Neurogenic detrusor overactivity is a dangerin terms of the formation of vesicoureteralreflux, pyelonephritis, and chronic kidney disease. The standard treatment for neurogenic detrusor overactivity is intermittent catheterization of the bladder in combination with M-cholinoblockers, which is not always sufficient. In the article, the authors briefly outlined the physiological basis of intradetrusor injections of botulinum toxin in neurogenic detrusor overactivity in patients with myelodysplasia who underwent surgery for spinal hernias, tumors of the spinal canal, as well as patients with spinal trauma. The technology of intradetrusor injections of botulinum toxin is shown, possible complications are described. The effectiveness of intradetrusor injections of botulinum toxin is shown by a specific clinical example — a description of the medical history of a child who has a history of surgical treatment for a spinal hernia in the newborn period. After the operation, neurogenic detrusor overactivity was revealed, insensitive to treatment with M-cholinoblockers. Complications were vesicoureteral reflux and recurrent pyelonephritis. The results of cystometry before and after double administration of botulinum toxin are shown. Detrusor hypertension was stopped, pyelonephritis remission was achieved, trabecularity of the bladder mucosa was stopped. Simultaneously with the introduction of botulinum toxin, endoscopic correction of vesicoureteral reflux was performed.
This paper examines the response of dynamical complexity in traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) across Eastern Africa sector during major geomagnetic storms. Detrended total electron content derived from eight stations of Global Positioning System receivers across Eastern Africa was used to unveil the transient features of dynamical complexity response in TIDs. Neural network entropy (NNetEn) was applied to the detrended TEC time series data to capture the degree of dynamical complexity. The NNetEn track the distinct features associated with the occurrence of TIDs. The results show that as the signatures of TIDs begin to emerge, low values of NNetEn signifying reduction in the degree of dynamical complexity response were observed while high values of NNetEn were depicted as the signatures of TIDs subsides signifying increase in the dynamical complexity response. Reduction in dynamical complexity response associated with the occurrence of TIDs is more evident in the Southern Hemisphere compared to Northern Hemisphere. Furthermore, we found that the propagation of TIDs is more prominent at Equinoctial season compared to solstitial season. The latitudinal observation of NNetEn revealed higher degree of dynamical complexity response in ADIS and NEGE signifying that the development of TIDs is minimal in ADIS and NEGE. Finally, the reduction in dynamical complexity associated with the occurrence of TIDs were obvious during all the phases of geomagnetic storms. In particular, the dynamical complexity response at initial and recovery phases of geomagnetic storm depicts more TIDs features.
Nonlinear optical properties of lithium niobate crystals doped with alkaline-earth (Zn²⁺) and rare-earth (Er³⁺) elements were quantitatively studied from the chemical bond viewpoint of crystal. The different influences of Zn and Er dopants on the dielectric response of LiNbO3 were compared. The value of nonlinear optical second-harmonic generation coefficients was determined mainly by the Li–O bonds both in LiNbO3:Zn and LiNbO3:Er crystals. We observed sharp changes in the second order nonlinear optical response of Zn-doped LiNbO3 single crystals at 1064 nm with increasing Zn concentration in the crystal. The calculated values of the nonlinear optical coefficients for the LiNbO3:Zn crystals exceed those for the LiNbO3:Er crystals. The LiNbO3:Zn crystal with dopant concentration 5.48 mol.% is the most suitable crystal for the second-harmonic conversion.
The article is dealing with indigenous peoples’ sustainability issues in Russian Arctic labour market. There we surveyed 74 indigenous communities and 32 municipal unitary enterprises in the Arctic. Obtained data helped to identify demanded occupations for indigenous peoples in the Russian Arctic for the period of 2035. It turned out that 75% of respondents continue working in occupations that are traditional for indigenous peoples (reindeer farmer, coastal fisherman, whale hunter etc.) in the Russian Arctic, 25% continue working in occupations demanded in Arctic labour market mainly in social sphere (doctor, teacher and kindergarten teacher). Both Rosstat data and indigenous peoples’ surveys’ results indicated that indigenous peoples are usually not enrolled in vocational educations programmes. After graduating both schools and boarding schools, indigenous peoples usually do not continue their education. They also have a high disposal rate at tertiary vocational education organisations in case they are enrolled. Unequal access to education as well as labour market is a strong characteristic of indigenous peoples in the Russian Arctic.
