Paul Sabatier University - Toulouse III
Recent publications
Background: African pangolins are currently experiencing unprecedented levels of harvesting, feeding both local demands and the illegal international trade. So far, the lack of knowledge on the population genetics of African pangolins has hampered any attempts at assessing their demographic status and tracing their trade at the local scale. We conducted a pioneer study on the genetic tracing of the African pangolin trade in the Dahomey Gap (DG). We sequenced and genotyped 189 white-bellied pangolins from 18 forests and 12 wildlife markets using one mitochondrial fragment and 20 microsatellite loci. Results: Tree-based assignment procedure showed that the pangolin trade is endemic to the DG region, as it was strictly fed by the the Dahomey Gap lineage (DGL). DGL populations were characterized by low levels of genetic diversity, an overall absence of equilibrium, important inbreeding levels, and lack of geographic structure. We identified a 92-98% decline in DGL effective population size 200-500 ya-concomitant with major political transformations along the 'Slave Coast'-leading to contemporaneous estimates being inferior to minimum viable population size (< 500). Genetic tracing suggested that wildlife markets from the DG sourced pangolins through the entire DGL range. Our loci provided the necessary power to distinguish among all the genotyped pangolins, tracing the dispatch of a same individual on the markets and within local communities. We developed an approach combining rarefaction analysis of private allele frequencies with cross-validation of observed data that traced five traded pangolins to their forest origin, c. 200-300 km away from the markets. Conclusions: Although the genetic toolkit that we designed from traditional markers can prove helpful to trace the illegal trade in pangolins, our tracing ability was limited by the lack of population structure within the DGL. Given the deleterious combination of genetic, demographic, and trade-related factors affecting DGL populations, the conservation status of white-bellied pangolins in the DG should be urgently re-evaluated.
Fracture hospitalizations of people ≥ 65 years old living in France increased annually from 2015 until 2019 (average: 1.8%), until being reduced in 2020 (- 1.4%) with an abrupt decrease during the lockdown period. Decreased exposure to the risk of falling during COVID-19 year 2020 may have reflected in lower incidence of fractures.
Background: Epidemiologists need tools to measure effects of gender, a complex concept originating in the social sciences which is not easily operationalized in the discipline. Our aim is to clarify useful concepts, measures, paths, effects, and analytical strategies to explore mechanisms of health difference between men and women. Methods: We reviewed concepts to clarify their definitions and limitations for their translation into usable measures in Epidemiology. Then we conducted methodological research using a causal framework to propose methodologically appropriate strategies for measuring sex and gender effects in health. Results: (1) Concepts and measures. We define gender as a set of norms prescribed to individuals according to their attributed-at-birth sex. Gender pressure creates a systemic gap, at population level, in behaviors, activities, experiences, etc., between men and women. A pragmatic individual measure of gender would correspond to the level at which an individual complies with a set of elements constituting femininity or masculinity in a given population, place and time. (2) Main analytical strategy. Defining and measuring gender are not sufficient to distinguish the effects of sex and gender on a health outcome. We should also think in terms of mechanisms, i.e., how the variables are linked together, to define appropriate analytical strategies. A causal framework can help us to conceptualize "sex" as a "parent" of a gender or gendered variable. This implies that we cannot interpret sex effects as sexed mechanisms, and that we can explore gendered mechanisms of sex-differences by mediation analyses. (3) Alternative strategy. Gender could also be directly examined as a mechanism, rather than through a variable representing its realization in the individual, by approaching it as an interaction between sex and social environment. Conclusions: Both analytical strategies have limitations relative to the impossibility of reducing a complex concept to a single or a few measures, and of capturing the entire effect of the phenomenon of gender. However, these strategies could lead to more accurate analyses of the mechanisms underlying health differences between men and women.
Background Hypotension and blood pressure (BP) variability during endovascular therapy (EVT) for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) due to an anterior large vessel occlusion (LVO) is associated with worse outcomes. However, the optimal BP threshold during EVT is still unknown given the lack of randomized controlled evidence. We designed the DETERMINE trial to assess whether an individualized BP management during EVT could achieve better functional outcomes compared to a standard BP management. Methods The DETERMINE trial is a multicenter, prospective, randomized, controlled, open-label, blinded endpoint clinical trial (PROBE design). AIS patients with a proximal anterior LVO are randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, to an experimental arm in which mean arterial pressure (MAP) is maintained within 10% of the first MAP measured before EVT, or a control arm in which systolic BP (SBP) is maintained within 140–180 mm Hg until reperfusion is achieved or artery closure in case of EVT failure. The primary outcome is the rate of favorable functional outcomes, defined by a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) between 0 and 2 at 90 days. Secondary outcomes include excellent outcome and ordinal analysis of the mRS at 90 days, early neurological improvement at 24 h (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale), final infarct volume, symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage rates, and all-cause mortality at 90 days. Overall, 432 patients will be included. Discussion DETERMINE will assess the clinical relevance of an individualized BP management before reperfusion compared to the one size fits all approach currently recommended by international guidelines. Trial registration , NCT04352296. Registered on 20th April 2020.
