Flow-induced vibration (FIV) is a common phenomenon observed in internal flows and is frequently encountered in technical systems like process plants, nuclear plants, oil-piping or heat exchangers. Compared to single-phase flows, FIV is more difficult to predict and analyze for internal two-phase flows. As a result, experimental data and analysis tools related to two-phase flow are limited to specific aspects or conditions. Another problem is that for real-world applications, FIV analysis is applied to multi-structural components, which becomes complicated due to the size of the technical systems. Thus, experimental studies are usually realized first within the laboratory using a prototype of the original structure. Besides experimental investigations, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is increasingly adopted and already a prevalent tool for FIV assessment. However, further development in CFD models and methods is necessary in order to complement the experimental database. Additionally, CFD is useful for enhanced understanding of fundamental aspects of two-phase flows, and for gaining insights from situations where experiments are difficult or infeasible, such as in deep-sea bore-wells, sub-sea riser pipelines, and in nuclear installations. It is also known that there is a lack of sufficiently accurate empirical correlations for terms related to mass, momentum, and energy transfer across the phases for two-phase flows, and CFD can be useful in this respect. Furthermore, for estimating the accuracy of CFD models, comparisons with benchmark results for two-phase, internal, multi-structural flows are necessary. Unfortunately, the experimental database involving internal two-phase flows is very limited, and this is a bottleneck for the development of computational techniques. The following contribution presents a review of the research on FIV involving two-phase internal flows with relevance to multi-structural components. Methodological literature for two-phase flow measurements along with the latest applications are put forth. Problem areas of two-phase FIV systems have been brought out, and future avenues of research for two-phase, internal FIV are identified. The following specific areas of two-phase FIV are reviewed. Two-phase FIV in subsea risers and in pipeline riser systems is discussed. The slug flow regime is analyzed in particular due its predominant impact on two-phase FIV. Parameters affecting two-phase FIV along with two-phase correlations are discussed. Power Spectrum Density (PSD) and Fourier transform applications for two-phase FIV form another section. Latest research efforts involving the two-way interaction of fluid and structure are presented. Both numerical and experimental works have been reviewed. The bulk of the important works for two-phase FIV is experimental in nature. Numerical models and computational power have not been developed enough for simulating more complex, multistructural flows. They are limited to simple cases involving simplified computational models. Experimental efforts for large multistructural components involve the initial use of prototypes and can prove to be costly for fully developed industrial-scale rigs. However, experimentation currently holds an irreplaceable position in two-phase FIV studies.
Background The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between follow-up imaging characteristics and overall survival (OS) in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients under sorafenib treatment. Methods Associations between OS and objective response (OR) by mRECIST or early tumor shrinkage (ETS; ≥20% reduction in enhancing tumor diameter at the first follow-up imaging) were analyzed in HCC patients treated with sorafenib within a multicenter phase II trial (SORAMIC). 115 patients were included in this substudy. The relationship between survival and OR or ETS were explored. Landmark analyses were performed according to OR at fixed time points. Cox proportional hazards models with OR and ETS as a time-dependent covariate were used to compare survival with factors known to influence OS. Results The OR rate was 29.5%. Responders had significantly better OS than non-responders (median 30.3 vs. 11.4 months; HR, 0.38 [95% CI, 0.22–0.63], p < 0.001), and longer progression-free survival (PFS; median 10.1 vs. 4.3 months, p = 0.015). Patients with ETS ≥ 20% had longer OS (median 22.1 vs. 11.4 months, p = 0.002) and PFS (median 8.0 vs. 4.3 months, p = 0.034) than patients with ETS < 20%. Besides OR and ETS, male gender, lower bilirubin and ALBI grade were associated with improved OS in univariate analysis. Separate models of multivariable analysis confirmed OR and ETS as independent predictors of OS. Conclusion OR according to mRECIST and ETS in patients receiving sorafenib treatment are independent prognostic factors for OS. These parameters can be used for assessment of treatment benefit and optimal treatment sequencing in patients with advanced HCC.