The article analyzes the problem of the specifics of the quality of life and value orientations of residents of the border Kalevala district of the Republic of Karelia. The retrospective aspect of the study is due to the tragic history of the separation of one people (northern Karelians) in the territory of two neighboring states (Finland and Russia) due to political events and decisions of the past. The historically established isolation (geographical and mental) of Kalevalians is also relevant in modern life. Therefore, the main goal of the study was to determine the degree of influence of socio-cultural factors on the quality of life and axiological dominants of local residents. The analysis of the modern sociocultural situation on the territory of the Kalevala National District was carried out during the complex scientific expedition “Kalevala-2021” and during the cameral processing of the results of field work. In the study a comprehensive methodology of humanities was used, as well as authoritative axiological and psychological methods. As a result of the validation axiological study, specific value dominants of Kalevals were identified, different from the “general cultural profile” of Schwartz, which coincided with the results of a psychological study of “existential fulfillment” and the quality of life of respondents. In sum, the authors of the article identified sociocultural factors that determine the axiological preferences and quality of life of Kalevalians in a modern situation aggravated by pandemic conditions. The article is recommended to specialists in philosophy, cultural studies, sociology and history.
Aim. The presented study aims to develop a scientifically based method of obtaining quantitative indicators for the staffing of priority areas through the training of highly qualified scientific personnel. Tasks. The authors create a methodology for comparing the topics of dissertation research (scientific specialties and dissertation topics) with the priority areas formulated in the Strategy for the Scientific and Technological Development of the Russian Federation (STD RF); conduct a survey of candidates of sciences to learn their assessment of the compliance ofdissertation research topics with the priority areas of the STD RF strategy and to identify the peculiarities of the professional development of candidates of sciences after the defense of their dissertations; analyze the staffing of the priority areas of the STD RF strategy through the training of highly qualified personnel (HQP) based on the results of the survey and the developed methodology for matching the topic of the dissertation with the topics of the priority areas of the STD RF strategy and the retention of the trained HQP in the scientific and technological field corresponding to such priority areas; identify Competence Centers for the training of HQP for the staffing of the priority directions of the STD RF strategy. Methods. A methodology of step-by-step matching of dissertation research and priority areas according to the criteria of "scientific specialty" and "dissertation title" is developed using three approaches: expert, keyword-based, and embedding-based. A sociological survey of 8,402 candidates of sciences was conducted to obtain quantitative indicators. Results. It is found that only one out of three candidates of sciences who defended a dissertation in one of the priority areas continues to engage in scientific activity on the subject of his dissertation after the defense. Over half of the candidates of sciences (around 60 %) whose dissertation topic corresponds to the priorities of the STD RF strategy occasionally engage in scientific activities on the subject of their dissertation research. Around 12 % of candidates of sciences stopped developing their research topics after defending their dissertations. Conclusions. The potential of HQP trained in the subject of priority areas is not fully realized. The number of HQP that remain focused on the topics of the priority areas of the STD RF strategy can serve as a benchmark for the formation of indicators of staffing efficiency in the priority areas of scientific and technological development.
At present, the development and implementation of new information and communication technologies in all sectors of the economy is of great importance in the leading countries. In full measure, this trend also takes place in the Russian Federation (RF), where the digital economy (DE) is developing. The main goal of the study is to, based on the relationship between the formation of the digital economy and the improvement of financial policy, firstly, to analyze this interaction. Secondly, on this basis, to develop ways to accelerate the formation of the DE, as well as to increase the effectiveness of the FP at the federal and regional levels. Because of the study, we considered it possible and necessary to supplement with a number of positions the list of tasks already available in a number of official documents for the formation of the digital economy and the conduct of financial policy.
The purpose of the study. In the context of blended learning with a predominant distance learning format in the period of 2020-2022, the reorganization of the educational process, carried out through the use of distance learning technologies and the Blackboard e-learning platform, made it necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of such forced restructuring and make the necessary adjustments in teaching physics to first- and second-year undergraduate students. The research objectives: to find out students’ attitude to the use of various forms of active learning in studying physics, to assess the degree of their academic motivation, to conduct a comparative analysis of the effectiveness of the educational process restructuring in a forced predominantly distance-learning environment from the perspectives of professors and students. Materials and methods. Within the conditions of predominant dis tance learning, in order to improve the educational process organized with distance learning technologies and to make the necessary adjustments, a survey was conducted among students upon completion of the physics course. The sample of respondents was carried out among bachelors studying in engineering and technical areas and studying the course “physics” in the first year of the Institute of Physics and Technology of Petrozavodsk State University. The survey itself and survey data analysis were conducted using the functional features of the e-learning platform Blackboard Learn. The survey questions were aimed at identifying students’ attitude to various aspects of the learning process and evaluating the effectiveness of the methods used by the authors to increase students’ academic motivation. The questions offered for self-analysis referred to the organization of the learning process (including distance learning format), academic motivation; personal competence and communication skills of students and professors; reflection. As part of the survey, students were also asked to formulate their opinions on the results of studying the course of physics and to give recommendations for improving teaching. Results. The research findings indicated that it worked out well to organize systematic students’ activities in all proposed educational areas, to ensure fairly balanced out-of-class students’ work, to motivate undergraduates to study physics and to minimize the number of students not making satisfactory progress in studying physics. Students highly appreciated the efficiency of electronic educational resources. Both professors and students noted the efficiency of modular rating system of learning. The use of modular rating system of learning gave the opportunity to implement a student-centered approach to teaching, which combined motivation, the possibility to choose an individual learning path, and reflection. The survey data showed that in order to strengthen motivation, it is reasonable to involve students in research activities in one form or other starting from the first year of university studies. When performing the survey, the role of personal and professional qualities of a lecturer of physics was analyzed. Conclusion. The research findings indicated that within a predominantly distance-learning environment, it worked out well to organize systematic students’ activities in all proposed educational areas, to ensure fairly balanced self-directed students’ work, and to motivate undergraduates to study physics. The integrated use of modular rating system of learning and electronic educational resources was highly appreciated by students and made it possible to implement a student-centered approach to teaching. The survey data analysis provided feedback between the subjects of the innovative educational process, thus allowing us to evaluate its organization considering the opinions of both students and professors. The results obtained suggest that the work on the organization of education delivery should be continued within the motivation and activity concept of active learning, taking into account the introduction of distance learning into the educational environment of all Bachelor programmes.