Photosynthetic microbes are omnipresent in land and water. While they critically influence primary productivity in aquatic systems, their importance in terrestrial ecosystems remains largely overlooked. In terrestrial systems, photoautotrophs occur in a variety of habitats, such as sub-surface soils, exposed rocks, and bryophytes. Here, we study photosynthetic microbial communities associated with bryophytes from a boreal peatland and a tropical rainforest. We interrogate their contribution to bryophyte C uptake and identify the main drivers of that contribution. We found that photosynthetic microbes take up twice more C in the boreal peatland (~4.4 mg CO 2 .h ⁻¹ .m ⁻² ) than in the tropical rainforest (~2.4 mg CO 2 .h ⁻¹ .m ⁻² ), which corresponded to an average contribution of 4% and 2% of the bryophyte C uptake, respectively. Our findings revealed that such patterns were driven by the proportion of photosynthetic protists in the moss microbiomes. Low moss water content and light conditions were not favourable to the development of photosynthetic protists in the tropical rainforest, which indirectly reduced the overall photosynthetic microbial C uptake. Our investigations clearly show that photosynthetic microbes associated with bryophyte effectively contribute to moss C uptake despite species turnover. Terrestrial photosynthetic microbes clearly have the capacity to take up atmospheric C in bryophytes living under various environmental conditions, and therefore potentially support rates of ecosystem-level net C exchanges with the atmosphere.
Introduction Insula plays an integrating role in sensory, affective, emotional, cognitive and autonomic functions in migraine, especially in migraine with aura (MA). Insula is functionally divided into 3 subregions, the dorsoanterior, the ventroanterior and the posterior insula respectively related to cognition, emotion, and somatosensory functions. This study aimed at investigating functional connectivity of insula subregions in MA. Methods Twenty-one interictal patients with MA were compared to 18 healthy controls (HC) and 12 interictal patients with migraine without aura (MO) and were scanned with functional MRI during the resting state. Functional coupling of the insula was comprehensively tested with 12 seeds located in the right and left, dorsal, middle, ventral, anterior and posterior insula, by using a seed-to-voxel analysis. Results Seed-to-voxel analysis revealed, in MA, a strong functional coupling of the right and left antero-dorsal insula with clusters located in the upper cerebellum. The overlap of these cerebellar clusters corresponded to the vermis VI. These functional couplings were not correlated to duration of MA, frequency of MA attacks nor time since last MA attack, and were not found in MO. Discussion The anterior insula and superior cerebellum, including vermis VI, are components of the central Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) network. As these regions are involved in the control of cardiovascular parasympathetic tone, we hypothesize that this connectivity may reflect the cardiovascular features of MA. Conclusion The anterior dorsal insula is connected with vermis VI in MA patients in the resting state. This connectivity may reflect the cardiovascular features of MA. Trial registration NCT02708797.
Objectives To assess the current management of menopause in France with regard to menopause-related and genitourinary symptoms, with a focus on use of menopause hormone therapy (MHT). Design, setting, and participants The ELISA Study is a population-based survey of 5004 French representative women aged 50 to 65 years. From July to August 2020, the participating women answered an online computer-assisted web interview on menopause-related and genitourinary symptoms and their management, including use of MHT. Main outcomes and measures Prevalence of menopause-related and genitourinary symptoms in postmenopausal women. Management of these symptoms, including the reasons for not doing so, management by health care providers, and use of MHT. Results Among the 5004 selected women, 4041 whose postmenopausal status was confirmed were included in the final analyses. Of the untreated 3685 women, 87 % reported at least 1 menopausal symptom, with a significantly higher percentage of symptomatic women in the 50–54 age group (92 %, p < 0.05) than in the other two age groups (55–59 years: 89 % and 60–64 years: 82 %). 68 % of the surveyed women experienced on average 2.5 symptoms of the genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM). Using a visual analogue scale (VAS) from 0 (no impact) to 10 (high impact) to evaluate the impact of menopausal/GSM symptoms on their quality of life, mean VAS score was 5.9 (SD: 2.2), with 25 % of the women aged 55–59 years rating their quality of life between 8 and 10. 61 % of the surveyed women reported being regularly followed by a health care professional. 44 % of women reported never having discussed their menopausal/GSM symptoms with a health care provider. The main reasons were because menopause is “a normal part of women's lives”, because it was not “necessary to do so”, or their symptoms were “not serious enough”. Only 242 women (6 %) were current MHT users, of whom 49 % were using estrogen-alone therapy and 71 % were using transdermal estrogens. Fear of hormones (35 %) and MHT side-effects (25 %) were the main reasons given for not using MHT. 62 % of the women reported that the decision not to take MHT was supported by their physician. Conclusions and relevance This large population-based survey confirmed not only the high prevalence of menopause-related and GSM symptoms in postmenopausal women within the first 10–15 years after menopause, but also the very low percentage of MHT users in France. Twenty years after the publication of the initial Women's Health Initiative (WHI) results, management of postmenopausal women is still characterized by unmet needs in menopausal care. Therefore, there is a strong need to educate the public and health care providers about menopause-related problems and possible solutions, including MHT, through dedicated educational programs.
