Background and objectives: High mortality in pancreas ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is related to delayed diagnosis and lack of cost-effective early detection strategies. Retrospective studies have demonstrated an association between PDAC and acute pancreatitis (AP). Herein, we explore the incidence of PDAC in patients with non-biliary and non-alcoholic AP. Methods: A population-based, retrospective cohort study was conducted utilizing TriNetX (Cambridge, MA). Patients ≥40 years with AP (ICD-10-CM code: K85) and without biliary AP (K85.1), alcohol-induced AP (K85.2) or chronic pancreatitis (K86.0, K86.1), were identified. The primary outcome was incidence of PDAC (C25) in patients at defined intervals following AP. We compared the rate of early-stage diagnosis (stage 1-2) and surgical resection among patients with and without preceding AP. Results: The incidence of PDAC ranged from 2.16% (1 year) to 3.43% (5 years). Patients with PDAC and AP in preceding year were more likely to undergo surgical resection relative to those without AP (10.1% vs. 6.3%, risk ratio 1.62: 95% confidence interval, CI 1.47-1.79). Early-stage diagnosis of PDAC was more frequent in patients with preceding AP; however, difference was insignificant (p = 0.48; 95% CI 0.64-2.58). Conclusion: AP is infrequently associated with PDAC and can precede a diagnosis of PDAC in a minority of patients without another known etiology of pancreatitis. Patients with a recent AP are more likely to undergo surgical resection of PDAC and a trend toward diagnosis at an earlier stage compared to patients with PDAC and without AP. The impact of AP-related PDAC on survival is unknown.
Objectives Laryngotracheal trauma is poorly studied and associated with serious morbidity and mortality. This study reports features associated with laryngotracheal fractures, and factors associated with laryngeal fracture repair. Study Design Retrospective database study Setting American College of Surgeons Trauma Quality Improvement Program (ACS-TQIP®) Methods ACS-TQIP® 2014-2015 participant user data files were queried for laryngotracheal fractures using the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) 9th edition encodings. Demographic, diagnostic and procedure characteristics were analyzed with univariate chi-squared analysis and multivariate logistic regression. Results We extracted 635 cases of laryngotracheal injury, with a median Injury Severity Score of 16 (IQR: 10 – 25). Most were caused unintentionally (65.7%), followed by assault (28.8%). Blunt trauma (79.5%) was more common than penetrating trauma (20.0%). These trends were upheld in the subgroup of repaired fractures, which made up 12.6% (80/635) of cases. The median length of hospital stay was 6 days (IQR: 3 – 13) in all fractures and 10 days (IQR: 6 – 14) in the subgroup of repaired fractures, while the median length of ICU stay was 4 days (IQR: 2 – 9) in all fractures and 4.5 (IQR: 6 – 14.3) in the subgroup of repaired fractures. Cut/pierce injuries (OR: 4.7, P < 0.001) and ISS (OR: 0.97, pP = 0.026) significantly affected rate of laryngeal fracture repair. Conclusion Laryngotracheal fractures are uncommon but serious injuries. Our results show that penetrating causes of injuries have the shortest time to repair, and that a higher ISS score is negatively associated with repair.
Background Abdominal wall reconstruction (AWR) has evolved with the continued advent of new techniques such as component separation (CS). General (GS) and plastics surgeons (PS) are trained to perform this procedure. Differences in patient population and clinical outcomes between specialties are unknown. Methods Using a national database, patients who underwent incisional/ventral hernia repair managed with CS were grouped according to the primary specialty. Patient demographics, perioperative details, and postoperative complications were compared, and the risk factors associated with clinical outcomes were analyzed. Results A total of 4,088 patients were identified. PS operated more often in the inpatient setting, and patients had a higher prevalence of hypertension and clean-contaminated wounds. Hypertension and being operated by a PS were associated with an increased risk of needing a blood transfusion after CST. Conclusion CS surgical outcomes are similar and comparable specialties. Primary specialty does not affect postoperative complications or 30-day mortality after CS.
