order to model the process of developing new recipes for muffins from organic raw materials, a mathematical model of the problem has been built. The solution involved using a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet processor and a computer algebra system from the class of automated design systems Mathcad. The object of research is the cupcake "Grechanyk", and the control sample is the cupcake "Stolichny". The following components are proposed to be introduced into the cupcake: buckwheat flour, agave syrup, cane sugar, sesame oil, butter, dried raisins. All raw materials are organic. With the help of modeling the content of food nutrients – amino acids, fatty acids, carbohydrates, and the price of raw materials, a rational formulation of the product has been developed. In the developed cupcake, a comprehensive quality indicator is investigated by qualimetric evaluation. Group quality indicators included organoleptic, physical-chemical, and microbiological indicators. They also include the content of toxic elements, nutritional and energy value. The weighting coefficients of group quality indicators are: 0.15 for organoleptic, physical-chemical, microbiological indicators. The coefficient of weight of the energy value is 0.10; food – 0.20, toxicological elements – 0.25. The results of the study showed that the integrated quality indicator is 0.82. These correspond to an excellent level of quality. The values of group quality indicators are as follows: organoleptic indicators – 0.14; physical and chemical indicators – 0.11. The content of toxicological elements is 0.22. Microbiological indicators – 0.14. The nutritional value is 0.13. Energy value – 0.09. The results indicate the relevance of the use of the mathematical apparatus of design. The research results can be used by food industry enterprises to expand the range of products and to optimize the production process in the presence of the specified amount of raw materials.
Hierarchical construction of special purpose systems, a large number of different types of communication devices that are the part of them necessitates the need to justify the order of research of special communication systems. Existing approaches to conduct research on special purpose communication systems are narrowly focused and aimed at researching certain types of communication. A large number of destabilizing factors affecting the functioning of special purpose communication systems and a priori uncertainty about the conditions of its application only complicate the mentioned issue. Also, the experience of the full-scale armed aggression of the armed forces of the Russian Federation on the territory of Ukraine showed the need to change approaches to the research of special purpose communication systems. That is why the issue of improving the effectiveness of the management of forces and devices of communication of groups of troops (forces) during operations is an important and urgent issue. The object of the research is the communication system of the group of troops (forces). The subject of the research is the effectiveness of the communication system of the group of troops (forces) in accordance with the purpose of the operation. The research developed a methodical approach to the research of special purpose communication systems. The novelty of the proposed methodical approach consists in taking into account the efficiency while choosing this or that method while investigating the state of a special-purpose communication system and the ability to calculate the reliability while choosing this or that method while investigating the state of a special-purpose communication system. Also, the element of novelty of this methodical approach is taking into account the efficiency of the decisions made regarding the assessment of the state of the special purpose communication system while choosing one or another research method. It is advisable to implement the mentioned approach in algorithmic and program software while studying the state of the special purpose communication system.
The article is devoted to the analysis of the main factors accompanying the use of aroma precursors, in particular, of a lipid nature, in food raw materials. The prerequisites for the impact on the precursors of aroma with the help of plant enzymes are given. The purpose of the article is to analyze the biotechnological aspect, which is based on enzymatic reactions with aroma precursors and enzymes of plant origin. Features of the mechanism of action of lipid precursors are highlighted, their diversity causing various characteristic reactions is analyzed, and possible end products of reactions with certain odors are noted. The attention is paid to the issue of the status of the naturalness of flavor precursors in food products, which varies in different countries. A scheme of factors influencing the formation of aroma from lipid precursors has been developed. The influence of pigments of carotenoid nature on the aroma is considered, namely: examples of instantaneous change of watermelon aroma to pumpkin one due to isomerization of carotenoids are given. The main factors of enzymatic formation of aroma from precursors of polyunsaturated fatty acids for their effective use by creating micromicelles are summarized. A way to overcome the barrier of interaction between lipid precursors of a hydrophobic nature and hydrophilic enzymes has been substantiated. It is proposed to accelerate enzymatic reactions under in vitro conditions and use the vacuum effect to overcome the barrier between enzymes and precursors. To explain the effect of vacuum in a system with enzymes, ideas about disjoining pressure and the reasonable expediency of its use are considered. A schematic process flow diagram for the restoration of aroma lost during the technological processing of raw materials is given; it demonstrates the factors for ensuring interfacial activation conditions for enzymes and aroma precursors.
