Background: The Indian Ayurvedic herbal formula Triphala (TPL) is known for its pharmacological properties for immunomodulation, anti-inflammation, antioxidant, and anti-cancer. This study aimed to investigate the acute and chronic toxicities of the Triphala recipe in a rat model. Methods: To assess the acute toxicities, 5000 mg/kg of TPL was orally administered to Sprague-Dawley rats. For chronic toxicities, different dose levels of TPL at 600, 1200, and 2400 mg/kg/day were given daily for 270 days. General health and behaviors and the body and organ weights of the rats were monitored. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were evaluated for hematology and biochemistry profiles. The evaluation of the internal organs' appurtenance and necropsy was performed to confirm the tissue histopathology. Results: The results showed that there was no sign of acute toxicity in the TPL group with a decrease in sex organ weights. No significant differences in the rats' behaviors, physical health, body, or organ weights were found between the controls and the rats receiving the 270/day of oral Triphala at 600, 1200, and 2400 mg/kg/day. However, some alterations in blood chemistries and hematology, including glucose, BUN, red blood cells, Hb, HCT, and MCV, were observed without abnormalities in histopathology. Conclusions: It has been demonstrated that the long-term use of TPL in rat models is safe. No toxic effects were found, suggesting possible safety for long-term use in humans.
Although much is known about the benefits of providing creative writing courses to English learners, little research is available on Chinese ethnolinguistic minority learners’ creative writing in formal education. In response, this ethnographic study explored three ethnolinguistic minority learners’ engagement with a three-month elective English creative writing course at a Chinese university. Data (drafts, interviews, and reflection) were analyzed to reveal the three learners’ investment in creative writing and its impact. It was found that creative writing helped the learners to develop more confident writer identities, that they became more proficient in writing, and that their language proficiency also grew. The study suggests creative writing can serve as identity texts, which reflect back on their emergent creative writer identity, and can be a beneficial pedagogical option for ethnolinguistic minority learners.
Underwater fish monitoring is the one of the most challenging problems for efficiently feeding and harvesting fish, while still being environmentally friendly. The proposed 2D computer vision method is aimed at non-intrusively estimating the weight of Tilapia fish in turbid water environments. Additionally, the proposed method avoids the issue of using high-cost stereo cameras and instead uses only a low-cost video camera to observe the underwater life through a single channel recording. An in-house curated Tilapia-image dataset and Tilapia-file dataset with various ages of Tilapia are used. The proposed method consists of a Tilapia detection step and Tilapia weight-estimation step. A Mask Recurrent-Convolutional Neural Network model is first trained for detecting and extracting the image dimensions (i.e., in terms of image pixels) of the fish. Secondly, is the Tilapia weight-estimation step, wherein the proposed method estimates the depth of the fish in the tanks and then converts the Tilapia’s extracted image dimensions from pixels to centimeters. Subsequently, the Tilapia’s weight is estimated by a trained model based on regression learning. Linear regression, random forest regression, and support vector regression have been developed to determine the best models for weight estimation. The achieved experimental results have demonstrated that the proposed method yields a Mean Absolute Error of 42.54 g, R2 of 0.70, and an average weight error of 30.30 (±23.09) grams in a turbid water environment, respectively, which show the practicality of the proposed framework.
Background: Osteoarthritis of the knee is a common degenerative musculoskeletal condition. Thai Medicinal Plant-4 (TMP-4) cream is made up of Garcinia mangostana peel, Sesamum indicum seeds, Glycine max (L.) Merr. seeds, and Centella asiatica leaves, all of which have anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. The present study aimed at determining the efficacy and safety of TMP-4 cream versus diclofenac gel in the treatment of symptomatic osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods: A randomized-controlled trial was conducted to assess knee pain on a scale of 100 mm Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and other key metrics, including VAS knee stiffness, a modified 10-step stair climb test, a timed up and go test, the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, and safety outcomes, following administration of either TMP-4 cream or diclofenac gel for 4 weeks. Results: A total of 199 patients with moderate knee pain intensity were randomly assigned to either TMP-4 cream or diclofenac gel (allocation ratio 1 : 1). The mean changes of VAS knee pain in the TMP-4 cream and diclofenac gel groups were -31.68 ± 14.18 mm and -31.09 ± 12.41 mm, respectively, (mean difference = -0.58, 95% confidence interval = -4.37-3.20, P=0.761). The upper limit of 95% confidence interval for the comparison between TMP-4 cream and diclofenac gel was within the predefined margin of 7 mm for noninferiority. The safety was comparable between the two interventions. Conclusions: TMP-4 cream was noninferior to diclofenac gel in relieving osteoarthritic knee pain and may be considered as an alternative therapeutic option in the treatment of symptomatic osteoarthritis of the knee.