1590 Background: The COVID-19 pandemic increased the use of telehealth to reduce exposure, which was critical for patients with cancer. The extent to which patients with cancer view telehealth visits as meeting their medical needs was investigated using a cross-sectional survey. Methods: Patients currently receiving cancer treatment at a single cancer institute who had had at least one telehealth visit were emailed an online survey. Response rate was 5% (94/1944). The survey measured patients’: 1) Emotional Thermometer (i.e. distress, anger, depression, anxiety, and need for help on a 0-10 scale); 2) Telehealth usability questionnaire (TUQ; 21-items with various subscales, like interaction quality; α=0.98).); and 3) Perceived Efficacy in Patient-Physician Interactions (PEPPI-5) scale (five items, e.g., “How confident are you in your ability to make the most of your visits with your doctors?”). Respondents completed the PEPPI-5 for in-person visits and for telehealth visits. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all measures. A generalized linear model was estimated predicting PEPPI-5 for telehealth visits from emotional thermometer and TUQ scores. The interaction between emotional thermometer and TUQ scores was estimated to test the hypothesis that emotional distress moderated the relationship between TUQ and efficacy in patient-provider interactions during telehealth visits. Results: Across all five thermometers, 30.8% (28/91) reported a high score on at least one metric. The most frequently reported high score was for anxiety, 23.3% (21/90) and least frequently reported high score was for anger, 12.2% (11/90). The mean TUQ score was 5.5 (SD=1.5) and mean PEPPI-5 score for telehealth visits was 8.1 (SD=2.4). As shown in Table, emotional thermometer scores did moderate the relation between TUQ and patient self-efficacy during telehealth visits. For high emotional thermometer scores, self-efficacy decreased as TUQ scores decreased. Conclusions: For patients experiencing high emotional distress, low comfort and ability with telehealth usability resulted in low patient self-efficacy in communicating with providers and getting medical needs met. Telehealth is a convenient and effective modality; however, in times of emotional distress for patients who are not familiar with telehealth, in-person clinic visits may result in greater patient self-efficacy.[Table: see text]
OBJECTIVE To determine whether interventions that slow or prevent the development of type 2 diabetes in those at risk reduce the subsequent prevalence of diabetic retinopathy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) randomized subjects at risk for developing type 2 diabetes because of overweight/obesity and dysglycemia to metformin (MET), intensive lifestyle intervention (ILS), or placebo (PLB) to assess the prevention of diabetes. During the DPP and DPP Outcome Study (DPPOS), we performed fundus photography over time on study participants, regardless of their diabetes status. Fundus photographs were graded using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study grading system, with diabetic retinopathy defined as typical lesions of diabetic retinopathy (microaneurysms, exudates, or hemorrhage, or worse) in either eye. RESULTS Despite reduced progression to diabetes in the ILS and MET groups compared with PLB, there was no difference in the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy between treatment groups after 1, 5, 11, or 16 years of follow-up. No treatment group differences in retinopathy were found within prespecified subgroups (baseline age, sex, race/ethnicity, baseline BMI). In addition, there was no difference in the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy between those exposed to metformin and those not exposed to metformin, regardless of treatment group assignment. CONCLUSION Interventions that delay or prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes in overweight/obese subjects with dysglycemia who are at risk for diabetes do not reduce the development of diabetic retinopathy for up to 20 years.