(1) Background: African swine fever (ASF) has been present in Ukraine for more than ten years (2012–2022). The purpose of our study was to perform a retrospective analysis of the spread of ASF to assess the role of wild boar in the epizootic expansion in Ukraine. (2) Methods: Statistical materials were collected and the epizootic situation of ASF from 2012 to 2022 was examined. The potential sources of the African swine fever virus (ASFV) and transmission factors were analysed. The main factors exerting negative impacts on domestic pig production were also analysed. (3) Results: Consequently, from the results of the retrospective analysis of ASF outbreaks in Ukraine, the probability ratio of ASF outbreaks in the wild boar and domestic pig populations was determined. The data show a direct relationship between ASF outbreaks among wild boar and domestic pigs with the observed decay of wild boar outbreaks across the entire territory of Ukraine. At the same time, an increase in the number of wild boars has been observed in the Mykolaiv region, with a parallel spillover of outbreaks in domestic pigs. (4) Conclusions: The epidemiological situation observed for ASF in the wild boar population may suggest an endemic form of the disease. This may further complicate eradication programs and the protection of domestic pig farms from ASF outbreaks. An additional and major reason to control the ASF epizootic is the continuing military Russian offensive in Ukraine.
The influence of parameters of technological loading, properties of grain mixes and constructive parameters of sieves on the values of the formed equivalent stresses and their durability is given. The change in equivalent stresses was studied both on serial sieves with basic triangular holes and on sieves with activators – innovative holes in the form of an epicycloid. Finite element method based on Pro/ENGINEER product and research data is used to predict the durability of perforated sieves. It was found that the use of activators on sieves, due to their innovative forms, increases the durability of the perforated sieve by 12.3 %. The developed technique allows to analyze different designs of sieve openings by the criterion of their durability.
Introduction: Species of Fimbriaria are common tapeworms of ducks (Anseriformes). In this study, cestode specimens identified as F. fasciolaris, F. czaplinskii and F. teresae from the Helminthological Collection of IZSHK are re-examined and newly collected cestodes of the genus Fimbriaria from various anseriform birds in Ukraine are examined. Methods: Cestode specimens were studied using light microscopy. For two of these species, Fimbriaria fasciolaris and Fimbriaria teresae, partial sequences of the genes 18S, 28S, COX1 and NAD were obtained. Also, archived specimens from Ukrainian and Poland were also studied and partly re-identified. Results: The revision of all collected cestodes identified as Fimbriaria spp. revealed that species of the genus differ by the morphology of the copulative apparatus. Based on the analysis of our data and literature sources, a key to Fimbriaria species is provided.
This study focuses on the assessment of possible hypereutectoid steel carbide mesh crushing. It is used for tools production, including forming rolls of various diameters, with modification and cyclic heat treatment methods. For steel containing 1.79–1.83% C, we studied the effect of 0.35–1.15% Si on the possible crushing of the cementite mesh within crystallization by introducing modifiers Ti, V, N, as well as simultaneously modifying V with N and Ti with N. The obtained castings of Ø200 mm, 400 mm high were cut into discs, from which we made samples for tests on wear, determining mechanical properties, thermal resistance, and susceptibility to brittle fracture. The assessment was performed in the as-cast and after double and triple normalizing and annealing with drawback. With additional fans blowing, we changed the cooling rate from 25 °C/h to 100–150 °C/h. We performed the microstructure analyses using traditional metallographic, micro-X-ray spectral analyses, and also used the segmentation process based on 2D image markers. It was found that the as-cast modifying additives infusion is insufficient for carbide mesh crushing. It can be made by multi-stage normalizing with accelerated cool-down for products up to 600 mm in diameter to cycle temperatures above the steel transfer from a plastic to elastic state (above 450 °C).
