Lay Description What is already known about this topic? Learning design (LD) is the pedagogic process used in teaching/learning that leads to the creation and sequencing of learning activities and the environment in which it occurs. Learning analytics (LA) is the measurement, collection, analysis & reporting of data about learners and their contexts, for purposes of understanding and optimizing learning and the environments in which it occurs. There are multiple studies on the alignment of LA and LD but research shows that there is still room for improvement. What this paper adds? To achieve better alignment between LD and LA. We address this aim by proposing a framework, where we connect the LA indicators with the activity outcomes from the LD. To demonstrate how learning events/objectives and learning activities are associated with LA indicators and how an indicator is formed/created by (several) LA metrics. We address this aim in our review. This article also aims to assist the LA research community in the identification of commonly used concepts and terminologies; what to measure, and how to measure. Implications for practice and/or policy This article can help course designers, teachers, students, and educational researchers to get a better understanding on the application of LA. This study can further help LA researchers to connect their research with LD.
Zusammenfassung Die Covid-19 Pandemie traf im Frühjahr 2020 auf die österreichische Schullandschaft und stellte Österreichs Schulen vor eine Ausnahmesituation. Die darauffolgenden Phasen des Distance Learning trieben auch Digitalisierungsprozesse im schulischen Bereich voran. In diesem Kontext kommt sowohl der technischen Ausstattung als auch den digitalen Kompetenzen der Schüler*innen große Relevanz zu – und dies birgt die Gefahr, dass sich durch einen Digital Divide bereits bestehende Ungleichheiten im Bildungssektor zuspitzen. Der vorliegende Beitrag beleuchtet daher mittels Daten aus einer Interviewstudie mit Lehrkräften, Schulleiter*innen, Mitarbeiter*innen psychosozialer Unterstützungssysteme und Schüler*innen Digitalisierungsprozesse im schulischen Bereich während der Pandemie. Diese Prozesse werden vor dem Hintergrund der Diskussion um digitale Ungleichheiten im Schulkontext diskutiert. Die Ergebnisse der vorliegenden Studie zeigen, dass es durch den Covid-bedingten Fernunterricht zu einem deutlichen Ausbau und einer gewissen Konsolidierung digitaler Formen des Lehrens und Lernens kam. Dennoch bleiben Probleme bestehen, die mit strukturellen Ungleichheiten verbunden sind. Zu Aufholprozessen für sozial benachteiligte Schüler*innen kam es nicht. Vielmehr schreiben sich jene Faktoren, die bereits vor der Pandemie für die tiefgreifenden Ungleichheiten im österreichischen Bildungssystem ausschlaggebend waren – wie sozioökonomischer Status, Bildungsstand der Eltern und kulturelles Kapital – auch im Distance Learning und im Arbeiten mit digitalen Medien weiter fort.
Endurance running is well-documented to affect health beneficially. However, data are still conflicting in terms of which race distance is associated with the maximum health effects to be obtained. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the health status of endurance runners over different race distances. A total of 245 recreational runners (141 females, 104 males) completed an online survey. Health status was assessed by measuring eight dimensions in two clusters of health-related indicators (e.g., body weight, mental health, chronic diseases and hypersensitivity reactions, medication intake) and health-related behaviors (e.g., smoking habits, supplement intake, food choice, healthcare utilization). Each dimension consisted of analytical parameters derived to a general domain score between 0 and 1. Data analysis was performed by using non-parametric ANOVA and MANOVA. There were 89 half-marathon (HM), 65 marathon/ultra-marathon (M/UM), and 91 10-km runners. 10-km runners were leaner than both the HM and M/UM runners (p ≤ 0.05). HM runners had higher health scores for six dimensions (body weight, mental health, chronic diseases and hypersensitivity reactions, medication intake, smoking habits, and health care utilization), which contributed to an average score of 77.1% (score range 62–88%) for their overall state of health. Whereas 10-km and M/UM runners had lesser but similar average scores in the overall state of health (71.7% and 72%, respectively). Race distance had a significant association with the dimension “chronic diseases and hypersensitivity reactions” (p ≤ 0.05). Despite the null significant associations between race distance and seven (out of eight) multi-item health dimensions, a tendency towards better health status (assessed by domain scores of health) among HM runners was found compared to other distance runners. However, the optimal state of health across all race distances supported the notion that endurance running contributed to overall health and well-being. Trial registration number: ISRCTN73074080. Retrospectively registered 12th June 2015.