Approximately 70% of American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) individuals reside in urban areas. Urban Indian Health Organizations (UIHOs) provide culturally engaged primary care for AI/AN patients and members of other racial and ethnic groups who have experienced disparities in diabetes and hypertension care, and are commonly affected by social and economic barriers to care. We assessed whether disparities were present between the racial and ethnic groups served by the largest UIHO in the USA. We developed retrospective cohorts of patients with hypertension or diabetes receiving primary care from this UIHO, measuring differences between AI/AN, Spanish-preferring Latinx, English-preferring Latinx, Black, and White patients in mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) and mean hemoglobin A1c (A1c) as primary outcomes. To assess processes of care, we also compared visit intensity, missed visits, and medication treatment intensity in regression models adjusted for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. For hypertension (n = 2148), adjusted mean SBP ranged from 135.8 mm Hg among Whites to 141.3 mm Hg among Blacks (p = 0.06). For diabetes (n = 1211), adjusted A1c ranged from 7.7% among English-preferring Latinx to 8.7% among Blacks (p = 0.38). Care processes for both hypertension and diabetes varied across groups. No group consistently received lower-quality care. This UIHO provided care of comparable quality for hypertension and diabetes among urban-dwelling AI/ANs and members of other racial, ethnic, and language preference groups. Systematic assessments of care quality in UIHOs may help demonstrate the importance of their role in providing care and improve the quality of care.
statement What is already known about this topic? Auscultation is not an accurate method to identify feeding tube placement. Many critical care nurses continue to use the auscultation method (a low‐value, tradition‐based practice) to verify feeding tubes. Factors associated with de‐implementation of auscultation method for feeding tube verification are unknown. What this paper adds? Many nurses are aware that auscultation is not evidence based for adult feeding tube verification and are falsely comforted by hearing the whoosh sound (psychological bias). A combination of individual and organizational factors are barriers to de‐implementing auscultation of feeding tubes. Nurses seek guidance from leaders within their organization to facilitate de‐implementation, which is a necessary component of evidence‐based practice. The implications of this paper: A major challenge to de‐implementation of auscultation is the lack of valid bedside methods to assess feeding tube placement. Active involvement by organizational leaders will facilitate decision‐making to recommend a safe substitution for the auscultation method. Nurses expressed eagerness to incorporate evidence into their practice if they have adequate leadership support and the necessary resources to make practice changes. Formal intervention by organizational leaders is needed to promote de‐implementation of auscultation for feeding tubes.
Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) has been used as a life-supporting modality for patients with severe respiratory failure because of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aim to evaluate the performance of the RESP score in predicting the hospital survival of COVID-19 patients undergoing VV ECMO. We performed retrospective analysis of the extracorporeal life support organization (ELSO) dataset for COVID-19 patients requiring ECMO support to evaluate the performance of RESP score in predicting in hospital survival. All adult (age ≥18) COVID-19 patients receiving VV ECMO for acute respiratory failure enrolled in the ELSO database from March to August 2020 were included in the analysis. A total of 1985 patients from the ELSO registry were identified and analyzed based on pre-ECMO variables. Median RESP score of survivors was 3 (IQR 1-5) compared to 2 (IQR 0-4) in deceased. A logistic model including RESP score variables poorly discriminated survival and death with AUC (area under curve) 0.61 (95% confidence interval: 0.59-0.64). In-hospital survival for COVID-19 patients based on RESP score class from I to V was 69.7%, 59.3%, 45.7%, 42.5%, and 32.3%, respectively. Patients with immunosuppression (relative risk = 0.43) and pre-ECMO cardiac arrest (relative risk = 0.48) had lower survival. RESP score is a poor predictor of survival in COVID-19 patients undergoing ECMO. Compared to the original cohort used for RESP score creation, COVID-19 patients in RESP class I-III had worse survival whereas the patients in RESP class IV-V had better survival.
