Previous research suggests creative ability peaks at ages between the mid 30s and early 40s, but has not focused on the role of age-related changes in cognitive abilities in this pattern. Cognitive processes show aging-related increases in experience-based knowledge (pragmatics or crystallized abilities) and decreases in the ability to process novel information quickly and efficiently (mechanics or fluid abilities). We explore the role of these age-related changes in the invention process, using a new database created by combining the publicly available patent data with information on inventor ages scraped from directory websites for approximately 1.2 million U.S.-resident inventors patenting between 1976 and 2017. We have made these data publicly available on the Harvard Dataverse and full documentation can be found in Kaltenberg et al. (2021) In the current paper, we present some descriptive statistics, and explore changing patterns of invention as inventor's age. For solo inventors, backward citations and originality increase with age, consistent with their being connected to crystallized intelligence. Forward citations, number of claims, and generality measures, as well as a citation-based measure of disruptiveness decline with inventor age, consistent with a connection to fluid intelligence. A similar pattern was found for performance in teams based on the average age of inventors in the team. Exploration of age diversity showed that teams with a wider age range had patents that are slightly more important (i.e., with more forward citations). Merging of these new data with other data that capture diverse aspects of inventors' environment and incentives offers rich potential for new research on invention.
This article examines the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) communication and the commitment to CSR in practice, specifically on the topic of employee diversity. A large-scale textual analysis is used to investigate CSR communication and the factors that differentiate news organizations. By integrating the scholarship on CSR communication, journalism, and management, the article furthers the understanding of ways news organizations publicly signal the implementation of diversity practices. In addition, the article proves useful as news organizations seek ways to institutionalize their CSR communications and evaluate their own commitments to diversity initiatives as an organizational priority.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized by a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Although a complex interplay of multiple environmental and genetic factors has been implicated, the etiology of neuronal death in PD remains unresolved. Various mechanisms of neuronal degeneration in PD have been proposed, including oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, neuroinflammation, α-synuclein proteostasis, disruption of calcium homeostasis, and other cell death pathways. While many drugs individually targeting these pathways have shown promise in preclinical PD models, this promise has not yet translated into neuroprotective therapies in human PD. This has consequently spurred efforts to identify alternative targets with multipronged therapeutic approaches. A promising therapeutic target that could modulate multiple etiological pathways involves drug-induced activation of a coordinated genetic program regulated by the transcription factor, nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Nrf2 regulates the transcription of over 250 genes, creating a multifaceted network that integrates cellular activities by expressing cytoprotective genes, promoting the resolution of inflammation, restoring redox and protein homeostasis, stimulating energy metabolism, and facilitating repair. However, FDA-approved electrophilic Nrf2 activators cause irreversible alkylation of cysteine residues in various cellular proteins resulting in side effects. We propose that the transcriptional repressor of BTB and CNC homology 1 (Bach1), which antagonizes Nrf2, could serve as a promising complementary target for the activation of both Nrf2-dependent and Nrf2-independent neuroprotective pathways. This review presents the current knowledge on the Nrf2/Bach1 signaling pathway, its role in various cellular processes, and the benefits of simultaneously inhibiting Bach1 and stabilizing Nrf2 using non-electrophilic small molecules as a novel therapeutic approach for PD.
Honey is a product that is sought after by consumers because of its desirable properties. However, due to the high demand and limited supply, honey is often the target of falsification. The properties of honey are ultimately tied to its botanical, geographical, and entomological origins. Thus, accurate knowledge of these information is a step towards identifying honey adulteration. This work reports the successful discrimination of Philippine honey samples based on their geographical and entomological origins through the multivariate analysis of their FTIR spectra. Application of the principal component analysis (PCA) led to the distinct separation of samples. In the presented method, no other preprocessing of the FTIR spectral data was performed, yet the observed discrimination is comparable to works with spectral preprocessing. Application of hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) also led to the separation of the honey samples into distinct clusters. The observed clustering in the dendrogram was found to correspond more on the species difference rather than the geographical location. This work has successfully demonstrated the discrimination of Philippine honey samples in terms of their geographical and entomological origins using FTIR spectroscopy and chemometrics.