We present here the isolation and structural characterization of two undescribed mono-glycosylated triterpenes with a 19-hydroxy-29-norlanostane core. These compounds (1-2) were isolated from an ethanolic extract of the dried flowers of Cordia lutea, a widely used Peruvian traditional medicine. Their structures were determined by examination of their NMR and MS data. For compound 1, its structure was confirmed by single crystal X-ray structural analyses. 1 showed moderate activity against Helicobacter pylori (MIC = 15.6 µg/mL), and was not active against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus (MIC > 125 µg/mL).
CONTEXT The fast acceleration of climate changes contrasts strikingly with the slow implementation of any globally-coordinated mitigation response to climate threats. In many countries, the current priority is to maintain food production and avoid food crises through the adaptation of vulnerable agricultural systems. In this context, the introduction in crop rotations of hardy crops such as sunflower, which are more tolerant to droughts and more resistant to pests, has the potential to harness solutions based on ecosystem services instead of synthetic input. OBJECTIVE This article tackles the issue of farmers’ varietal innovation development and adoption with the intent to highlight pathways for more resilient and sustainable agricultural systems. In particular, it explores the governance of the French sunflower varietal innovation system to assess its legitimacy. The objectives are therefore (1) to provide a relevant institutionalist framework based on the concepts of governance and legitimacy, and (2) to discuss opportunities to unlock the current situation that sees varietal innovation not entirely responding to the needs of farmers. METHODS The analysis relies on 37 semi-structured interviews with farmers, representatives of seed companies and seed distributors, as well as scientific experts in Occitanie and Nouvelle-Aquitaine, the two regions leading sunflower production in France. The interviews explored sunflower strengths and weaknesses, sunflower genetic traits sought by farmers, the adoption and diffusion of sunflower varieties, and the impacts and perceptions of both public policies and climate changes. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS Results show that the current lack of governance legitimacy of the French varietal innovation system is counterbalanced by the critical role of seed distributors representatives who contribute to maintaining trust. In order to improve the effectiveness of climate changes adaptation efforts, the normative legitimacy of the current varietal innovation system may gain from the inclusion of farmers in the governance of the varietal innovation system and the implementation of a more cognitive legitimacy. SIGNIFICANCE This article contributes to the economic literature through an investigation of varietal adoption in the Global North on a crop cultivated for its environmental benefits, instead of focusing on a staple food crop in the Global South. It adopts a comprehensive stance that departs from the numerous econometric analyses classically used to investigate varietal adoption. The institutionalist perspective provides conceptual tools to deepen recent results of the systems thinking literature focused on the concepts of governance and legitimacy.