260 Background: dysphagia (dys) palliation in non-operable esophageal cancer (EC) continues to be a challenge. While chemotherapy and radiation help with dys, many patients require endoscopic interventions during their illness. Self-expanding metal stents have been the mainstay of endoscopic interventions but have a significant risk of severe adverse events and prevent the patient from being able to lie flat without severe reflux. Cryotherapy (cryo) is an emerging technique that can be used while the patient is receiving systemic therapy (ST). Previous retrospective studies showed improvement in dys with a favorable adverse event profile but did not report on quality of life (QOL) or reflux symptoms in patients receiving ST. Prospective studies have shown modest improvement in dys and QOL in patients not receiving ST. This prospective study reports the outcomes of cryo including dys, QOL, reflux symptoms and adverse events (AE) in patients receiving ST. Methods: A prospective multicenter cohort study of 35 adult inoperable EC patients undergoing cryo from Sep 2017 to Aug 2021. QoL was assessed using a modified EORTC QLQ-OES18 questionnaire (score 18 to 72, higher scores indicating worse QoL) while dys was measured using a 4-point Likert scale (0, no Dys; 1, Dys to solids; 2, Dys to semi-solids; 3, Dys to liquids; 4, Dys to saliva) at the start of cyro and 1-2 weeks post cryo. Paired t-test was used to evaluate changes in QoL and Dys between pre- and post-cryo. Results: There were 29 males and 6 females (30 stage IV and 5 stage III at diagnosis). Among 35 patients, a total of 104 cryo procedures were performed, with a mean of 3 per patient. The median number of tumor sites treated per cryo was 2 while the median number of cryo cycles delivered per tumor site was 3. The median total freeze time per tumor site was 60 seconds. The mean QoL score improved significantly from 31.8 pre-cryo to 28.2 with one cryo session (improvement of 3.6 points; p < 0.001). The mean dysphagia score improved significantly from 1.42 to 1.05 per cryo session (improvement of 0.37 points; p = 0.002). The mean After a mean of 3 cryo sessions, QoL score improved significantly from 35.9 pre-cryo to 29.8 post-cryo (improvement of 6 points; p = 0.001) and the mean dysphagia score improved significantly from 1.97 pre-cryo to 1.25 post-cryo (improvement of 0.72 points; p = 0.004). 86.5% of patient were able to sleep lying flat without heartburn or regurgitation. 6 patients received another intervention (1 stenting, 3 radiation and 2 dilation) for Dys palliation. 8 patients underwent feeding tube placement. Cryotherapy related grade 3 or higher adverse events occurred after 3 cryo sessions. Conclusions: Cryotherapy for palliation in non operable esophageal cancer improved dysphagia and quality of life without causing reflux and had a favorable adverse event profile with most patients not needing another intervention for dysphagia palliation.
Introduction: The AHA 2014 statement on palliative and end-of-life (EOL) care in stroke recommended patient- and family-centered care and goals of care discussions. Despite a recurrent stroke risk of up to 39% at 10 years, stroke survivors have low advance directive completion rates. We conducted a survey characterizing the advance care planning (ACP) attitudes in our population of stroke clinic patients. Methods: We developed a survey based on validated surveys assessing ACP behaviors and engagement. The survey was provided to all TIA, ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke patients in our clinic between February and August 2021. Non-English-speaking patients and those unable to express preferences were excluded. Results: Surveys were provided to 88 stroke survivors with a 68.2% response rate (N=60). Patient characteristics reported in Table 1. Patients were racially and ethnically diverse and 54.2% had greater than high school education. Patients were also fairly independent, most living at home (96.7%) and ambulatory (63.3%). Most patients completed the survey a median of 43 days after their first stroke (63.3%). Less than half (48.3%) of patients had designated a medical decision maker but many (63.3%) had had conversations with family/decision makers about preferences for future medical care if they were to become very sick or near the EOL. However, only 46.7% felt ready to talk with a doctor about these preferences. More than half (53.3%) of patients indicated that they would like their stroke doctor’s participation if/when they were to have such a conversation. Conclusions: In our study group of diverse, younger and more independent stroke survivors, we found that many had had ACP conversations with surrogate decision makers and more than half wanted their stroke doctor to participate in future discussions. More work is needed to assess the generalizability of our findings and how ACP can be improved for stroke survivors who are at high risk for recurrent events.