Little is known about literacy autobiography (LA) in the English as a foreign language (EFL) context. Using the triad of translingualism, transnationalism, and investment as a lens to examine the classroom writing ecology (which is composed of the participants, process, artifacts, and structure), the present ethnographic case study explores a Chinese graduate student's LA writing in a writing course for translators. Data include multiple drafts, weekly journals, interviews, and course documents. The researcher found that the classroom writing ecology had a great impact on the student's LA writing. Although transnationalism did not directly motivate her to invest in LA writing, it informed her writing in significant ways, and her sustained investment in LA writing culminated in strong signs of translingualism in her final draft. This study contends that translingualism and transnationalism are both relevant in EFL literacy education. It also contributes new knowledge on the pedagogical use of LA to facilitate EFL learners' acquisition of academic literacy and to nurture their translingual subjectivity. In adopting LA in EFL writing education, teachers are encouraged to provide a classroom writing ecology that supports multilingual students' LA-mediated identity work by embracing a resource perspective on students' prior literacy experiences, a dialogical pedagogy, and a research-oriented, multidraft approach.
Though computer mediated communication has been widely studied, private messaging in minoritized languages (many without standardized orthographies) is an area of minimal research. This article looks at texting in four multilingual language communities: Maguindanaon (Philippines), Sebuyau (Malaysia), Mamaindê (Brazil) and Marubo (Brazil). The majority of the data comes from the Maguindanao case study, an Austronesian language spoken by over one million speakers in the Maguindanao province of Mindanao Island. Based on this preliminary data, an initial framework with which to understand the language choices for digital messaging in such societies is proposed. The broader implications of this study are its insights into the variable patterning of texting in minority languages in general, providing a baseline for future work in this area. This preliminary study suggests that the texting repertoires of minority language communities are found to pattern after their parallel repertoires of either orality or literacy. These patterns are collectively referred to as the “Language Repertoire Matrix”. The variable that distinguishes one texting repertoire from another is the language(s) used for intra-group texting: minority (L1), majority (L2), or minority + majority (L1 + L2) languages. We propose that the choice of employing either the orality or literacy repertoires for intra-group texting demonstrates the underlying function of such texting within that society. The conclusion offers some suggestions on how these insights might apply to the field of minority language development.
M. R. Kukrit Pramoj wrote Farang Sakdina in 1957–1958 as both a theoretical critique of western development planners, and the Marxist critics of Thai society like Jit Phoumisak. Kukrit’s critique was that both used only European examples to prescribe development policies for Thailand. By this he meant that the Americans insisted on modernization theory, and Soviet theoreticians insisted on Marx’s historical materialism. Kukrit responded that data developed from Europe is not applicable to Thailand because European feudalism had different attitudes toward land and labor than the ancient Thai “feudalism” known as sakdina . A textual analysis of Kukrit’s book Farang Sakdina reveals Kukrit proposes a dialectical theory of historical change in which the “contradictions” within society are continually resolved and reconstituted. Kukrit uses this data to analyze politics and kingship in England, Thailand, and implicitly, other countries.
Previous pharmacological research has demonstrated that Terminalia bellerica (Gaertn.) Roxb. (TB) extract possesses several pharmacological activities. However, there is scant evidence documenting the therapeutic activities of TB extract on inflammation, pain, and cancers. Our study examined the in vivo anti-inflammation, antinociception, and antitumorigenesis effects of TB extract and investigated possible mechanisms for those effects. Anti-inflammation activities of TB extract were evaluated using ethyl phenylpropiolate (EPP)- and arachidonic acid (AA)-induced ear edema models, a cotton pellet-induced granulation formation model, and a carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model. An antinociceptive property of TB extract was assessed using a formalin-induced nociception test. An anticarcinogenesis effect was investigated using a 7,12-dimethylbenz( a) anthracene (DMBA) and 12- O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced tumorigenesis model. In the study, TB extract exhibited significant anti-inflammatory effects against EPP-induced ear edema and carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in rats. However, the TB extract showed insignificant inhibitory activity against AA-induced ear edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma. A dose-dependent decrease in analgesic activity was observed with TB extract evidenced by decreased licking time in formalin-induced pain in mice in both the early and late phases. TB extract also significantly inhibited DMBA/TPA-induced mouse skin tumorigenesis. In conclusion, TB extract possesses anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anticarcinogenesis properties which act, at least in part, through inhibitory effects of inflammatory mediator production.