The article clarifies an approximate variant for calculating the temperature in an inhomogeneous layer cell without a clear boundary under the assumption of significant distance in its center between the upper and lower ends of the silo when heat exchange conditions have little effect on the development of temperature in the layer cell due to poor thermal conductivity. The normal Gaussian law concerning distribution of thermal sources in the cell on an axis of a silo is accepted. The integral cosine of the Fourier transform is used to construct the analytical solution of the nonstationary thermal conductivity problem. A compact formula for calculating the increase in excess temperature in the center of the self-heating cell over time is derived and used to identify the parameters of the cell. The change in temperature at other points of the raw material is expressed through incomplete gamma function that is reduced to the probability integral. Calculations show that for the selected distribution of thermal sources, the temperature increase slows down rapidly with separation from the center of the cell. The possibility of determining the pattern distribution of the localized field of excess ambient temperature over time is proved. Examples of density identification of thermal sources are given. After identification, the calculation formulas become consistent with the experiment and suitable for the theoretical prediction of temperature rise in the raw material. The approbation of the proposed mathematical expressions to identify the parameters of the self-heating process of raw materials showed high accuracy relative to experimental data with a deviation of 0.01–0.015%. It is possible not only to determine the parameters of the self-heating cell but also to predict the time of reaching a flammable temperature in it.
The purpose of the research was to develop and scientifically substantiate the system of nutrition of winter triticale crops to optimize their production process and increase plant productivity in the Northern Steppe of Ukraine. The highest number of grains in the ear of the main and lateral stems of winter triticale was in the variants where foliar nutrition with a mixture of carbamide, magnesium sulfate and complex fertilizer Ferkrystal Summum during the 31st and 39th microphases and the variants where the third foliar nutrition during the 73-th microphase on the background of root application of ammonium nitrate at a dose of 150 kg/ha was conducted. In these variants, the number of grains in the ear on average over the years and variants for pre-sowing fertilization was 40.6 and 40.0 pieces, respectively, which is 11.2 and 11.5%, respectively, more than in the control. Carrying out three foliar nutrition with a mixture of carbamide, magnesium sulfate and complex fertilizer Fercrystal Summum on the background of root nutrition of ammonium nitrate during the 22nd microphase provided an increase in grain weight from the ear and lateral stems of winter triticale compared to the control (application of ammonium nitrate at the dose of 150 kg/ha on frozen thawed soil) by 0.24 and 0.23 g, respectively, or by 14.8 and 15.4%. The studied variants of pre-sowing application of mineral fertilizers significantly affected the parameters of productive plant stand (the number of plants and lateral productive stems), while nutrition provided significant changes in the parameters of grain productivity of winter triticale plants. On the basis of the researches, during winter triticale cultivation, the farms in the Northern Steppe of Ukraine are recommended to carry out pre-sowing application of ammophos (N12P52), to apply ammonium nitrate (N50) for roots in the 22nd microphase in spring and carry out two foliar nutrition in the 31st and 39th microphases with a mixture of carbamide (N10), hepatic magnesium sulfate (1.5 kg/ha) and complex water-soluble fertilizer Ferkrystal Summum.
Utilization of mineralized fossil water (MFW), as a by-product of oil production is a special environmental problem in oil and gas areas. In Ukraine the annual production of mineralized fossil water together with oil is estimated at about 20 million tons. Taking into account that MFW is an aby-product of oil production, they are usually placed in waste disposal sites and can contaminate environment. It was determined that toxicological properties of mineralized fossil water have not been studied so far. There is the need for study of toxicological features of the MFW which will allow to determine its hazard class and to develop some measures for safe usage of this drug for making the agriculture more ecological. Thus, in the work we have made the assessment of ecotoxicological properties of MFW as an environmentally safe substitute for agrochemicals. It was established that MFW is referred to low-toxic compounds. LD50 for oral introduction of the compound in the bodies of white female rats is more than 21,000 mg/kg, female mice - 31,000 mg/kg, male mice - more than 20,000 mg/kg; when applied to the skin of rats – more than 8000 mg/kg. The value of LD50 when applied to the inhalation routes of entry for female rats is more than 5000 mg/kg. It was justified that by oral route of entry and skin penetration the MFWs belong to the IV class of danger, and by inhalation route of entry – to III class. It was also determined that MFW does not have an irritating effect on the skin and mucous membranes of the eyes. There is also no sensitizing effect on the body of guinea pigs. Studies have shown that the cumulative properties of MFW are weakly represented. The accumulation coefficient is greater than 5. At a dose of 4260 mg/kg MFW has cardiotoxic effect, it affects the process of erythropoiesis and increases filtration and excretory function of the kidneys. Ineffective dose for rats in a subchronic experiment is 2130 mg/kg. These results of ecotoxicological study of MFW make it possible to confirm that its usage is safe in the agricultural system, especially as environmentally friendly organo-mineral fertilizer, herbicide, and fungicide.