To date, there is a lack of research on learning environments for pre-service physics teachers that allow them to learn and practise diagnosing students’ conceptions that are (currently) not covered in physics education textbooks (e.g. students’ conceptions about viscosity). In this study, we developed and piloted such a learning environment, which was implemented and piloted twice in a seminar for pre-service physics teachers. As coping with a diagnostic process is particularly demanding for pre-service physics teachers, our accompanying research aims to identify learning barriers within our developed learning environment. The results indicate that the participants experience the learning environment with varying degrees of difficulty. One main difficulty for pre-service physics teachers seems to be in interconnecting their content knowledge with their pedagogical content knowledge in the diagnostic process.
Zusammenfassung Die pädagogische Qualität in institutionellen Kinderbildungs- und -betreuungseinrichtungen ist bedeutend für das Wohlbefinden und für die Entwicklung der Kinder. Die Sichtweise auf gute pädagogische Qualität in Kindertageseinrichtungen wird je nach Perspektive von verschiedenen Personengruppen wie etwa Eltern und Fachpersonen unterschiedlich beantwortet werden. Dieser Beitrag nimmt diesen Gedanken in den Fokus und vergleicht die Sichtweisen von Eltern und Fachpersonen auf die pädagogische Qualität in elementarpädagogischen Einrichtungen. Im Rahmen eines qualitativen Teilprojekts des ERASMUS+ Forschungsprojektes Europäisches Gütesiegel für Qualität in Kindertageseinrichtungen wurde eine Fragebogenerhebung mit Eltern und Fachpersonen in Österreich, Ungarn, Deutschland und Slowenien durchgeführt. Die Forschungsergebnisse zeigen Gemeinsamkeiten und Differenzen, die sich zum einem aus den unterschiedlichen Rollen der Personengruppen und zum anderen aus gruppenspezifischen Bedürfnissen ableiten lassen. Der Vergleich dieser beiden Perspektiven weist vorrangig auf die Bedeutsamkeit der Berücksichtigung von Mehrperspektivität in der pädagogischen Qualitätsdebatte hin.
Objectives: To evaluate the impact of ski geometry data and standing height ratio on anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk of male and female recreational skiers. Methods: A retrospective questionnaire-based, case-control study of ACL-injured and uninjured recreational skiers was conducted during six consecutive winter seasons. Ski geometry data (ski length, side-cut radius, widths of the tip, waist and tail) were recorded from each participant's skis. Standing heights at the front and rear components of the ski binding were measured with a digital sliding calliper, and the standing height ratio between the front and rear was calculated. Results: A total of 1817 recreational skiers participated in this study, of whom 392 (21.6%) sustained an ACL injury. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicates a higher age, a lower skill level and riskier behaviour as independent individual risk factors associated with an ACL injury. An increase in ski length, tip width of the ski, standing height at the rear ski binding component, and in standing height ratio were found to be independent equipment-related risk factors for an ACL injury. Conclusion: Reduced ski length, narrower ski tip width, lower rear standing height and a lower standing height ratio (ie, rear component of the ski binding is more elevated compared with the front component) were associated with a reduced likelihood for ACL injury. When buying or renting skis, these parameters could be considered to reduce the likelihood of ACL injury in recreational skiers.
Past research has documented the relevance principals have for school improvement. However, how principals lead schools is dependent on institutional context. Furthermore, an international comparison of leadership might be susceptible to bias because the majority of leadership research is from Anglophone countries. The goal of the paper was to test whether constructs of “effective” leadership in international research are applicable to leadership practice in two contrasting institutional environments (United States and Germany). In both countries, teachers completed a leadership survey. Differences between the samples were analyzed utilizing Rasch analysis to evaluate potential differential item functioning. This was done to investigate differences in the way that items were viewed to define the construct as a function of sample. The findings indicate that leadership practices related to effectiveness and performativity were less pronounced in the German schools as opposed to the US schools, and leadership practices related to collaboration and participation were more pronounced.
„Durch die Coronapandemie belastet?“ Der Einfluss von durch COVID-19 induzierter Angst auf die sozial-emotionale Entwicklung 12- bis 13-Jähriger in ÖsterreichDoes the COVID-19 pandemic take its toll? The influence of COVID-19 induced anxiety on the social-emotional development of 12- to 13-year-olds in Austria
During the COVID-19 pandemic, students have been severely affected by measures such as school closures and homeschooling. While it is obvious that these measures influenced students’ academic achievement, there is also reason to believe that students’ social-emotional development has been impacted.The present study investigates (1) the extent to which students in Austrian secondary school (12 to 13 years old) feel stressed by the COVID-19 pandemic, and (2) how the different levels of stress affect their social-emotional development. The focus of this study is on the development of problematic behavior (internalized and externalized behavior problems) and prosocial behavior. In total, 774 students participated in the study and 650 students took part in three different times of measurement, with the last time of measurement taking place just before the second school closure as a measure in the COVID-19 pandemic.Almost 20% of the respondents show higher stress-levels in terms of COVID-19 induced anxiety. Students with higher stress-levels also display a more negative development in their internalized behavior problems. Likewise, for students’ development of externalized behavior problems, a trend in this direction was demonstrated, yet less pronounced. Students who reported a higher stress-level also developed more prosocial behavior. Yet, we could not statistically verify this due to violation of statistical prerequisites.