Background Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive, neurodegenerative disorder. In the advanced stages it can result in severe disability despite optimal treatment. Data suggests heterogeneous classification of PD stages among physicians in different countries. The purpose of the OBSERVE-PD study was to evaluate the proportion of patients with advanced PD (APD) according to physicians’ judgments in an international cohort. Methods A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted in 18 countries. Data were collected during a single patient visit. Demographic data, disease status, current medical treatment, and quality of life were evaluated for the German cohort and compared to the international cohort. Potential prognostic factors of physicians’ classification of APD in the German and international cohorts were identified using logistic regression. Results In total, 177 German and 2438 international patients were enrolled. 68.9% of the German and 50.0% of the international patients were classified by physicians as APD. Despite similar demographics and comparable disease severity, motor fluctuations (odds ratio [OR], 49.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.5–291.9) and current device-aided treatment (OR 8.7; CI 5.5–13.8) showed the strongest association to physicians’ classification of APD in the German and the international cohorts, respectively. The number of different oral anti-Parkinson-medications showed opposed associations with APD-classification between the international (OR 1.19; CI 1.03–1.37) and German (OR 0.46; CI 0.18–1.18) cohort. Although 58.2% of the German patients diagnosed with APD were considered eligible for device-aided treatment, only 40.8% actually received it. Conclusions This study highlights the challenges in the recognition and the effective management of APD in Germany and emphasizes the necessity of complying with standard diagnostic criteria for identification of patients with APD. Therapeutic approaches differed internationally, with a tendency in Germany towards a more complex oral medication regimen for patients with APD. In view of similar quality of life and disease status in both cohorts, our findings may prompt further exploration of parameters for disease classifications, and consideration of optimal treatment strategies.
Background Pain occurs in the majority of patients with late onset Pompe disease (LOPD) and is associated with a reduced quality of life. The aim of this study was to analyse the pain characteristics and its relation to a small nerve fiber involvement in LOPD patients. Methods In 35 patients with LOPD under enzyme replacement therapy without clinical signs of polyneuropathy (19 females; 51 ± 15 years), pain characteristics as well as depressive and anxiety symptoms were assessed using the PainDetect questionnaire (PDQ) and the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS), respectively. Distal skin biopsies were analysed for intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) and compared to age- and gender-matched reference data. Skin biopsies from 20 healthy subjects served as controls to assure validity of the morphometric analysis. Results Pain was reported in 69% of the patients with an average intensity of 4.1 ± 1.1 on the numeric rating scale (NRS; anchors: 0–10). According to PDQ, neuropathic pain was likely in one patient, possible in 29%, and unlikely in 67%. Relevant depression and anxiety symptoms occurred in 31% and 23%, respectively, and correlated with pain intensity. Distal IENFD (3.98 ± 1.95 fibers/mm) was reduced in 57% of the patients. The degree of IENFD reduction did not correlate with the durations of symptoms to ERT or duration of ERT to biopsy. Conclusions Pain is a frequent symptom in treated LOPD on ERT, though a screening questionnaire seldom indicated neuropathic pain. The high frequency of small nerve fiber pathology in a treated LOPD cohort was found regardless of the presence of pain or comorbid risk factors for SFN and needs further exploration in terms of clinical context, exact mechanisms and when developing novel therapeutic options for LOPD.
Background Intermittent hypoxia applied at rest or in combination with exercise promotes multiple beneficial adaptations with regard to performance and health in humans. It was hypothesized that replacing normoxia by moderate hyperoxia can increase the adaptive response to the intermittent hypoxic stimulus. Objective Our objective was to systematically review the current state of the literature on the effects of chronic intermittent hypoxia–hyperoxia (IHH) on performance- and health-related outcomes in humans. Methods PubMed, Web of Science™, Scopus, and Cochrane Library databases were searched in accordance with PRISMA guidelines (January 2000 to September 2021) using the following inclusion criteria: (1) original research articles involving humans, (2) investigation of the chronic effect of IHH, (3) inclusion of a control group being not exposed to IHH, and (4) articles published in peer-reviewed journals written in English. Results Of 1085 articles initially found, eight studies were included. IHH was solely performed at rest in different populations including geriatric patients ( n = 1), older patients with cardiovascular ( n = 3) and metabolic disease ( n = 2) or cognitive impairment ( n = 1), and young athletes with overtraining syndrome ( n = 1). The included studies confirmed the beneficial effects of chronic exposure to IHH, showing improvements in exercise tolerance, peak oxygen uptake, and global cognitive functions, as well as lowered blood glucose levels. A trend was discernible that chronic exposure to IHH can trigger a reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The evidence of whether IHH exerts beneficial effects on blood lipid levels and haematological parameters is currently inconclusive. A meta-analysis was not possible because the reviewed studies had a considerable heterogeneity concerning the investigated populations and outcome parameters. Conclusion Based on the published literature, it can be suggested that chronic exposure to IHH might be a promising non-pharmacological intervention strategy for improving peak oxygen consumption, exercise tolerance, and cognitive performance as well as reducing blood glucose levels, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure in older patients with cardiovascular and metabolic diseases or cognitive impairment. However, further randomized controlled trials with adequate sample sizes are needed to confirm and extend the evidence. This systematic review was registered on the international prospective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO-ID: CRD42021281248) ( https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/ ).