Objectives Bullying is defined as the perception of negative actions in which the target has difficulty in defending themself. This may include verbal, physical, or psychological force used to influence behavior. We sought to understand factors associated with bullying identified in vascular surgery trainees as well as barriers to reporting. Methods An anonymous electronic survey consisting of demographic information and validated scales for bullying (NAQ-R), social support, and grit was sent to vascular surgery trainees in the United States. Respondents who reported bullying were compared to those who were not bullied. Results Of the 516 invitations sent, 132 (26%) completed the survey. 63/132 (48%) reported being bullied or witnessed a fellow trainee being bullied in the past 6 months, with 42 (32%) reporting being bullied. Gender, marital status, paradigm of vascular training, grit level, and social support did not predict reception of bullying, although those in the highest quartile of grit showed a trend towards lower NAQ-R scores (p=0.06). As expected, trainees that reported receiving bullying had a higher NAQ-R (p<0.0001). No trainee reported daily bullying but 52% reported bullying “now and then” or several times a week. The most common perpetrator was their direct superior surgeon, although 12 (29%) reported bullying from co-residents and 6 (14%) reported bullying from patients. 15/42 (36%) did not address the bullying behavior, and the most common barriers to reporting bullying identified were fear of loss of support from supervisor (48%), loss of reputation (45%), and effect on career choices (43%). Of those who reported addressing the behavior, 56% reported the behavior continued. 70/132 (53%) reported no knowledge of institution-specific policies to address bullying in their program. The most common reasons identified for why bullying may occur in vascular training programs are “high stress environments” and “learned behavior” from others. Conclusions Bullying occurs in a significant amount of vascular trainees, but there are no clearly identified factors predictive of who will receive bullying. Trainees with higher grit may experience less bullying or more likely have a lower perception of bullying behavior. Further research is needed to determine the effects of bullying on vascular trainees.
Background/AimsWhile safety and effectiveness of advanced endoscopic resection techniques such as endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has been well established in general population, data regarding their utility in patients with cirrhosis is limited.Methods We searched multiple databases from inception through July 2021 to identify studies that reported on outcomes of EMR and/or ESD in patients with cirrhosis. Meta-analysis was performed to determine pooled rates of immediate and delayed bleeding, perforation, death as well as rates of successful en bloc and R0 resection. Pooled relative risk (RR) was calculated for each outcome between patients with and without cirrhosis.ResultsTen studies with a total of 3244 patients were included in the final analysis. Pooled rates of immediate & delayed bleeding, perforation, and death during EMR and/or ESD in patients with cirrhosis were 9.5% (CI 4.0–21.1), 6.6% (CI 4.2–10.3), 2.1% (CI 1.1–3.9) and 0.6% (CI 0.2–1.7), respectively. Pooled rates of successful en bloc and R0 resection were 93% (CI 85.9–96.7) and 90.8% (CI 86.5–93.8), respectively. While incidence of immediate bleeding was higher in patients with cirrhosis, there was no statistically significant difference in any of the other outcomes between the patient groups.Conclusions Our study shows that performing EMR and ESD for gastrointestinal lesions in patients with cirrhosis is both safe and effective. The risks of procedural complications parallel those reported in general population.
Introduction Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) is the commonest bariatric procedure worldwide. Yet there is significant variation in practice concerning its various aspects. This paper report results from the first modified Delphi consensus-building exercise on SG. Methods We established a committee of 54 globally recognized opinion makers in this field. The committee agreed to vote on several statements concerning SG. An agreement or disagreement amongst ≥ 70.0% experts was construed as a consensus. Results The committee achieved a consensus of agreement (n = 71) or disagreement (n = 7) for 78 out of 97 proposed statements after two rounds of voting. The committee agreed with 96.3% consensus that the characterization of SG as a purely restrictive procedure was inaccurate and there was 88.7% consensus that SG was not a suitable standalone, primary, surgical weight loss option for patients with Barrett’s esophagus (BE) without dysplasia. There was an overwhelming consensus of 92.5% that the sleeve should be fashioned over an orogastric tube of 36–40 Fr and a 90.7% consensus that surgeons should stay at least 1 cm away from the angle of His. Remarkably, the committee agreed with 81.1% consensus that SG patients should undergo a screening endoscopy every 5 years after surgery to screen for BE. Conclusion A multinational team of experts achieved consensus on several aspects of SG. The findings of this exercise should help improve the outcomes of SG, the commonest bariatric procedure worldwide, and guide future research on this topic.