The idea of inclusion in the sense of participatory access to educational opportunities is widely acknowledged and implemented within the pedagogical discourse. Nevertheless, ensuring social participation of students with and without special education needs in learning situations continues to be challenging. The present study examines promoting and hindering factors for social inclusion with a focus on students with special educational needs. Therefore, semi-structured interviews regarding students’ (n = 12 students with SEN, 12 students without SEN), parents’ (n = 24), and teachers’ (n = 6 regular teachers, 6 special need teachers) perceptions of promoting educational characteristics that might influence students’ inclusion in everyday school life are analyzed through thematic analysis. The findings provide a wide range of pedagogical interventions that have the potential to promote inclusive education processes on educational, intrapersonal, and interpersonal levels as well as regarding different actors who are involved.
The COVID-19 summer semester 2020 posed many challenges and uncertainties, quite unexpectedly and suddenly. In a sample of 314 psychology students, it was investigated how they experienced learning and preparing for an end-of-semester exam, which emotions and strain they experienced, how academic performance was affected, and how personal antecedents of learning as important facets of a learner’s identity could support or prevent overcoming adverse circumstances of learning. The participants of the study filled in a questionnaire about their achievement emotions and strain they experienced during learning and exam preparation as well as academic self-concept, motivation, gender, proneness to anxiety. Points achieved in the exam were also recorded. The interaction between the variables was investigated by a structural equation model.
We define the term \(\ulcorner \)a set T of sentential-logical formulae grounds a sentential-logical formula A from a syntactic point of view\(\urcorner \) in such a way that A is a syntactic sentential-logical consequence of T, and specific additional syntactic requirements regarding T and A are fulfilled. These additional requirements are developed strictly within the syntactics of sentential-logical languages, the three most important being new, namely: to be atomically minimal, to be minimal in degree, and not to be conjunction-like. Our approach is independent of any specific sentential-logical calculus.
Zusammenfassung. Studienplätze werden im deutschsprachigen Raum nach unterschiedlichen Kriterien vergeben, beispielsweise auf Basis schulischer Abschlussnoten oder Ergebnissen psychologischer Diagnostica, die eine Selbstselektion bewirken oder zur Fremdselektion eingesetzt werden. Die Studie vergleicht Möglichkeiten der Selektion und deren Validität für den Studien- und Praxiserfolg: Schulische Abschlussnoten, Self-Assessments und Eignungstests. Zusätzlich wird die Selbstselektion während des Bewerbungsprozesses untersucht. Grundlage der Untersuchung stellt eine 2015 initiierte Längsschnittstudie in Lehramtsstudien dar, in der (angehende) Studierende ( n Teilstichprobe 1 = 199; n Teilstichprobe 2 = 129) zu fünf Zeitpunkten befragt wurden. Es zeigt sich, dass im Bewerbungsprozess über 40 % Selbstselektion stattfindet. Zur Vorhersage von Studienerfolg können Sprachkompetenz und Gewissenhaftigkeit – erhoben im Eignungstest – Varianz über Abschlussnoten hinaus aufklären. Selbsteingeschätzte Praxisleistungen können durch fachspezifische Interessen – erhoben in Self-Assessments – und Persönlichkeitsmerkmale vorhergesagt werden, nicht jedoch durch Abschlussnoten. Die vorliegende Studie zeigt, dass Abschlussnoten zwar herkömmliche Kriterien von Studienerfolg vorhersagen, standardisierte Tests aber inkrementelle Validität und Vorhersagen für breitere Kriterien leisten können.
Croon and van Veldhoven discussed a model for analyzing micro–macro multilevel designs in which a variable measured at the upper level is predicted by an explanatory variable that is measured at the lower level. Additionally, the authors proposed an approach for estimating this model. In their approach, estimation is carried out by running a regression analysis on Bayesian Expected a Posterior (EAP) estimates. In this article, we present an extension of this approach to interaction and quadratic effects of explanatory variables. Specifically, we define the Bayesian EAPs, discuss a way for estimating them, and we show how their estimates can be used to obtain the interaction and the quadratic effects. We present the results of a “proof of concept” via Monte Carlo simulation, which we conducted to validate our approach and to compare two resampling procedures for obtaining standard errors. Finally, we discuss limitations of our proposed extended Bayesian EAP-based approach.