The article presents the results of a largescale study devoted to the formation of forecast indicators of recruitment needs of the Russian Arctic economy as the most important geostrategic territory of the country. Information about them is presented in regional, industry and professional terms. The basic and additional sources to ensure these needs of the Russian Arctic economy have been identified. It is concluded that there is a serious shortage of the internal labor resources of the Arctic territories, hence the need to attract additional labor force, including for the implementation of investment projects. It is shown that the current situation in the system of training qualified specialists in the Arctic territories contradicts the longterm plans for the Russian Arctic development. In the context of the implementation of the state’s new Arctic strategy, the importance of building a wellthoughtout state policy for staffing the Arctic territories, development of human capital sectors, and diversification of the Arctic economy is noted.
The study was aimed at exploring informative value of nonlinear parameters of surface electromyogram (sEMG) to characterization of neuromuscular activity in respect with duration of space flight (SF) and stepping mode. The working hypothesis held that sEMG entropy, correlation dimension (CD), and Lyapunov's exponent, which characterize signals in terms of regularity and predictability, may inform on motor units (MUs) synchronization or content of MUs of different types in muscle activity. In addition, median frequency (MDF), mean amplitude, and kurtosis of of the probability distribution of sEMG were computed. sEMG samples were collected from the soleus of 6 cosmonauts on board of the International Space Station during 5 modes of stepping on the passive-mode treadmill in the MO-3 test, and 5 study points - before and after SF on ground (preSF, postSF) and for 3 periods of time in SF (1–80, 81–120, 120–170 days of SF). Altogether, 15 individual sEMG sample sets were successfully obtained. It was found that 1) the sEMG parameters pooled for all subjects by the stepping mode, except for MDF and kurtosis, did modify in the direction of higher regularity of the signal with growing speed of stepping, 2) the conditions of SF exerted effect on MDF, Lyapunov's exponent, entropy, and kurtosis of the probability distribution of sEMG, which probably indicated on greater involvement of the faster type motor units in muscle activity. In conclusion, nonlinear sEMG parameters look promising for characterizing the neuromuscular activity of skeletal muscles under SF conditions. Nonetheless, a small number of sample sets combined with different study points in different cosmonauts allow considering these facts as promising, but not yet definitely established.
Metacercariae of Diplostomum petromyzifluviatilis (Digenea, Diplostomidae) from the brain of European river lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis from the Baltic Sea basin and Arctic lamprey Lethenteron camtschaticum from the White Sea basin were studied with the use of genetic and morphological methods. Phylogenetic analysis based on cox1 marker showed that the parasites of both lamprey species were conspecific with Diplostomum sp. Lineage 4 of Blasco-Costa et al. (2014). The name Diplostomum petromyzifluviatilis Müller (Diesing, 1850) has historical precedence as a species described from the brain of lampreys and should be used in genus nomenclature. There were no morphological qualitative differences between the metacercariae from the two lamprey species but those from L. fluviatilis were larger than those from L. camtschaticum. We expanded the data on the second intermediate hosts and the localization of D. petromyzifluviatilis, showing that its metacercariae occur not only in the brain of lampreys but also in the brain and the retina of three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus and the vitreous humour of the perch Perca fluviatilis across the European part of the Palearctic.