Among the gastrointestinal parasitoses, fascioliasis is one of the most common diseases in ruminants. Fasciola spp. is recorded on five continents of the globe, in more than 50 countries. The parasitizing trematode causes economic losses associated with a decrease in milk yield, body weight, and culling of affected carcasses and organs. In this study, we aimed to quantify the prevalence of fascioliasis among ruminants (cattle, sheep and goats) of the world in terms of the odds ratio according to the Mantel–Haenszel test (M–H). Online databases in English, Russian and Ukrainian languages were searched for publications from January 2002 to September 2020. This meta-analysis included 42 studies with ruminant hosts. Data on the spread of fascioliasis were collected from different continents of the globe: North and South America, Europe, Asia and Africa. The results of the study found that the overall prevalence of fascioliasis in cattle was 6.41 %, while in small ruminants it was only 2.03 %. The disease in cattle was recorded 1.48 times more often than in sheep and goats. Egger’s regression test revealed no significant publication bias (P = 0.265). The results of the meta-analysis confirm that the causative agent of fascioliasis circulates mainly in the emerging countries. The updated data on fascioliasis will expand the screening strategy to maintain the health of farm ruminants and reduce economic losses.
The article analyzes the functioning of existing logistics centers in Ukraine. The logistics real estate segment was developed dynamically in Ukraine in the years before the full-scale invasion of Russia. Most logistics complexes are located in the Kyiv region, sometimes in the cities of Kharkiv, Odesa, Dnipropetrovsk and Lviv. Logistics real estate has suffered significant damage since the start of the war, and some warehouses have been completely destroyed. In order to fulfill a coordinating and integrating role in the implementation of logistics operations in the western region of Ukraine, the authors proposed the creation of a powerful regional logistics center in Lviv. The operation of the center will ensure the provision of a full range of logistics services based on the criterion of minimizing the loss of time and money. The authors proposed an algorithm for determining the optimal location of the logistics center in the region. The regional logistics center has been developed, together with its organizational and functional structure and the relationships between its components.
Ensuring the efficient development and functioning of agricultural enterprises depends on the rationally formed optimal level of costs for the implementation of economic activities, particularly for the production of agricultural products. This article aims to describe methodological principles of cost management of agricultural enterprises based on the European Union countries using determination of interconnection between total costs of agricultural enterprises and indicators of the value of agricultural products manufactured by them. Methods: theoretical analysis, abstraction, induction, deduction, tabular and graphical presentation, description, comparison, comparison, and generalization. Results: It was found that the disclosure of methodological principles of cost management of agricultural enterprises should be carried out by identifying the relationship between the total costs of agrarian enterprises and indicators of the cost of agricultural products produced by them using correlation analysis. As a result of correlation analysis, we established direct and reversed very high, high, medium, moderate, and weak correlations between the indicator of total costs of agricultural enterprises and the indicator of the cost of grain growing, index of production cost of industrial crops and the index of the cost of forage crops production according to the surveyed countries of the European Union. It was found that with very high and high intensity of interconnection between the analyzed variables. The increase in the indicator of total costs directly affects the growth of the cost of growing crops by agricultural enterprises in Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Estonia, Latvia, the Netherlands, and Romania. The growth in the indicator of total costs directly affects the growth of the production cost of industrial crops by agricultural enterprises of Denmark, Estonia, Greece, Latvia, and Portugal and the increase in the indicator of total costs directly affects the increase in the cost of growing forage crops by agricultural enterprises of Belgium, Croatia, Cyprus, Estonia, Ireland, the Netherlands, Romania, Slovenia, Spain, and Sweden. The prospect of the following research is to disclose the methodological principles of cost management of agricultural enterprises on the application of the United States of America.
The paper aims to analyze the educational trends of the year 2022 and determine whether they are relevant in the future, whether they are a response to the challenges of the present. Also, attention is paid to the method of SWOT-analysis, with the help of which the strengths and vulnerabilities of distance learning are identified. The results analyze the future of distance education, in particular, special attention is paid to the experience of implementing hybrid education as a likely promising direction of further learning. Another aspect is the introduction of STEM education, media education (as a counteraction to intentional propaganda), and Education for Sustainable Development as important elements of the modern learning process in the United States and European countries. In conclusion, it is concluded that these areas of educational activities will be trends in the next decade in the recurrence of the crisis. The scientific novelty of the work consists in the fact that for the first time at the synthetic level modern educational trends were studied, their prospects and risks of use were characterized. The abstract in English does not match the abstract in Spanish.