Lifestyle behaviors are key contributors to sustainable health and well-being over the lifespan. The analysis of health-related behaviors is crucial for understanding the state of health in different populations, especially teachers who play a critical role in establishing the lifelong health behaviors of their pupils. This multidisciplinary, nationwide study aimed to assess and compare lifestyle patterns of Austrian teachers and school principals at secondary levels I and II with a specific focus on physical activity and diet. A total number of 1350 teachers (1.5% of the eligible Austrian sample; 69.7% females; 37.7% from urban areas; mean age: 45.8 ± 11.4 years; mean BMI: 24.2 ± 4.0) completed a standardized online survey following an epidemiological approach. Across the total sample, 34.4% were overweight/obese with a greater prevalence of overweight/obesity in males than females (49.5% vs. 29.2%, p < 0.01) and rural vs. urban environments (35.9% vs. 31.3%). Most participants (89.3%) reported a mixed diet, while 7.9% and 2.9% were vegetarians and vegans, respectively. The average BMI of teachers with mixed diets (24.4 ± 4.0 kg/m2) was significantly higher than vegetarians (23.1 ± 3.2 kg/m2) and vegans (22.7 ± 4.3 kg/m2). Vegans reported a lower level of alcohol intake (p < 0.05) among dietary groups. There was no between-group difference in smoking (p > 0.05). The prevalence of engagement in regular physical activity was 88.7% for leisure-time sports/exercises and 29.2% for club sports. Compared with the previous reports on general populations, the present data suggest an acceptable overall health status among Austrian teachers.
Introduction Currently, about 2% of the European working population (~5 million people) are teachers, who are a characterized occupational group with various roles as educators, partners, counselors, social directors, professional managers, and political theorists. Teachers’ health has a remarkable effect on teaching quality, and consequently, on the success of students of future generations. Public and occupational health are highly related to lifestyle behaviors (including diet type and PA); however, little is known regarding lifestyle patterns in different groups of teachers, particularly males and females. This study aimed to investigate sex differences in health/lifestyle behaviors of Austrian secondary-level teachers and school principals. Methods This cross-sectional and multidisciplinary study is a part of the bigger Austrian-wide research project From Science 2 School (www.science2.school/en; supported by Federal Ministry of Education, Science, and Research). A sample size of 89,243 teachers and principals from 2,554 secondary schools (level I & II) were invited to participate, and a total number of 1,350 teachers and principals (1.5% of eligible Austrian participants; aged 45.8±11.4; 69.7% females) completed an online survey. In addition to sociodemographic information, a complete profile of lifestyle behaviors (e.g., diet type: omnivorous, vegetarian, vegan; nutritional patterns; exercise and sports activities; smoking habits; and alcohol consumption) was evaluated. Findings Male teachers were 2.1 years older than females (p0.05), males engaged in club sports more than females (39.1% vs. 24.9%; p
Recent research has integrated developmental and dimensional perspectives on epistemic beliefs by implementing an approach in which profiles of learners' epistemic beliefs are modeled across multiple dimensions. Variability in study characteristics has impeded the comparison of profiles of epistemic beliefs and their relations with external variables across studies. We examined this comparability by integrating data on epistemic beliefs about the source, certainty, development, and justification of knowledge in science from six studies comprising N = 10,932 German students from elementary to upper secondary school. Applying latent profile analyses to these data, we found that profiles of epistemic beliefs that were previously conceptualized were robust across multiple samples. We found indications that profiles of epistemic beliefs homogenize over the course of students' education, are related to school tracking, and demonstrate robust relations with students' personal characteristics and socioeconomic background. We discuss implications for the theory, assessment, and education of epistemic beliefs. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10648-022-09661-w.
Accompanied by the growing popularity of distance running, the prevalence of vegan and vegetarian diets in endurance runners has increased across the globe and especially in German-speaking (D-A-CH: Germany, Austria, Switzerland) countries. The present study aimed to investigate and compare the epidemiological characteristics associated with diet types and running behaviors of recreational endurance runners. From a total number of 7422 runners who started to fill in the online survey, 3835 runners completed the questionnaire. After data clearance, 2455 distance runners (mean age: 37 years; 56% females, 44% males) were selected as the final sample and classified as 1162 omnivores (47.4%), 529 vegetarians (21.5%), and 764 vegans (31.1%). Sociodemographic information and general characteristics in training and competition were evaluated using a questionnaire-based approach. A significant association was found between diet type and race distance (p < 0.001). In females, vegan ultra-marathoners and omnivorous half-marathoners had better individual running records among dietary groups. Sex differences in running performance had a minimizing trend with increasing race distance. Most runners reported independent race preparation (90%) over less than four months (73%). From an epidemiological viewpoint, the present findings suggest a central role of plant-based diets in running performance and behaviors among active distance runners in D-A-CH countries and that vegetarian and vegan diets are compatible with competitive running.
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