Unsteady three-dimensional Direct Numerical Simulations of seven statistically one-dimensional, planar, highly turbulent, complex-chemistry, lean H2-air flames are performed using either mixture averaged or equidiffusive model of molecular transport. The equivalence ratio is varied from 0.35 to 0.70 and the Karlovitz number Ka is varied from 3 to 565. Normalized turbulent burning velocities UT/SL are strongly increased when using the mixture-averaged model, with an increase by a factor of 4.1 being documented even at Ka as high as 565. Here, SL is the laminar flame speed. Moreover, the increase in UT/SL is significantly more pronounced in leaner flames, which are characterized by a thinner reaction zone and a larger Zel’dovich number. Furthermore, UT/SL is increased by the turbulence length scale. The extreme (maximum over the computational domain at a single instant) local values of fuel consumption rate (FCR) exhibit a high degree of universality, i.e., in all studied cases and at all instants, these rates are close to the peak values of FCR obtained from the counterpart critically strained, twin, counter-flow laminar premixed flames. This finding appears to directly support a corner-stone hypothesis of the leading point concept of premixed turbulent burning, thus, suggesting the use of characteristics of the critically strained laminar premixed flames as input parameters for models of turbulent combustion of lean H2/air mixtures.
Self-ignition of coal emits hazardous particles and toxic gases, polluting environment and threatening people’s health. Prediction of self-ignition tendency of coal is of great significance to prevent hazards of coal self-ignition. However, it is very challenging to forecast the self-ignition tendacy of coal, because of complex physicochemical processes and highly nonlinear correlation between factors and self ignition tendency. In this work, machine learning methods (Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) and Random Forest (RF)) are used to represent the complex physicochemical processes and effects of external factors. The regression prediction models with regarding to crossing point temperature (CPT) and 13 input features are established. The dependence of input features is examined using the feature engineering. Two hundreds and four CPT samples are collected, in which 142 (70%) samples and 62 (30%) samples are divided as training data and testing data, respectively. Results show that the accuracy of both MLP and RF predicted CPTs in the testing data reaches 90%, which proves good predictability of machine-learning based models with several hundreds of samples. This work improves prediction of the self-ignition tendency of coal impacted by complex physicochemical properties and a variety of external factors. It may help to predict other fuels susceptible to self-ignition e.g., oil shale and biomass fuels.
Iron powder, as one of the most abundant metal fuels that can be used as recyclable carriers of clean energy, is a promising alternative to fossil fuels in a future low-carbon economy. It may pose a potential explosion hazard during the process of processing, storage, transport, and reduction/oxidation (redox). The explosion characteristics of iron dust in air were undertaken via a 20 L spherical explosion chamber with an emphasis on minimum explosion concentration (MEC) of iron dust. The alternative method of combustion duration time (tc) was used to determine MEC and compared with the standardized over pressure method. Two kinds of nano-sized iron oxides (Fe2O3 and Fe3O4) were used as inertants to determine the inhibition effect of different oxidation products. The iron dust explosion products with various shapes and sizes were found to be able to grow up 4-6 times of the iron dust for the first time. Adding small amount of Fe2O3 or Fe3O4 could reduce the explosion severity and sensitivity of iron dust. The MEC data determined by both methods were comparable. The addition of 5 % oxide has obvious inhibition effect under 1500 g/m3 concentration. With the increase of oxide concentration to 10%, the inerting effect increases, and the MEC of iron dust increases more than 3 times. The increase of dust concentration will weaken the inerting effect. When the concentration increases from 500 g/m3 to 3000 g/m3 , the weakening effect of 10% Fe2O3 on the explosion pressure decreases from 38.45% to 2.24%, and 10% Fe3O4 decreases from 46.21% to 10.63%. Unlike coal, biomass or aluminum dusts, the iron dust explosion was found to have a unique secondary acceleration of pressure rise rate for the first time. These results provide a fundamental basis to mitigate the iron dust explosion via solid inerting method without adding extra elements.
