# Pedagogical University of Cracow

• Kraków, Poland
Recent publications
We study a class of elliptic problems with homogeneous Dirichlet boundary condition and a nonlinear reaction term f which is nonlocal depending on the Lp\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$L^{p}$$\end{document}-norm of the unknown function. The nonlinearity f can make the problem degenerate since it may even have multiple singularities in the nonlocal variable. We use fixed point arguments for an appropriately defined solution map, to produce multiplicity of classical positive solutions with ordered norms.
Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 (NBT) and Fe- and Mn-modified NBT (0.5 and 1 mol%) ceramics were synthesized by the solid-state reaction method. The crystal structure, dielectric and thermal properties of these ceramics were measured in both unpoled and poled states. Neither the addition of iron/manganese to NBT nor poling changed the average crystal structure of the material; however, changes were observed in the short-range scale. The changes in shapes of the Bragg peaks and in their 2Θ-position and changes in the Raman spectra indicated a temperature-driven structural evolution similar to that in pure NBT. It was found that both substitutions led to a decrease in the depolarization temperature Td and an increase in the piezoelectric coefficient d33. In addition, applying an electric field reactivated and extended the ferroelectric state to higher temperatures (Td increased). These effects could be the result of: crystal structure disturbance; changes in the density of defects; the appearance of (FeTiˈ-), (Mn′Ti-V••O) and (Mn″Tii-V••O )—microdipoles; improved domain reorientation conditions and instability of the local polarization state due to the introduction of Fe and Mn into the NBT; reinforced polarization/domain ordering; and partial transformation of the rhombohedral regions into tetragonal ones by the electric field, which supports a long-range ferroelectric state. The possible occupancy of A- and/or B-sites by Fe and Mn ions is discussed based on ionic radius/valence/electronegativity principles. The doping of Fe/Mn and E-poling offers an effective way to modify the properties of NBT.
The purpose of the study was to identify possible mechanisms underlying the relationship between low self-esteem and excessive Internet use in a non-clinical sample of young adults. Basing on the theoretical framework and results of existing studies we hypothesized that the association between self-esteem and excessive Internet use will be serially mediated by the ability to initiate contact with others and sense of loneliness. The study sample consisted of 506 participants (60% women) aged between 18 and 35 years (mean = 19). The following questionnaires were administered: the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the UCLA Loneliness Scale, the Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire and the Excessive Internet Use Scale. The last measure was prepared by authors for the purpose of the study. Serial mediation analysis was conducted. In line with our hypotheses the link between low self-esteem and excessive Internet use was found to be sequentially mediated by the capability to initiate social contacts and chronic loneliness. Difficulty in engaging in social interaction leading to the sense of loneliness may explain the link between low self-esteem and excessive Internet use. These results may help to design early intervention programs.
Modern triticale breeding is focusing on combining biotic and abiotic stress resistance. Cultivation of varieties resistant to fungal pathogens is an economically and environmentally beneficial means and may lead to reducing the use of fungicides. Molecular markers are necessary for accumulation of advantageous alleles in the best genotypes by means of marker-assisted and genomic selection approaches. In present research, quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with powdery mildew resistance at the adult plant stage were evaluated in order to provide effective selection tools. Testing of the 'Hewo' x 'Magnat' DH population in multiple environments under natural infestation revealed 20 QTL on three wheat (4A, 3B, 4B) and four rye (2R, 4R, 5R, 6R) chromosomes. QTL explained 8.1% - 29.3% of phenotypic variation depending of the trait, location and year of the experiment. Main QTL with effect exceeding 15% were found on chromosomes 3B, 4B, 2R, 5R and 6R. QTL and candidate genes located on chromosomes 4B,2R, 5R and 6R were reported for the first time. Additionally, for all QTL, 21candidate genes associated with the PM resistance were revealed. Predicted function of protein encoded by these genes include triggering a defense system which restricts the pathogen growth as well as enzyme activity, regulation of hormone-activated pathways, transcriptional corepressor complex and cell wall construction. Availability of QTL, molecular markers together with candidate genes linked with the powdery mildew resistance can be validated on triticale lines and varieties and then used in marker-assisted selection to improve breeding of triticale.