The monitoring of flood and wetland dynamics at global scale is hampered by several limitations, including a reduced data availability in tropical areas due to the presence of clouds affecting visible and infrared imagery, or low spatial and/or temporal resolutions affecting passive and active microwave Earth Observation (EO) data. As a consequence, surface water extent estimates and their temporal variations remain challenging especially in equatorial river basins. Global Navigation Satellite System Reflectometry (GNSS-R) L-band signals recorded onboard Cyclone GNSS (CYGNSS) mission, composed of 8 Low Elevation Orbit (LEO) satellites, provide information on surface properties at high temporal resolution from 2017 up to now. CYGNSS bistatic observations were analyzed for detecting permanent water and seasonal floodplains over the full coverage of the mission, from 40°S to 40°N. We computed CYGNSS reflectivity associated to the coherent component of the received power, that was gridded at 0.1° spatial resolution with a 7-day time sampling afterwards. Several statistical metrics were derived from CYGNSS reflectivity, including the weighted mean and standard deviation, the median and the 90th percentile (respectively Γmean,Γstd,Γmedian and Γ90%) in each pixel. These parameters were clustered using the K-means algorithm with an implementation of the Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) similarity measure. They were compared to static inundation maps, and to dynamic estimations of surface water extent both at the global and regional scales, using the Global Inundation Extent from Multi-Satellites (GIEMS) and MODIS-based products. The difference between Γ90% and Γmedian shows the best sensitivity to the presence of water. The river streams and lakes are correctly detected, and a strong seasonality is identified in CYGNSS reflectivity over the largest floodplains, with the exception of the Cuvette Centrale of Congo which is covered by dense vegetation. This seasonal reflectivity signal correlates well with inundation maps: Pearson’s correlation coefficient between Γmedian and surface water extent from both GIEMS and MODIS is over 0.8 in the largest floodplains. The spatial patterns of reflectivity are consistent with static inundation maps: at the time of maximum flooding extent, a spatial correlation coefficient around 0.75 with Γmedian is obtained for several basins. We also evaluated the dependence of CYGNSS-derived clusters and reflectivity on the dominant land cover type and on the density of Above Groud Biomass (AGB) in the pixel. On the one hand, misclassifications of flooded pixels were observed over vegetated regions, probably due to uncertainties related to the attenuation by the vegetation in both CYGNSS and reference datasets. On the other hand, flooded pixels with a mean AGB up to ∼300 Mg/ha were correctly detected with the clustering. High reflectivity values are also observed over rocky soils in arid regions and create false alarms. Finally, strong winds on large lakes cause surface roughness, and lower reflectivity values are observed in this case which weaken the detection of open water. While these constraints are to be taken in account and corrected in a future model, a pan-tropical mapping of surface water extent dynamics using CYGNSS can be envisaged.
We present a family of relaxation models for thin films flows where both viscosity and surface tension effects are inherent. In a first step, a first-order hyperbolic approximation to the dissipationless part of the system is presented. The method is based on an augmented Lagrangian approach, where a classical penalty method is used and high-order derivatives in the Lagrangian are promoted to new independent variables, for which hyperbolic closure equations are sought. Then, we show that the viscous terms can be treated either by plugging them directly to the obtained system, making it of the hyperbolic-parabolic type or by casting them into an approximate algebraic source term that is asymptotically equivalent to the former formulation. Finally, the extension of the method to a classical nonlinear surface tension model is also presented. Numerical results, for all the proposed models are shown and compared with experimental results and reference solutions.
The main goal of this article is to study how an auxiliary information can be used to improve the efficiency of two famous statistical tests: the Z-test and the chi-square test. Many definitions of auxiliary information can be found in the statistical literature. In this article, the notion of auxiliary information is discussed from a very general point of view and depends on the relevant test. These two statistical tests are modified so that this information is taken into account. It is shown in particular that the efficiency of these new tests is improved in the sense of Pitman’s ARE. Some statistical examples illustrate the use of this method.
Good clinical insight is predictive of clinical recovery in schizophrenia (i.e. symptomatic remission and functional improvement). However, the recent subjective recovery paradigm (i.e. the self-identity reconstruction process with and beyond psychosis) questioned the relevance of seeking patients’ awareness of their medically-defined illness. This study aimed to assess the relationship between clinical insight and subjective recovery in individuals with psychotic disorders. Sixty-seven outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were assessed for clinical insight using the Scale to assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD) and for self-rated subjective recovery using the Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS). Among all dimensions of insight, only the unawareness of current symptoms was significantly associated with RAS total score, with illness duration as the only moderating factor. On the final regression model, unawareness of current symptoms was confirmed as the strongest of six factors explaining all together 44% of the subjective recovery variance, whereas clinical insight taken as an independent multidimensional construct did not significantly participate in explaining subjective recovery. Our study highlights the weak and only partial implication of clinical insight in subjective recovery, and invites clinicians to consider the patients’ meaning making process of morbid experiences in order to build a self-directed and medically-supported recovery.