Interpretable machine learning (ML) is applied to accelerate the discovery of promising metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) for the selective separation of ethane (C2H6) and ethylene (C2H4). Based on molecular simulation data, ML models are first trained and tested to classify MOFs into C2H4-selective and C2H6-selective categories using different types of material descriptors and fingerprints as input. It turns out that the model developed with the force-field inspired descriptors shows a higher classification accuracy. However, the PubChem fingerprint-based model is more interpretable because its binary variables directly indicate the existence or nonexistence of various substructures. Adopting this interpretable ML model, insightful structural characteristics are obtained and applied for efficient MOF screening to identify C2H6-selective candidates by means of substructure matching. Based on molecular simulation, 93.8% of the identified candidates are verified to be C2H6-selective with the best MOF presenting a high C2H6/C2H4 selectivity of 6.46. This work demonstrates the great potential of interpretable ML in accelerating the discovery of high-performance MOFs.
With the increasing demand for customized systems and rapidly evolving technology, software engineering faces many challenges. A particular challenge is the development and maintenance of systems that are highly variable both in space (concurrent variations of the system at one point in time) and time (sequential variations of the system, due to its evolution). Recent research aims to address this challenge by managing variability in space and time simultaneously. However, this research originates from two different areas, software product line engineering and software configuration management, resulting in non-uniform terminologies and a varying understanding of concepts. These problems hamper the communication and understanding of involved concepts, as well as the development of techniques that unify variability in space and time. To tackle these problems, we performed an iterative, expert-driven analysis of existing tools from both research areas to derive a conceptual model that integrates and unifies concepts of both dimensions of variability. In this article, we first explain the construction process and present the resulting conceptual model. We validate the model and discuss its coverage and granularity with respect to established concepts of variability in space and time. Furthermore, we perform a formal concept analysis to discuss the commonalities and differences among the tools we considered. Finally, we show illustrative applications to explain how the conceptual model can be used in practice to derive conforming tools. The conceptual model unifies concepts and relations used in software product line engineering and software configuration management, provides a unified terminology and common ground for researchers and developers for comparing their works, clarifies communication, and prevents redundant developments.
A two-equation non-local-equilibrium (NLE) continuum model of isothermal drying is assessed by comparison with pore network simulations considering a rigid capillary porous medium that is fully saturated initially. This continuum model consists of a transport equation for the liquid and of a transport equation for the vapor. The two main variables are the liquid saturation and the vapor partial pressure. The two equations are coupled by a phase-change term and mass transport at the medium surface is modeled by considering the individual boundary conditions for the two continuum model equations. The macroscopic parameters that appear in the NLE continuum model include classical parameters such as the effective liquid and vapor diffusivities, as well as non-classical and new parameters such as the specific interfacial area and the fraction of dry surface pores. These parameters are determined for the porous microstructure corresponding to the cubic network used to perform the pore network simulations. The results obtained by the two-equation NLE continuum model are compared with pore network simulation data. Comparisons reveal that the two-equation NLE continuum model can capture with a reasonable degree of accuracy the NLE effect as well as the phase distributions and drying kinetics of the pore network model drying simulations.