Objective This study aimed to develop a consensus statement of competencies for community pharmacists in Thailand. Methods A 2-round modified Delphi process was used to develop consensus among a panel of community pharmacy experts. A total of 18 experts from 6 stakeholders represented a panel of each pharmacy organization in Thailand. In the first experts were asked to rate their degree of agreement on whether a competency was essential using a 7-point Likert scale (1 = “not essential competency” to 7 = “the most essential competency”). Also, in the second round, they were asked to rate the competencies from a scale of “must be included” to “must be excluded.” Competencies considered “must be excluded” by a consensus of 80% or more of experts were removed from the community pharmacy competency list. Results Nearly half the experts had experience in their position for more than 10 years. The expert panels were typically committee members of the Community Pharmacy Association (Thailand) and community pharmacy clerkship preceptors (29.4% and 23.5%, respectively). The number of community pharmacy competencies on the initial list was 55 competencies. None of them was eliminated after the first round. Of 55 competencies, 11 were eliminated after the second round. The final list of competency statements was 44 competencies divided into 4 domains: personal competencies, pharmacy professional competencies, patient care competencies, and management competencies. Conclusion Community pharmacy competencies include having a positive attitude and being accountable for individual patient care, providing disease prevention and health promotion, and addressing morality and ethics in business.
Thai Higher Education (Thai HE) is changing, due to international reform. This paper presents data collected in a longitudinal study carried out in Thailand during 2017–2018 using the US version of the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) and qualitative interviews. We offer a case study about the cultures and engagement of three groups of students found at an international private university in Thailand. The groups studied were international students, Chinese students in a mixed Thai/English curriculum and Thai students studying in Thai, all situated in a Thai HE institutional community. The (NSSE) was administered to 179 students: 89 in an International College, 54 Chinese students and 36 Thai students, as a control. Our results showed different attitudes toward studying, teachers, memorisation, participation, critical thinking, and empathy. This paper concludes with a discussion of how students in an international university in Thailand arrange themselves socially, and why this matters.
Abstract: Superficial fungal infections (SFIs) are among the most common skin diseases worldwide and are common in many parts of Asia. Community pharmacists are well-placed to help identify and manage SFIs. However, effective management may be hindered by a suboptimal consultation process, attributed to the misalignment between consumers’ and pharmacists’ viewpoints. The Fungal CARE (Care, Assess, Recommend, Empower) guide, a patient-centered collaborative framework, was developed to improve pharmacist-led SFI consultations in community pharmacy. A survey on real-world consumer experiences with SFIs provided insights for aligning the Fungal CARE guide with consumer perspectives. To further optimize the guide, community pharmacists were surveyed on their current practice and challenges of managing SFIs, as well as views on the usefulness of the Fungal CARE guide. The pharmacists’ survey indicated that respondents engaged with some but not all of consumers’ top concerns with SFIs, such as emotional and social aspects. Pharmacists identified their greatest challenges as poor compliance with SFI treatment and limited confidence in identifying and/or managing SFIs. Encouragingly, when presented with the Fungal CARE guide, nearly all pharmacists agreed it would be helpful and would use it in practice. Implementing the Fungal CARE guide may help improve pharmacist-led consultations for SFIs and encourage better treatment outcomes.
Landslide incidents frequently occur in the upper northern region of Thailand due to its topography, which is mostly mountainous with high slopes. In the past, when landslides happened in this area, they affected traffic accessibility for rescue and evacuation. For this reason, if the risk of landslides could be evaluated, it would help in the planning of preventive measures to mitigate the damage. This study was carried out to create and develop a risk estimation model using the artificial neural network (ANN) technique for landslides at the edge of the roadside, by collecting field data on past landslides in the study areas in Chiang Rai and Chiang Mai Provinces. A total of 9602 data points were collected. The variables for forecasting were: (1) land cover, (2) physiographic features, (3) slope angle, and (4) five-day cumulative rainfall. Two hidden layers were used to create the model. The number of nodes in the first and second hidden layers were five and one, respectively, which were derived from a total of 25 trials, and the highest accuracy achieved was 96.74%. When applying the model, a graph demonstrating the relationship between the landslide risk, rainfall, and the slopes of the road areas was obtained. The results show that high slopes result in more landslides than low slopes, and that rainfall is a major trigger for landslides on roads. The outcomes of the study could be used to create risk maps and provide information for developing warnings for high-slope mountain roads in the upper northern region of Thailand.