To compare overall number of downstream tests and total costs between negative exercise stress echocardiograms (ESE) or cardiac computed tomography angiography scans (CCTA) in symptomatic Tricare beneficiaries suspected of having coronary artery disease (CAD). This is a retrospective cohort study examining 651 propensity-matched patients who underwent ESE or CCTA with normal results between 2008 and 2014 at the United States’ largest Department of Defense hospital. The total number of additional downstream tests over the next five years was determined. The total costs associated with each arm, inclusive of the initial test and all subsequent tests, were calculated using the 2018 Medicare Physician Fee Schedule. 18.5 percent of patients with a normal ESE result underwent some additional form of cardiac testing over the five years after initial testing compared to 12.8 percent of patients with a normal CCTA. The absolute difference in total number of downstream tests between both study groups was 5.7 percent (p = 0.03). When factoring the costs of the initial test as well as the downstream tests, the ESE group was associated with overall lower costs compared to the CCTA group, 351 United States Dollars (USD) versus 496 USD (p < 0.0001). This study demonstrates that, when compared to CCTA, ESE is associated with a higher total number of downstream tests, but overall lower total costs when chosen as initial testing strategy for suspected CAD.
Background: Interest in firearm injuries (FAIs), from medical and public health perspectives continues to grow. Few studies have analyzed the relationship of FAIs, craniofacial fractures, and traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). Methods: FAIs were isolated from national data from the American College of Surgeons (ACS) Trauma Quality Improvement Program (TQIP) 2014 to 2016 using external cause encodings. Pertinent demographic, injury, and hospital characteristics were extracted to characterize trends and statistically significant outcomes. Results: Thirty-two thousand eight hundred ninety-three (out of 829 805 cases) FAIs were captured, with a majority of patients being male and non-Hispanic/Latino Black. Multivariate linear regression revealed that race/ethnicity, age, hospital size, hospital region, intent of injury, and ISS significantly contributed to risk of mortality, increased hospital length of stay (LOS), and intensive care unit (ICU) duration. Five thousand nine hundred ten (18.0%) FAIs had at least 1 craniofacial fracture, and among these 75.1% (4441) incurred a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Mortality rate among patients with craniofacial FAI was 43.8% (2586/5910), compared to 9.7% (2618/26 983) without. Delayed surgical repair significantly increased hospital LOS ( P < .01), but not mortality ( P = .09). Conclusion: FAIs with craniofacial injury have significantly higher mortality rates than those without craniofacial injury. FAI-associated craniofacial injuries are frequently associated with TBI which is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Such findings pose important public health and economic implications.
Background: Athletes who have undergone anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction typically exhibit relatively high/rapid loading of their uninvolved limb during bilateral landing and jumping (vs. their limb that underwent reconstruction), which may place their uninvolved limb at risk for injury. However, previous studies have only examined forces and loading rates for tasks involving an isolated land-and-jump. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine bilateral landing and jumping kinetics during performance of a repetitive tuck jump task in athletes who had undergone anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and completed rehabilitation. Study Design: Cross-sectional study Methods: Nine athletes (four males, five females) participated in this study. All participants had undergone successful unilateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, had completed post-operative rehabilitation, and were in the process of completing return-to-sport testing. Athletes performed a repetitive tuck jump task for 10 seconds, while ground reaction forces were recorded for their uninvolved and involved limbs via separate force platforms. Two-way analysis of variance, for within-subjects factors of limb and cycle, was performed for the impact forces, loading rates, and propulsive forces from the first five land-and-jump cycles completed. Results: There was not a limb-by-cycle interaction effect or main effect of cycle for the impact forces, loading rates, or propulsive forces; however, there was a main effect of limb for the impact forces (F(1, 8) = 14.64; p=0.005), loading rates (F(1, 8) = 5.60; p=0.046), and propulsive forces (F(1, 8) = 10.38; p=0.012). Impact forces, loading rates, and propulsive forces were higher for the uninvolved limb, compared to the involved limb, over the five land-and-jump cycles analyzed. Conclusion: The athletes in this study consistently applied higher and more rapid loads to their uninvolved limb over multiple land-and-jump cycles. This may help to explain the relatively high injury rates for the uninvolved limb in athletes who have returned to sport following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.