In most studies early Soviet borders are explored as sites of confrontational interactions between the newly created communist state and local communities. Alternatively, they emerge in scholarly research as spaces of illegal transborder exchanges and commodities transfers, resulting in the loss of official revenues and gains for informal economies. Later, in increasingly politicized contexts, these interactions resulted in the gradual “cleansing” and “sealing” of borders. The current article argues that to regain control over the borders during their transition from bridgeheads of the revolution and commodity transit zones to hermetically sealed barriers and fortress walls that occurred throughout the 1920s - 1930s, the Soviet state for some time struggled in vain to discipline not only local communities, which used the newly created borders for their own means, but multiple border controllers themselves - border guards, but primarily the customs apparatus located along Russia’s lengthy borders. For almost a decade in the specific conditions of Eastern and Northwestern Soviet border sectors, the latter refused to abide to increasingly restrictive working conditions, abandon their privileges and rights, and to submit to the new border control agency - the Soviet Main Political Directorate (GPU). Ուսումնասիրությունների մեծ մասում վաղ խորհրդային սահմանները դիտարկվում են որպես նորաստեղծ կոմունիստական պետության և տեղական համայնքների միջև առճակատման վայրեր: Գիտական հետազոտություններում այդ տարածքները ներկայացվում են նաև որպես անօրինական անդրսահմանային փոխանակումների և ապրանքների փոխանցման տարածքներ, որոնք հանգեցնում էին պետական եկամուտների նվազման և անօրինական տնտեսությունների հարստացմանը: Հետագայում, ավելի ու ավելի քաղաքականացված համատեքստում, այս փոխազդեցությունները հանգեցրին սահմանների աստիճանական «մաքրման» և «կնքման»։
Artificial intelligence (hereinafter referred to as AI) is currently an area of strategic importance and a key technology ensuring a new digital economy development in Russia. Qualified AI specialist's training plays an important role in achieving ambitious AI-related goals as stated in government documents. The article presents survey results of more than 200 Russian universities, which enabled to create indicators characterizing both current and planned training volumes of AI specialists. According to the research results, Russian universities have responded quickly to the AI market development. Since 2019, they have been enrolling students at AI learning programs by intensifying training volumes annually. More than half of all AI learning programs are implemented within the «09.00.00 Informatics and Computer Science» and «01.00.00 Mathematics and Mechanics» majors/ specialties. AI specialist training in Russian universities is largely carried out at the expense of budgetary funds. The number of students enrolled at the AI learning programs is much higher for the bachelor programs. The specialists’ graduation in AI-related education programs was evaluated until the year 2025. The authors have also analyzed the best foreign practice in AI specialists training and proposed some measures to increase training volumes of AI specialists at Russian universities, for example, re-orienting higher education programs in the IT field at AI-related technologies. It is important that AI learning programs take into account recruitment needs projection in terms of training volumes and skills profiles.
The article is dedicated to the 40th anniversary of the pediatric endoscopic service of the Republic of Karelia. In the introductory part of the article, the authors briefly describe the history of the appearance of endoscopy in the world, which dates back to 1881, when J. Mikulicz-Radecki designed and first used a rigid gastroscope in an adult patient, and then developed very slowly for a long time. Isolated attempts to use gastroscopy, bronchoscopy, and laparoscopy are described. For laparoscopy, a frontal reflector, electric lamps, mirrors were used, and later - the first cystoscopes and rectoscopes. In 1890-1930, there were only a few publications per decade devoted to the development of endoscopic technology. In the Republic of Karelia, the formation of the endoscopic service is associated with the formation of the Karelian Center for Pediatric Surgery. Gastroscopies were initially performed with rigid endoscopes and the main reasons for the appointment of such studies were injuries and burns of the esophagus. The first gastroscopy of a teenager was performed in March 1982, an artifact is presented - a photo of the conclusion of this study. The authors tell about the stages of the formation of the service in the Republic of Karelia. In pediatric practice, the most difficult contingent of patients are newborns and premature babies. Endoscopies for newborns have been performed since 1985. Intraluminal endoscopic interventions have been performed since 1989, and diagnostic laparoscopies have been performed since 1990. Since 1991, laparoscopic operations have been performed under visual control - 57 interventions were performed before the appearance of video resistance. We also recall the period of the economically difficult last decade of the twentieth century, when the development of the endoscopic service continued thanks to the supply of equipment from the twin city of Tubingen. With the advent of the video system, the endoscopic service has gradually developed to the modern level, at which the entire main range of endosurgical interventions is performed.
Currently, the Republic of Karelia has a low number of children and youth leisure institutions that purposefully create conditions in their activities for the education of patriotism among the younger generation. In 2001, clubs and public associations of a civil-patriotic orientation operated in almost all regions of the republic. In 2011, out of more than 100 children’s and youth public organizations of the Republic of Karelia, only 10 deal with patriotic issues, of which 7 are search organizations. In this article, the authors show how students of Petrozavodsk State University participate in the implementation of the program of patriotic education in Karelia.
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