In the present paper, we are concerned with the study of a nonlinear complementarity problem (NCP, for short) with a nonlinear and nonhomogeneous partial differential operator (called double phase differential operator), a convection term (i.e., a reaction depending on the gradient), a generalized multivalued boundary condition, and two nonlocal terms which appear in the domain and boundary, respectively. First, we formulate NCP to a nonlinear bilateral obstacle variational problem with feedback effect. Then, a regularized approximation problem corresponding to NCP is introduced via applying the Moreau–Yosida approximating method. By employing a surjectivity theorem to multivalued pseudomonotone operators and a limiting procedure for solutions of approximating problems, we obtain the properties of solution set to NCP, including the nonemptiness and compactness. Finally, under further assumptions, we examine several extended versions of existence theorem to NCP.
Previous research and clinical reports have shown that some individuals after COVID-19 infection may demonstrate symptoms of so-called brain fog, manifested by cognitive impairment and disorganization in behavior. Meanwhile, in several other conditions, related to intellectual function, a specific pattern of changes in electric brain activity, as recorded by quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) has been documented. We hypothesized, that in post-COVID brain fog, the subjective complaints may be accompanied by objective changes in the QEEG profile. In order to test this hypothesis, we have performed an exploratory study on the academic staff of our University with previous records of QEEG originating in the pre-COVID-19 era. Among them, 20 subjects who revealed neurological problems in the cognitive sphere (confirmed as covid fog/brain fog by a clinical specialist) after COVID-19 infection were identified. In those individuals, QEEG was performed. We observed, that opposite to baseline QEEG records, increased Theta and Alpha activity, as well as more intensive sensimotor rhythm (SMR) in C4 (right hemisphere) in relation to C3 (left hemisphere). Moreover, a visible increase in Beta 2 in relation to SMR in both hemispheres could be documented. Summarizing, we could demonstrate a clear change in QEEG activity patterns in individuals previously not affected by COVID-19 and now suffering from post-COVID-19 brain fog. These preliminary results warrant further interest in delineating their background. Here, both neuroinflammation and psychological stress, related to Sars-CoV2-infection may be considered. Based on our observation, the relevance of QEEG examination as a supportive tool for post-COVID clinical workup and for monitoring the treatment effects is also to be explored.
The study focuses on the propagation of a rare and endangered plant species (Pulsatilla patens) to re-introduce an extinct population from calamine area in Southern Poland. The plants were propagated from seeds, rhizome cuttings, or regenerated in vitro from shoot tips, hypocotyls with roots or cotyledons of seedlings on Murashige & Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 0.25 or 0.50 mg L⁻¹ BAP (Benzylaminopurine) via direct and indirect organogenesis or somatic embryogenesis (SE). The most efficient micropropagation method was with shoot tips as an explant on MS + 0.25 mg L⁻¹ BAP where 97% of the explants produced multiple shoots, mass SE was observed after transfer on ½ MS with 2% saccharose; 267 (35%) shoots rooted on ½ MS + 2% saccharose were acclimatized to ex vitro conditions. Flow cytometry revealed genome size stability of propagated plantlets. Low genetic differentiation between micropropagated plantlets and initial material was indicated by ISSR (Inter Simple Sequence Repeat) markers. Totally, 132 vigorous plantlets obtained on various pathways were introduced to the field plots in 2020; 30.33% survived the winter, and several reached the generative stage and flowered in the spring 2021. In next season (March/April 2022) the number of introduced plants decreased to 25% while the number of flowering and fruiting shoots in different clumps increased in some plots. This is the first report of successful re-introduction of the endangered P. patens based on micropropagation, rhizome cuttings, and seed germination.
For the data on the observation times and directions of the motion of extensive air showers, which are observed at two stations of the GELATICA network, for the first time we apply the method we have developed previously for identifying pairs of mutually remote extensive air showers, the ancestor particles of which arose, possibly, in a single process. A brief description of the GELATICA network, a review of the properties of used samples of data on shower observations at two stations of the network during the 2019–2021 session, and the result of applying the above method to them are given. Some properties of a single peculiar pair of remote showers are discussed. A side question arose about the cause of the observed temporal asymmetry in the locations of the regions of mutual approach of independent primary cosmic ray particles.
