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  • No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of the American College of Surgeons
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    ABSTRACT: To measure the corneal temperature in patients with dry eye (DE) and to correlate the values with subjective discomfort symptoms. Twenty-four patients with DE (scored as DEWS severity grade 2 to 3) and 15 age-matched normal control subjects were enrolled. Subjective symptoms of discomfort were scored with an Ocular Surface Disease Index questionnaire, and a 100-mm horizontal visual analog scale (VAS) technique was used to measure symptom intensity. Schirmer I test, tear film breakup time (TFBUT), and Oxford grade scoring were performed in all subjects. Dynamic infrared noncontact thermal imaging (Tomey TG 1000) was used to measure the central corneal temperature (CCT). After training, subjects were asked to maintain their eyes forcedly open and to signal the discomfort onset time (DOT). The temperature was measured at eye opening (T0) and every second during 10 seconds of sustained eye opening (T10). The first discomfort sensation onset time (DOT) was also recorded. Temperature values were correlated with the clinical tests, Ocular Surface Disease Index, VAS, and DOT, and data were statistically evaluated (significance P < 0.05). The corneal temperature immediately after eye opening was significantly lower in patients with DE than in controls, in correlation to the subject age, VAS, and TFBUT. A 3-phase cooling profile in patients with DE and a point of highest decrease (HD) in both groups were identified. DOT occurred earlier in patients with DE than in controls (5.9 vs. 15.9 seconds) and was strongly correlated to the VAS, TFBUT, and CCT-HD. Subjective sensation of discomfort occurred earlier in patients with DE than in controls, in correlation to low corneal temperatures and enhanced tear evaporation.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Cornea
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    ABSTRACT: Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) functional imaging is an evolving field that witnessed major advances in the past two decades. The routine use of PET/CT with an array of new radio tracers to specifically study NEN resulted in an increase in lesions detection. Currently, PET radiopharmaceuticals for NEN imaging include both metabolic ([18F]DOPA, [18F]FDG, [11C]/[18F]--HTP) and receptor--mediated compounds ([68Ga]DOTA--peptides). Discussion is still on--going regarding the clinical setting that may benefit the most from the use of one tracer over the other. [68Ga]DOTA--peptides are accurate for the detection of well differentiated NEN and are increasingly employed. Moreover, providing data on somatostatin receptors expression on NEN cells, they represent a fundamental procedure to be performed before starting therapy, as well as to guide treatment, with either hot or cold somatostatin analogues. The easy and economic synthesis process also favours their clinical employment even in centres without an on--site cyclotron. [18F]DOPA is accurate for studying well differentiated tumours however the difficult and expensive synthesis have limited its clinical employment. It currently can be successfully used for imaging tumours with variable to low expression of SSR (medullary thyroid carcinoma, neuroblastoma, pheocromocytoma), that cannot be accurately studied with [68Ga]DOTA--peptides. [11C]/[18F]--HTP has also been proposed to image well differentiated NEN, on the basis of serotonin pathway activity, for which [11C]/[18F]--HTP can be used as precursor. However, although preliminary data are encouraging, the feasibility of its widespread clinical use is still under discussion, mainly limited by a complex synthesis process and more proven advantages over other currently employed compounds. This review aims to provide an overview of the current status and clinical application of PET tracers to image well differentiated NEN and to focus on the still open--issues of debate.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · The quarterly journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging: official publication of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine (AIMN) [and] the International Association of Radiopharmacology (IAR), [and] Section of the Society of...

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