This paper estimates the impact of Daylight Saving Time (DST) on deaths from suicide and substance abuse in the United States. Using Multiple Cause‐of‐Death Mortality Data from the National Vital Statistics System of the National Center for Health Statistics from 1979 to 1988, the effect is identified in two ways: a regression discontinuity design that exploits discrete time changes in the Spring and Fall; and a fixed effects model that uses a policy change and a switching mechanism that introduces random variation to DST's start and end dates. This is one of the first attempts to estimate the impact of DST on deaths due to suicide and substance abuse and the first to use either identification strategy. The results from both methods suggest that the sleep disruptions during the Spring transition cause the suicide rate to rise by 6.25 percent and the death rate from suicide and substance abuse combined to increase by 6.59 percent directly after the time change. There is no evidence for any change in these outcomes during the Fall transition. The contrasting results from Spring to Fall suggest the entire effect can be attributed to disruptions in sleep patterns rather than changes in ambient light exposure.
The COVID-19 crisis presented teachers and families with the challenge of educating young children online. This study explored the experiences with virtual education of 51 parents and 53 teachers of young children. The results have shown that families and educators were aligned in their goals for early childhood education. Nevertheless, teachers rated the online environment as significantly more effective at achieving these goals than parents did. Similarly, families rated online activities as significantly less effective than teachers at engaging young children in learning. Finally, both teachers and families indicated that the online environment was successful when promoting communication and support. Parents experienced more support than teachers during this period. Implications for the future of online education for young children are discussed.
This paper examines the potential effects of the lack of diversity in children’s books on young readers, with an emphasis on the Latine/o/a/x community. Utilizing personal experience, market statistics, case studies, and educational research, this paper provides a holistic understanding of the sociological and psychological damage that can be caused when children do not see themselves positively represented in the media they consume. Whether through a complete lack of representation, negative stereotypes, or issues of authenticity, this paper explores why and how these issues directly impact a child’s self-esteem. In an effort to combat this issue and create substantive change, potential solutions are suggested and encouraged to readers from all walks of life.
The concept of ecology with cities calls for a broader scope of pedagogical and participatory research tools for engagement with and action on urban environmental issues. Projects that take an ecology with cities approach can provide gateways for diverse audiences, including students, teachers, community members, and scientists, to participate in urban ecology, thus serving as a potential steppingstone for further engagement. While there is increasing research on the value of participatory approaches for increasing ecological literacy (e.g. citizen science), less has been written on the collaborative process of such experiences, in particular the social aspects of projects that can enable the most successful outcomes and/or lessons learned. This paper describes a collaborative research project that engaged undergraduate students and community outreach staff of an urban nonprofit organization to better understand social uses and values associated with a small public park located on the Harlem River in New York City. We explore the outcomes of the project both for students and nonprofit staff and provide recommendations for educators interested in using a pedagogy of social-ecological collaborations in urban contexts. We believe that such an approach can help to prepare future generations of environmental researchers and practitioners to engage with others for an ecology with cities.
Resource scarcity is a powerful construct in social sciences. However, explanations about how resources influence overall well‐being are difficult to generalize since much of the research on scarcity focuses on relatively affluent marketplace conditions, limiting its usefulness to large segments of the global population living in poverty. Conversely, poverty research provides cultural insights into resource deprivation, yet it stops short of explaining the systematic variation of scarce resources among impoverished individuals. To bridge these intellectual silos and advance a deeper understanding of scarcity, we integrate resource scarcity research, which builds upon a psychological tradition to understand various forms of everyday deprivation, with poverty research, which builds upon a sociological tradition to understand extreme and enduring deprivation. We propose a novel framework that integrates the concept of consumption adequacy and clarifies resource scarcity’s forms, intensity, duration, and dynamic trajectories. We leverage this framework to generate a research agenda and we propose ways to stimulate dialogue among scarcity and poverty scholars, policymakers, and organizations to help inform impoverished life circumstances and generate effective solutions.
Principles of fairness and solidarity in AI ethics regularly overlap, creating obscurity in practice: acting in accordance with one can appear indistinguishable from deciding according to the rules of the other. However, there exist irregular cases where the two concepts split, and so reveal their disparate meanings and uses. This paper explores two cases in AI medical ethics, one that is irregular and the other more conventional, to fully distinguish fairness and solidarity. Then the distinction is applied to the frequently cited COMPAS versus ProPublica dispute in judicial ethics. The application provides a broader model for settling contemporary and topical debates about fairness and solidarity. It also implies a deeper and disorienting truth about AI ethics principles and their justification.