Importance Cardiovascular events and mortality are the principal causes of excess mortality and health care costs for people with type 2 diabetes. No large studies have specifically compared long-acting insulin alone with long-acting plus short-acting insulin with regard to cardiovascular outcomes. Objective To compare cardiovascular events and mortality in adults with type 2 diabetes receiving long-acting insulin who do or do not add short-acting insulin. Design, Setting, and Participants This retrospective cohort study emulated a randomized experiment in which adults with type 2 diabetes who experienced a qualifying glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level of 6.8% to 8.5% with long-acting insulin were randomized to continuing treatment with long-acting insulin (LA group) or adding short-acting insulin within 1 year of the qualifying HbA1c level (LA plus SA group). Retrospective data in 4 integrated health care delivery systems from the Health Care Systems Research Network from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2013, were used. Analysis used inverse probability weighting estimation with Super Learner for propensity score estimation. Analyses took place from April 1, 2018, to June 30, 2019. Exposures Long-acting insulin alone or with added short-acting insulin within 1 year from the qualifying HbA1c level. Main Outcomes and Measures Mortality, cardiovascular mortality, acute myocardial infarction, stroke, and hospitalization for heart failure. Results Among 57 278 individuals (39 279 with data on cardiovascular mortality) with a mean (SD) age of 60.6 (11.5) years, 53.6% men, 43.5% non-Hispanic White individuals, and 4 years of follow-up (median follow-up of 11 [interquartile range, 5-20] calendar quarters), the LA plus SA group was associated with increased all-cause mortality compared with the LA group (hazard ratio, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.05-1.49) and a decreased risk of acute myocardial infarction (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.81-0.97). Treatment with long-acting plus short-acting insulin was not associated with increased risks of congestive heart failure, stroke, or cardiovascular mortality. Conclusions and Relevance Findings of this retrospective cohort study suggested an increased risk of all-cause mortality and a decreased risk of acute myocardial infarction for the LA plus SA group compared with the LA group. Given the lack of an increase in major cardiovascular events or cardiovascular mortality, the increased all-cause mortality with long-acting plus short-acting insulin may be explained by noncardiovascular events or unmeasured confounding.
Background To compare the diagnostic accuracy of CMR and FDG-PET/CT and their complementary role to distinguish benign vs malignant cardiac masses.Methods Retrospectively assessed patients with cardiac mass who underwent CMR and FDG-PET/CT within a month between 2003 and 2018.Results72 patients who had CMR and FDG-PET/CT were included. 25 patients (35%) were diagnosed with benign and 47 (65%) were diagnosed with malignant masses. 56 patients had histological correlation: 9 benign and 47 malignant masses. CMR and FDG-PET/CT had a high accuracy in differentiating benign vs malignant masses, with the presence of CMR features demonstrating a higher sensitivity (98%), while FDG uptake with SUVmax/blood pool ≥ 3.0 demonstrating a high specificity (88%). Combining multiple (> 4) CMR features and FDG uptake (SUVmax/blood pool ratio ≥ 3.0) yielded a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 88% to diagnose malignant masses. Over a mean follow-up of 2.6 years (IQR 0.3-3.8 years), risk-adjusted mortality were highest among patients with an infiltrative border on CMR (adjusted HR 3.1; 95% CI 1.5-6.5; P = .002) or focal extracardiac FDG uptake (adjusted HR 3.8; 95% CI 1.9-7.7; P < .001).Conclusion Although CMR and FDG-PET/CT can independently diagnose benign and malignant masses, the combination of these modalities provides complementary value in select cases.
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