Refractory high-entropy silicide-borides (HESB) introduce a new field of high temperature materials by combining metallic high-entropy alloys (HEAs) with intermetallics based on a refractory metal (RM)-silicon-boron alloys, well known from Mo–Si–B alloys. Three different silicon and boron containing alloys (RM-15Si–5B), equiatomic in their four- or five-component refractory metals, were manufactured using arc-melting. The as-cast materials, as well as the samples annealed at 1200 °C, were analysed according to their phase composition and evolution of the microstructures. For the alloys equiatomic in RM (20Mo–20V–20Nb–20Ti–15Si–5B), the three phases RM5Si3, T2, and BCC were identified, which aligns with those described for Mo–Si–B alloys with similar silicon and boron contents. For both the 20Mo–20V–20Cr–20Ti–15Si–5B and 16Mo–16V–16Nb–16Cr–16Ti–15Si–5B compositions an additional A15 phase was found. In the first case this phase remained present after annealing, while in the second the A15 decomposes to C14 Laves phase and Ti5Si3 with annealing. The phase transformations are discussed in light of their potential to create a fine grained microstructure, which is generally favourable for such alloys for creep and oxidation properties.
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic inflammatory skin condition which impacts psychological wellbeing and social relationships. There have been studies of AD’s impact on quality of life (QoL) in Western countries, but these findings cannot be directly extrapolated to Asian populations with genetic, environmental and cultural differences. Therefore, we aimed to systematically review the literature pertaining to QoL impairment in AD in East and Southeast Asia to characterize the impact of AD on patients and their families, and to identify the factors affecting the degree of QoL impairment. A search of English language papers was conducted on MEDLINE, EMBASE, PSYCInfo, Global Health and Web of Science. Observational studies measuring QoL using single or multi-item instruments in people with self-reported or physician diagnosed atopic dermatitis were included. 27 studies from 29 articles were included and synthesized. There is data documenting QoL impairment in AD sufferers and their families, across a wide range of Asian countries, healthcare settings and ages. Aspects of QoL impacted to a greater extent included symptoms of itch, feelings of embarrassment, and sleep disturbance. Severity of disease affects the degree of impairment of QoL, but there is no apparent link between QoL impairment and patient demographic factors, or other medical factors such as age at diagnosis or duration of illness. Our findings also highlighted the need for clinicians to actively explore the impact of patient’s symptoms, especially in an Asian context where healthcare communications are traditionally doctor-centric.
The availability of videos has grown rapidly in recent years. Finding and browsing relevant information to be automatically extracted from videos is not an easy task, but today it is an indispensable feature due to the immense number of digital products available. In this paper, we present a system which provides a process to automatically extract information from videos. We describe a system solution that uses a re-trained OpenNLP model to locate all the places and famous people included in a specific video. The system obtains information from the Google Knowledge Graph related to relevant named entities such as places or famous people. In this paper we will also present the Automatic Georeferencing Video (AGV) system developed by RAI (Radiotelevisione italiana, which is the national public broadcasting company of Italy, owned by the Ministry of Economy and Finance) Teche for the European Project “La Città Educante” (The Educating City: teaching and learning processes in cross-media ecosystem) Our system contributes to The Educating City project by providing the technological environment to create statistical models for automatic named entity recognition (NER), and has been implemented in the field of education, in Italian initially. The system has been applied to the learning challenges facing the world of educational media and has demonstrated how beneficial combining topical news content with scientific content can be in education.
Introduction Pallidal DBS is an established treatment for severe isolated dystonia. However, its use in disabling and treatment-refractory tardive syndromes (TS) including tardive dyskinesia and tardive dystonia (TD) is less well investigated and long-term data remain sparse. This observational study evaluates long-term effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus internus (GPi) in patients with medically refractory TS. Methods We retrospectively analyzed a cohort of seven TD patients with bilateral GPi-DBS. Involuntary movements, dystonia and disability were rated at long-term follow-up (LT-FU) after a mean of 122 ± 33.2 SD months (range 63–171 months) and compared to baseline (BL), short-term (ST-FU; mean 6 ± 2.0 SD months) and 4-year follow-up (4y-FU; mean 45 ± 12.3 SD months) using the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) and the Burke–Fahn–Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale (BFMDRS), respectively. Quality of life and mood were evaluated using the SF36 and Beck Depression Index (BDI) questionnaires, respectively. Results At LT-FU patients had improved by 73% ± 14.2 SD in involuntary movements and 90% ± 1.0 SD in dystonia. Mood had improved significantly whereas quality of life remained unchanged compared to baseline. No serious long-lasting stimulation-related adverse events (AEs) were observed. Three patients of this cohort presented without active stimulation and ongoing symptom relief at long-term follow-up after 3–10 years of continuous DBS. Conclusion Pallidal DBS is a safe and effective long-term TD treatment. Even more interesting, three of our patients could stop stimulation after several years of DBS without serious relapse. Larger studies need to explore the phenomenon of ongoing symptom relief after DBS cessation.