One of the main objectives of the CREDO project is to register cosmic-ray cascades in many distributed detectors in the search for so-called Cosmic-Ray Ensembles (CRE). This requires precise knowledge of the probability of detection of individual Extensive Air Showers (EAS) in a very wide range of energies and an analysis of their correlations. The standard approach based on detailed and extensive simulations is not possible for many such systems; thus, a faster method is developed. Knowing the characteristics of EAS from more general simulations, any required probability is calculated. Such probability depends on particle density at a given point, which is a function of the distance from the centre of the cascade, the energy, mass and the zenith angle of the primary cosmic-ray particle. It is necessary to use proper distribution of the number of secondary particles reaching the ground and their fluctuations. Finally, to calculate the total probability of EAS detection, the primary cosmic-ray spectrum and abundance of various particles in it have to be taken into account. The effective probability can be used to estimate the expected number of EAS events measured by a set of small detectors. In this work, results from several versions of calculations, with different complexity levels, are presented and compared with the first measurement performed with a test detector system. These results confirm that the majority of events observed with this small detector array are caused by cosmic-ray particles with very high energies. Such analysis can be also useful for the design of more effective systems in the future. Slightly larger systems of simple detectors may be used to distinguish cascades initiated by photons from those started from other primary cosmic-ray particles.
Environmental changes during the Holocene impacted the development of all civilizations, and it is important to understand the power of this influence through, for instance, the reconstruction of these changes. However, when the climate and environmental conditions of the deep past are analyzed, researchers need to rely on various types of proxy data that are only approximations of the required information. In addition, this type of information is often absent or has several gaps (hiatuses). In the present study, we analyzed a 4.4-m deep core excavated from the fen formed within the landslide body on the northern side of Mt. Śnieżnica in the Wyspowy Beskidy Mountains, the Outer Western Carpathians, southern Poland. In total, we analyzed 405 samples in terms of 29 geochemical components (e.g., nitrogen (N), carbon (C), sulfur (S), and the total organic carbon (TOC)) and physical properties, namely particle-size distribution, loss on ignition (LOI), and microcharcoal content. Additionally , to establish geochronology, we dated 27 samples of different biological materials using the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry radiocarbon method. A detailed examination of plant macrodetritus and wood anatomy supported our interpretation based on the geochemical data. The Mt. Śnieżnica landslide probably formed ca. 14,000 cal BP in the first phase of the Allerød Interstadial. For almost 9000 years, there were no appropriate terrain conditions for the long-term accumulation of organo-mineral materials. At ca. 4400 cal BP, peat accumulation commenced. The beginning of peat accumulation correlates with the global 4.2 Bond event of cold climate conditions. After another ca. 2000 years, the core sediments were dominated by limnetic mud, suggesting aquatic conditions in the landslide depression. This sudden shift in the characteristics of sedimentation is loosely linked to the boundary between the Subboreal and Subatlantic phases (ca. 2500 cal BP). The apparent dichotomy of the depositional record agrees with the reconstructed climatic conditions during the second part of the Holocene. Up to 3000 cal BP, the regional climate was warm and humid, which allowed fast biomass production and hillslope stabilization by trees. Forest fires occurred only at the beginning and end of this period (4400-3000 cal BP). After 3000 cal BP, the regional climate became cool and dry. In this period, we found evidence of intensified erosion, but it was unrelated to forest fire activity.
This study attempts to determine which of the habitats occupied by Filipendula vulgaris creates better conditions for its growth and development. Selected physiological parameters—PSII activity, chlorophyll content, electrolyte leakage, hydrogen peroxide content as well as biomass, the occurrence of mycorrhiza, and soil characteristics—were investigated. Grassland soils had a higher content of macronutrients and a lower concentration of heavy metals. The degree of colonization of F. vulgaris by AMF (Arum type) oscillated around high values in both types of stands. Plants growing on xerothermic grasslands achieved much better fluorescence parameters than those collected from meadows. Similar results were obtained from the analysis of chlorophyll content. The destabilization degree of cell membranes was significantly higher in plants collected in meadows than in grasslands. Biomass analysis showed higher values of these parameters in grassland plants. In the case of the parameters of fluorescence emission, plants growing on grasslands achieved significantly lower values than plants collected from meadows. The analyses carried out showed that better conditions for growth and physiological activity of F. vulgaris are probably associated with grasslands on a calcareous substrate.