In this work, a series of Sr1-xBaxMoO4, Sr1-xCaxMoO4, and Sr1-2xCaxBaxMoO4 nanocrystal solid-solutions with well-defined morphologies have been prepared by a surfactant-free coprecipitation method at room temperature. X-ray diffraction, Rietveld refinement data, Fourier transform Raman, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies confirmed the formation of continuous-solid solutions over the entire composition range for Sr1-xCaxMoO4 and Sr1-xBaxMoO4. The substitution of Ca and Ba for Sr in Sr1-2xCaxBaxMoO4 leads to phase-pure powders where x ≤ 0.1. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy confirms that the actual composition is close to the nominal stoichiometry of the samples. The molybdate powders are composed of micronic particles having diverse morphologies, including shuttle, microsphere, flower, dumbbell, and spindle. These superstructures are composed of primary particles having an average particle size of less than 60 nm. The optical band gap of Sr1-xBaxMoO4 and Sr1-xCaxMoO4 varies from 4.17 to 4.34 and 4.17 to 3.87 eV, respectively, with the chemical composition (x). The bandgap of Sr1-2xCaxBaxMoO4 is not significantly affected by variation of the nominal composition(x). The relatively small bandgap bowing parameter indicates good miscibility of the alloying constituents.
Predators are thought to prey on individuals that are in poor physical condition, although the evidence supporting this is ambiguous. We tested whether sick individuals were more predated using Drosophila melanogaster flies as manipulable prey. We asked whether hunting spiders, trapped from the wild, would selectively prey upon flies with compromised health (i.e. chronically infected or cancerous) versus healthy flies, under laboratory conditions. Flies chronically infected with the bacterium Providencia rettgeri, a natural Drosophila pathogen, were not selectively preyed upon by jumping spiders. We strengthened and confirmed our finding with another hunting spider species, small wolf spiders. This result supports the hypothesis that chronic infection is associated with reduced symptoms notably to avoid the potentially deadly consequences for pathogens of host predation. We then induced colon cancer in some of the flies and asked whether the presence of cancer led to selective predation; there is little empirical evidence for this, even in vertebrates. As the cancer developed, the incidence of predation by jumping spiders on the afflicted flies increased. We conclude that disease can have different lethal consequences through predation, even in invertebrate species, and that cancer is a factor in selective predation. Our results may explain why early tumours, but not metastasized cancers, are commonly detected in organisms in the wild, as cancer-bearing individuals are rapidly eliminated due to the strong selective pressure against them.
The non-existence of nonnegative finite energy solutions to−ΔV(x)−|x|σV(x)+V1/m(x)m−1=0,x∈RN, with m>1, σ>0, and N≥1, is proven for σ sufficiently large. More precisely, in dimension N≥4, the optimal lower bound on σ for non-existence is identified, namelyσ≥σc:=2(m−1)(N−1)3m+1, while, in dimensions N∈{1,2,3}, the lower bound derived on σ improves previous ones already established in the literature. A by-product of this result is the non-existence of nonnegative compactly supported separate variable solutions to a porous medium equation with spatially dependent superlinear source.
Local declines of wild populations represent the most visible part of biodiversity loss, and their detection often relies on long-term surveys. An alternative to identify risk-prone populations is to use indicators informing on their general health (i.e., their general fitness and ability to cope with changing environment) based on simple and complementary parameters estimated from snapshot sampling. However, most studies on wildlife population health focus on one or only a few parameters, yielding potentially biased conclusions for conservation. Here, we developed a multifaceted index of population health by combining 3 complementary indicators, namely pathological, ecological, and genetic indicators, based on an integrative approach traditionally used to assess ecosystem multifunctionality. We investigated their complementarity and relevance for detecting brown trout (Salmo trutta) risk-prone populations at a large spatial scale, and the underlying environmental stressors. The multifaceted health index properly represented the individual indicators' complementary information. It identified a cluster of moderately risk-prone populations and raised the alarm for one population. Each indicator was individually associated with distinct environmental stressors relevant for brown trout requirements. The multifaceted health index highlighted surrounding agricultural land and oxygen concentration as the most impacting environmental factors for the general health and sustainability of brown trout populations. The implementation of such integrative index can be transferred to a wide range of species and contexts. This index therefore provides to environmental managers and conservationists a snapshot and easily operated tool to identify risk-prone populations and areas to restore or conserve.
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5,306 members
Dominique Agustin
  • IUT Paul Sabatier
Stéphane Audry
  • Laboratoire Géosciences Environnement Toulouse - UM 97 (UMR 5563 / UMRD 234) - GET
Ion Nechita
  • Laboratoire de Physique Théorique - UMR 5152 - LPT
Patrick J. Sharrock
  • Département de Chimie IUT
Patrick moretto-capelle
  • Institut de Recherche sur les Systèmes Atomiques et Moléculaires Complexes - FR 2568 - IRSAMC
Toulouse, France