In this paper, we develop an integrated multitiered competitive agricultural supply chain network model in which agricultural firms and processing firms compete to sell their differentiated products. The focus here is on fresh produce and minimally processed such agricultural products, with quality also captured. The competition among agricultural firms and processing firms is studied through game theory, where the governing Cournot-Nash equilibrium conditions correspond to a variational inequality problem. The algorithm, at each iteration, yields explicit closed form expressions for the agricultural product path flows, the agricultural product shipments from agricultural firms to the processing firms, and the Lagrange multipliers. A numerical study consisting of several supply chain disruption scenarios demonstrates the applicability of our modeling framework.
Salinization and eutrophication are nearly ubiquitous in watersheds with human activity. Despite the known impacts of the freshwater salinization syndrome (FSS) to organisms, we demonstrate a pronounced knowledge gap on how FSS alters wetland biogeochemistry. Most experiments assessing FSS and biogeochemistry pertain to coastal saltwater intrusion. The few inland wetland studies mostly add salt as sodium chloride. Sodium chloride alone does not reflect the ionic composition of inland salinization, which derives from heterogeneous sources, producing spatially and temporally variable ionic mixtures. We develop mechanistic hypotheses for how elevated ionic strength and changing ionic composition alter urban wetland sediment biogeochemistry, with the prediction that FSS diminishes nutrient removal capacity via a suite of related direct and indirect processes. We propose that future efforts specifically investigate inland urban wetlands, a category of wetland heavily relied on for its biogeochemical processing ability that is likely to be among the most impacted by salinization.
Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has opened a dialogue regarding advocacy and policy changes that need to occur at the federal, state, and local levels to ensure provisions for the financial and healthcare well-being of nurses. Often nurses struggle as the "breadwinners" in their families caring for multiple generations, thus leading them to live paycheck to paycheck. Design: A review of current and proposed policy changes. The pandemic demonstrated clearly through governmental executive orders that laws and regulations could be changed more rapidly than the traditional routes, illustrating an ability to enact change in nursing practice. At the federal level, provisions are not made to ensure that nurses who risk their lives during pandemic times are adequately compensated monetarily and through extended healthcare benefits, often provided for police, fire, and other emergency personnel. Results/conclusions: Suggestions for new policy and advocacy agendas are proposed based on the gap in coverage noted during and after this pandemic. Clinical relevance: COVID-19 has brought to the forefront gaps in the financial and healthcare safety nets for nurses in the United States. Opportunities exist to inform via advocacy and policy reform at the federal, state, and local governmental agencies regarding the need for extended financial and healthcare provisions for nurses.
The dapivirine monthly vaginal ring—a discreet, anti-HIV microbicide created specifically for women—has received a positive scientific opinion by the European Medicines Agency and is included in the WHO HIV prevention guidelines. It has received regulatory approvals in several countries in southern and eastern Africa. During the review of the New Drug Application that was submitted in December 2020, FDA advised the developer, International Partnership for Microbicides, that it was unlikely to be approved in the United States; the application has since been withdrawn. This commentary will present the case for FDA approval for the dapivirine ring. Advocacy is urgently needed to protect U.S. women's access to user-controlled HIV prevention technologies, consistent with both global regulatory decisions to date and with a reproductive justice framework. Women continue to need the fullest range of HIV prevention methods to integrate into their lives in the most practical and effective way possible.
Based on an abductive analytic study, we examine financial and social value incorporation in the multi-valued market of impact investing. This paper draws on interviews with investment professionals in 54 charitable foundations, intermediary and field building organizations in the impact investing market, to compare market objectives with practice, and to determine whether social and financial values are incorporated, thus producing ‘returns’ of both types through market exchange. We find unincorporated valuation is apparent at both the market level and for several types of investors in contrast with the incorporated or even integrated valuations of other investors. This demonstrates that rather than incorporating logics in a binary or hybrid way, valuation in the moral market of impact investing occurs in a multiplicity of ways and on different levels of the market, depending on a variety of factors including adherence to traditional financial market standards and market design and maintenance.
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