Ferroelectric ceramics BaTiO3:x%Eu (x = 0, 0.1, 1, 2, 3) were synthesized by a conventional method. Structural investigation confirmed that all ceramics possessed tetragonal (P4mm) symmetries at room temperature for the undoped ceramics as well as for the doped ceramics. Furthermore, a slight downshifting of the Curie temperature (TC) with an increasing Eu3+ doping amount has been noted. The Raman spectra unveiled the existence of new modes for higher-doped BaTiO3:x%Eu (BTEx) which are related to local disorders and defects. The ferroelectric properties were found to depend on both doping and the microstructure. The electrocaloric effect was also studied for those ceramics. It was observed that ΔT decreases with doping; however, the temperature range of its occurrence widens considerably.
L’article aborde la problématique des actes normatifs de droit pénal adoptés en Pologne dans les années 1944–1956. L’auteur essaie de répondre à la question : comment le régime politique et l’idéologie stalinienne ont-ils influencé la manière de rédiger les textes juridiques de cette branche du droit lors des plus grandes répressions par le pouvoir d’après-guerre en Pologne ? À partir de 1944, le droit pénal a été adapté aux besoins des autorités communistes, contrôlées par l’Union soviétique. Dans la période analysée, on a introduit en Pologne plus de cent actes normatifs englobant des dispositions pénales. L’idéologisation du droit pénal est visible dans toutes les parties des actes normatifs : titres, préambules et dispositions juridiques. On retrouve dans leur contenu les valeurs politiques, économiques et sociales fondamentales pour l’idéologie du stalinisme, dont les thèses ont été mises en œuvre en Pologne après la fin de l’occupation allemande.
The phase transitions of unpoled and poled Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 (NBT) single crystals were studied using structural, hysteresis loops, polarizing-microscope, dielectric, mechanical (the first measurement), thermal expansion strain and calorimetric measurements. It was found that phase transitions in NBT are first-order and clearly demonstrate ferroelastic aspects. Both rhombohedral-tetragonal and tetragonal-cubic transformations are accompanied by a softening of mechanical properties like in improper ferroelastic transitions. It was concluded that the difference in the internal friction between unpoled/poled states and between [001]c/[111]c poled states can be associated with a difference in the density of mobile ferroelastic twin walls in these states.
East European lake-river systems have hydrological regimes typical for continental climate zones. The Postglacial development of the basins and regional palaeoclimatic pattern in the Holocene implied a specific succession of biota communities passing through lakes’ subsequent stages in the water level, trophic state and habitat availability. The Great Serteya Palaeolake Basin is the largest palaeolake within the Serteyka lake-river system, which has been functioning since the Late Weichselian (Vistulian). Presented below is a multi-proxy study on the sequence from the paleolake within the present-day valley. During the Late Weichselian, it formed an astatic, and later a permanent, water body of Postglacial origin. The associated melting, flooding and aeolian processes acted as sources of various Late Weichselian sediments. Summer mean air temperature drove the lake ecosystem development. The Holocene Thermal Optimum in 8.5–7.7 kyr cal BP was followed by subsequent lower temperature. There is weak evidence of coole oscillations at 8.2 kyr cal BP, 7.0–6.8 kyr cal BP and 5.8–5.9 kyr cal BP and the Little Ice Age (480–395 yr cal BP), until modern time (􀀀 65 yr cal BP). Five stages of lake ecosystem development were identified based on the biota: 1) an initial stage during the Late Weichselian with glaciolacustrine and later lacustrine accumulation of inorganic deposits, 2) the stage with Cladocera as a leading indicators of mesotrophic water body with a well-developed pelagic zone supplied by early spring floods of the Serteyka River, carrying melting snow and ice floes to the lake basin, 3) the stage dominated by Chironomidae and diatoms typical to high trophic states reflecting widespread open bottom sediment and macrophyte habitats 4) a stage with distinct Neolithic community impact reflected by macrofossils remain after pile-dwelling
Objectives The aim of this paper is to outline the specifics and meaning of the idea of restorative justice in the context of dealing with offenders, as well as the approach to crime, including its genesis, forms, and methods. Another important aspect is the significant growth of importance of restorative justice in the last decades - both in prevention, education, and the social rehabilitation of offenders. Material and methods Research methods include mostly the interpretative content analysis supported by source analysis and a historical method. Results The outcomes delineate the evolution of different approaches to crime at the crossroads of philosophy, special education, and criminal policy. This analysis leads through the turns in the development of thinking about offenders and crimes they commit. Restorative justice is discussed here as an instrument of a psychological, social, and institutional factors for the facilitation of crime prevention, as well as the treatment of offenders. The results of the analysis confront the hitherto approaches, revealing them as less effective compared to the restorative one. Conclusions The ongoing implementation of restorative justice to rehabilitation theory and practice not only seems to have the potential of more efficient prevention of relapse, and further labeling of offenders after the release from prison. It also implies the need for structural changes in prison systems in general. In contrast to sometimes irrational foundations underlying social and institutional approaches to offenders in the past, such an integrative approach focused on research and scientific data translates to the enhancement in the efficacy of rehabilitation of offenders. Besides, it reveals the importance of thinking about rehabilitation in a more comprehensive, psychosocial way.