In the context of social-economic transformations and globalization of the international economy, the importance of the agricultural sector of the economy is increasing, the efficiency of which ensures the growth of the level of economic security. Harmonization of effective agricultural policy and economic security involves the protection of national economic interests, sustainable economic growth and modernization of the economy on the basis of agricultural sector development as a tool for economic security, and structural transformation of agricultural policy as part of agricultural security. The purpose of the research lies in substantiating the theoretical and applied principles for the formation and implementation of agricultural policy and assessing its harmonization with the economic security of the European Union. In the course of the research, the following methods have been used, namely: methods of economic analysis and synthesis; comparisons and analogies; generalization and systematization; grouping and cluster analysis. Regarding the results of the research, it has been established that the growth of the level of economic security of the European Union depends on the effectiveness of agricultural policy. Studying the peculiarities of the harmonization of agricultural policy and economic security in the countries of the European Union makes it possible to identify three groups of countries that have common features and trends in the indicators being analysed, namely: countries with a high level of economic security and moderate funding for agricultural policy (Germany (IIES: 0,593; FV: 6279967 thousand EUR), Denmark (IIES: 0,723; FV: 977871 thousand EUR), Ireland (IIES: 0,666; FV: 1573102 thousand EUR), Luxembourg (IIES: 0,607; FV: 47909 thousand EUR), the Netherlands (IIES: 0.702; FV: 836749 thousand EUR), Finland (IIES: 0,675; FV: 874699 thousand EUR) and Sweden (IIES: 0,673; FV: 948511 thousand EUR), which effectively implement public economic policy and support the development of the agricultural sector at a high level; countries with a sufficiently high level of economic security and stable development of the agricultural sector (Spain (IIES: 0.518; FV: 6908343 thousand EUR), France (IIES: 0,490; FV: 9448114 thousand EUR), Belgium (IIES: 0,544; FV: 645317 thousand EUR), the Czech Republic (IIES: 0,507; FV: 1193984 thousand EUR), Estonia (IIES: 0,418; FV: 273189 thousand EUR), Malta (IIES: 0,457; FV: 19320 thousand EUR), Austria (IIES: 0,552; FV: 1281161 thousand EUR) and Portugal (IIES: 0,5694; FV: 1370581 thousand EUR), financing of agricultural policy of which occurs in accordance with the needs of economic entities and is aimed mainly at introducing innovations; countries with a low level of economic security, characterized by structural changes in the development of the agricultural sector (Italy, Greece, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Slovenia, Slovakia).
The possibilities of the action of uneven air flows on the grain material in the separating channels are still not used enough. The reason for this is the insufficient knowledge of the processes of interaction of the components of the grain material with an uneven air flow. The purpose of the research is to increase the efficiency of grain material separation according to aerodynamic properties by purposefully changing the diagram of air velocities in the channel sections using the actions of lateral and aerodynamic forces. The separation efficiency of grain material components was determined by trajectory analysis. The different geometry of the pneumatic separation channel was studied. The study of the distribution of air velocity and air pressure vectors in a vertical annular channel was carried out using the FlowVision software. It has been established that a change in the air velocity diagram can be implemented both by changing the geometric parameters of the channel and by additional distributed air supply through the perforation in the side walls of the pneumatic channel. Based on the analysis of the velocity field, an improved scheme of a pneumatic gravitational separator is proposed for separating grain material into three fractions according to aerodynamic characteristics.
Increasing the share of renewable energy in the final energy consumption is a way to ensure independence from external supplies of fossil fuels, which is a fundamental political and economic challenge for many countries nowadays. One such country is Ukraine, which depended on Russian gas supplies and energy (electricity) from nuclear power plants. Russian gas is not delivered anymore to Ukraine, and Russians have recently taken over some of the nuclear power plants. The changes in the political situation force Ukraine to search for alternative energy sources. In countries with high agricultural production potential, one of the basic options seems to be popularization of modern methods of obtaining energy from biomass (bioenergy), which so far has played a minor role in the country’s energy mix (less than 2% in the case of Ukraine). The analysis carried out on the case of the Kyiv Region indicates that the annual economic potential of biomass in the region is equivalent to 1743 thousand toe (tonnes of oil), and its use allows them to save about 43% of fossil fuel annually.
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