Fretting corrosion is associated with increased risk of premature implant failure. In this complex in vivo corrosion system, the contribution of static crevice corrosion of the joined metal alloys is still unknown. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology for testing crevice corrosion behavior that simulates the physiological conditions of modular taper junctions and to identify critical factors on corrosion susceptibility. Samples of medical grade CoCr28Mo6 cast and wrought alloy, TiAl6V4 wrought alloy and REX 734 stainless steel were prepared metallographically and the microstructure was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Crevice formers that mimic typical geometries of taper junctions were developed. Crevice corrosion immersion tests were performed in different physiological fluids (bovine serum or phosphate buffered saline with additives of 30 mM H2O2 at pH = 1) for 4 weeks at 37°C. SEM with energy dispersive X‐ray spectroscopy as well as focused ion beam were used to characterize the surface morphology, investigate present damages and identify the chemical composition of residues. Macroscopic inspection showed increased crevice corrosion susceptibility of TiAl6V4 and REX 734 under severe simulated inflammatory conditions. CoCr28Mo6 cast alloy exhibited degraded areas next to Cr‐ and Mo‐rich precipitations that were located within the opposed crevices. The results indicate that aggressive electrolyte composition and crevice heights of 50–500 μm are critical influencing factors on crevice corrosion of biomedical alloys. Furthermore, manufacturing‐related microstructure of common implant alloys determines the deterioration of corrosion resistance. The developed method should be used to enhance the corrosion resistance of common implant biomaterials by an adapted microstructure.
Across income groups and countries, individual citizens perceive economic inequality spectacularly wrong. These misperceptions have far-reaching consequences, as it might be perceived inequality, not actual inequality informing redistributive preferences. The prevalence of this phenomenon is independent of social class and welfare regime, which suggests the existence of a common mechanism behind public perceptions. The literature has identified several stylised facts on how individual perceptions respond to actual inequality and how these biases vary systematically along the income distribution. We propose a network-based explanation of perceived inequality building on recent advances in random geometric graph theory. The generating mechanism can replicate all of aforementioned stylised facts simultaneously. It also produces social networks that exhibit salient features of real-world networks; namely, they cannot be statistically distinguished from small-world networks, testifying to the robustness of our approach. Our results, therefore, suggest that homophilic segregation is a promising candidate to explain inequality perceptions with strong implications for theories of consumption and voting behaviour.
Purpose We sought to characterize the adjusted outcomes of GreenLight photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) in high-medical-risk (HMR) patients using data from the largest international database. Methods Data were obtained from the Global GreenLight Group (GGG) database which pools data of eight high-volume, experienced surgeons, from a total of seven international centers. Eligible study participants underwent GreenLight PVP using the XPS-180 W system between 2011 and 2019. HMR patients were defined as patients with ASA III or greater and were compared to non-HMR patients. Analyses were adjusted for patient age and prostate volume. Results In the HMR group, patients on average were older and had smaller prostates than the non-HMR control group. Compared to non-HMR patients, transfusions occurred more frequently (2.6% vs. 0.14%, p < 0.01) and the odds of readmission were elevated [OR 2.0, (95% CI 1.4–2.8, p < 0.01)] among HMR patients. Twelve months postoperatively, HMR patients experience greater improvement in QoL than the control group [+ 0.54 (95% CI 0.07–1.0, p = 0.02)]. PVR also decreased 93.1 ml more in HMR than in non-HMR patients after 12 months (95% CI 33.6–152.6, p < 0.01). Conclusion We found that GreenLight PVP is safe and effective in improving functional outcomes in higher-risk patients with severe systemic disease compared to their lower-risk counterparts. Though absolute risks remain low, GreenLight PVP is associated with higher odds of transfusion and readmission in the high-risk cohort. The findings of our study reaffirm current guidelines that propose PVP as a viable treatment option for HMR patients.
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