Major transformations in the sphere of the economy that Industry 4.0 brings are also reflected in young people’s expectations regarding the development of their professional career. Existing social relations are being modified nowadays and new concepts of building them are being developed. The aim of the present article is to present the expectations, fears and hopes of young people related to the course of Industrial Revolution 4.0 in the context of their future life. For a simpler perception of the research objectives of students, the research was narrowed down to the topic of building relationships with robots, which are one of the pillars of Industry 4.0. The research methods are based on the literature studies and an experiment conducted among the students graduating from economic faculties and entering a strongly changing labour market. The experiment was qualitative. The students wrote a short essay on the topic of whether a friendship between a human and a robot is possible. One group of students was shown a short emotional clip about the relationship between the boy and the robot. Regardless of the attempt to influence the message with a film, both groups of students hardly noticed the negative effects of digitisation on building relationships and social trust. The relationship between human being and advanced technology will develop in the future, which will result in the emergence of new relationships between humans and artificial intelligence.
Physiologically based pharmacokinetic and absorption modeling are being used by industry and regulatory bodies to address various scientifically challenging questions. While there is high confidence in the prediction of exposure for the BCS class I drugs administered as immediate-release formulations, in the case of prolonged-release formulations, special attention should be given to the input dissolution data. Our goal was to develop and verify a PBPK model for a BCS class I compound, ropinirole, and check the biopredictiveness of the dissolution data for the prolonged-release formulation administered by Parkinson’s patients. The model was built based on quality control dissolution data reported in the certificates of analysis and verified with the use of data derived from five clinical trial reports. The simulated pharmacokinetic parameters being within a two-fold range of the observed values confirmed acceptable model performance, in vivo relevance of the in vitro dissolution profiles, and indirectly indicated ropinirole stable release from the formulation in the patients’ gastro-intestinal tract. Ropinirole PBPK model will be used for exploring potential clinical scenarios while developing a new formulation.
Energy security is a multidimensional and multifaceted concept, therefore defining it is a complex problem. It requires the consideration of a wide set of factors from the fields of economics, geology, ecology and geopolitics, all of which have an influence on energy security or the lack thereof. The article focuses on natural gas, which is a very specific fuel in the European context. It is the most “politicized” source of energy, as a consequence of its growing importance as a transition fuel in the energy transformation process. In order to identify dependencies between variables on the gas market and analyze their impact on it (in particular on underground storage), the authors chose a set of variables and built a Bayesian network. The network is an effective and flexible tool that allows analysis of the relationships between the variables that build them and model their values based on evidence. The article presents two stages of work with the Bayesian network. In the first one, a network was built based on historical data. It shows the relationships between the variables as well as the probability of the value ranges of individual variables. A huge advantage of the presented Bayesian network is that it can be used to model various scenarios on the gas market. Moreover, the ability to make statistical inferences for all its nodes represents a valuable additional feature. Several examples of such inferences are presented in the second stage of the analysis, examining the impact of consumption variability on the level of inventory in underground gas storage facilities, the impact of having an LNG terminal and the share of natural gas in electricity production on the storage capacity of a given country. The use of tools such as Bayesian networks allows us to better discover the interrelationships between variables influencing the energy market, analyze them, and estimate the impact on energy security of distinct scenarios described with specific metrics. A simple example of such a metric, i.e., the minimum level of gas storage at the end of the winter season, as well as its analysis and modeling using a relatively simple Bayesian network, is presented in this article.
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