In the industrial sectors, it requires legal experts for analyzing and identifying complex and large industry standards promulgated by different organizations. However, the laws associated with the industry standards are varied depending on the structure of each project task. A repetition of categorizing and analyzing conducts whenever the project handles. It is a waste of resources and limited time for project establishment. Therefore, designing an independent and flexible system without relying on administrators or legal experts encourages reducing costs for operations in the long run. This study proposes a classification approach throughout the text classification method for detecting industry-standard keywords that are relevant to legal categories. As a result, it significantly improves the efficiency and accuracy of assessment results without any repetition and cooperation of specialized operators.
Medicinal plants have long been prescribed in Thailand for centuries. Different constituents of extracts have been used for treating of various infectious diseases. However, there is even less information available regarding the use in fungal skin infection. In order to assess traditional Thai claims about the therapeutic potential, this study is focused on exploring the anti-dermatophyte property of the plants that are currently used as traditional medicines. The potential of four different plant species were selected for investigate in vitro anti-dermatophyte activity. Ethanolic extracts of Chromolaena odorata (L.), Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.), Eclipta prostrate (Linn.), and Acorus calamus (L.). were analysed for their total phenolic content as well as total flavonoid content and were then subjected to test of their anti-dermatophyte properties using agar well diffusion method. Qualitative flavonoids and phenolics analysis of the extracts showed their biologically active constituents. Among the species examined, the result indicated that most of the extracts demonstrated anti-dermatophyte activity. In particular, A. calamus showed the highest efficacy against test organisms. The experiment confirmed the chemical constituents and efficacy of some selected plants and provides a scientific confirmation of the use of Thai plants in traditional medicine for fungal skin infections.
The study aims to investigate the impact of China's outward foreign investment (OFDI) in Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Vietnam, and Thailand (CLMVT). The motivation behind this paper is to examine a pivotal role in determining the macroeconomic factors in these five hosting countries as the “neighboring model” of China. Using panel data for China's outward to her five neighboring countries in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) for the period 2007–2019. This paper uses two different panel specifications models named correlation from classical statistics and Bayesian statistics where empirical results of this research qualify that China's OFDI is the main factor to have a positive influence on the macroeconomic factors in CLMVT. • Highlights • The GMS region is currently challenging the general FDI theory from the “neighboring model” of China’s going global” strategy using OFDI as a pioneer for success for the small developing country namely, CLMVT. Many studies showed that the implementation of the “Belt and Road” strategy will help China increase investment in countries along the route, which will further promote the implementation of the “on going” strategy since 2013. • We use panel data for China's outward to her five neighboring countries in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) for the period 2007–2019, measures the potential of China’s outward foreign direct investment by using two different panel specifications models named correlation from classical statistics and Bayesian statistics. • This research implements the core concept of Bayes’ theorem. This theorem allows us to use a priori beliefs of probability to combine with evidence that it can be found (update every economic situation in CLMVT countries) then this method will have a new prediction of the posterior probability distribution. The posterior probability distribution will be received from the simulation algorithm once again. It would be calculated from the scope of every scenario that can be happening based on our belief in the future. • The Bayesian correlation testing still confirms that the FDI inflow from China per GDP of CLMVT countries has the most play important role to drive the macroeconomic of these five countries’ economy.
Khamti Shan features the marking of perfectivity comprised of three clause-final particles, one perfective and two imperfectives, each emerging from the basic verbs, yau¹ 'finish', u⁵ 'live', and nam⁵ '(be) extensive'. While the perfective category is straightforward, the imperfective category shows an unusual bifurcation, the first imperfective marker accommodating continuatives and habituals and the second imperfective marker working exclusively with the nominal predicate construction, clauses of potentiality (hortatives, futures), and the progressive construction. All three particles of perfectivity develop from lexical sources, with the pathways 'finish' > COMPLETIVE > PERFECTIVE and 'live' > CONTINUOUS/PROGRESSIVE > IMPERFECTIVE being well-documented across languages. The pathway 'extensive' > IMPERFECTIVE, on the other hand, appears unique to Khamti Shan. I motivate the usage of these perfectivity particles (primarily) with a semantic-cognitive analysis.
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